%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818093250+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818093250+01'00') /Title (Horse and Man in Early Modern England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4221 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Horse and Man in Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Horse and Man in Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 236.000 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( presents itself as an historical overview of its subject-matter rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than as a brief for particular methodologies, ideologies or causes. But even limited engagement with this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book will lead readers to reflect on two fundamental propositions: first, that the structure of English social, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic, artistic and political life has been long and deeply affected by the relations between human and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-human animals; and second, that horses have played perhaps a larger role in determining the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these relations than has any other non-human species. To read Edwards's book in its entirety is perforce to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemplate the immense shift in human-equine interaction that has occurred in Britain over the past 500 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years, and to consider its implications for the world we now inhabit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Edwards remarks at the outset of his book, 'early modern England was very largely a '"horse-drawn" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society' \(p. 1\), and its reliance upon horses - as opposed to mules and similar livestock - increased over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course of the 16th and 17th centuries before reaching a high point in the 1700s and 1800s. One reason for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this development lies in the steady diversification of breeds available in England from the reign of Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VIII on. Tudor and Stuart monarchs 'took the lead in improving the quality of the stock' by importing Barbs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turkomans, Neapolitans and other foreign horses; by cross-breeding these with native stock; and 'by setting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more exacting standards at [the royal] studs' \(p. 8\). Likewise, '[t]he landed classes emulated the Crown; they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imported foreign horses and used them for breeding purposes' \(p. 13\), with the result that whereas 'at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(657)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 May, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Edwards)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781852854805)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hambledon Continuum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bruce Boehrer)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7297 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of the [early modern] period, the bulk of the country's horses technically comprised ponies, that is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horses of fourteen hands and below' \(p. 5\), by the Restoration 'the situation improved dramatically' \(p. 16\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If English horses literally got bigger and stronger during the early modern period, their symbolic stature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grew as well. Always 'valued ... as symbols of power and authority' \(p. 27\), they increasingly became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with the ruling elite. Thus 'young men were encouraged to learn how to ride and handle the "great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horse," an imposing animal of strength and stature,' mastery of which 'provided a justification for aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power and influence' \(p. 27-8\). Likewise, the growing 'popularity of equestrian portraits among the upper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes ... reflected their absorbed interest in self-promotion' \(p. 29\). And by a kind of metonymic transfer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the horses themselves came to stand for their owners; hence the growing trend for horses to be painted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without their masters, and hence too the increasing cultural cathexis that developed around prized Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eastern racehorses. Indeed, 'so great was the impact that these oriental horses had on English society that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may provide an illustration of animal agency at work' \(p. 31\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the costly, exotic steeds of aristocratic portraiture represented only a fraction of the nation's horseflesh. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Far more numerous were the nags and jades, hackneys and draught-horses that powered the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy on humbler levels. And while life for these beasts may not have been solitary, on the whole it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed poor, nasty, brutish, and short. Although writers on horse-care increasingly urged their audiences not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to overwork or maltreat their beasts, the evidence suggests that such advice was often ignored. Contrary to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the manuals' insistence that 'horses, if handled carefully in the first few years, might be able to work until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they reached the age of twenty-four or twenty-five' \(p. 57\), surviving toll-books seldom record sales of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horses over ten years of age. Reasons for this lapse are not far to seek; early modern letters, journals, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court records abound in complaints about horses that have been overladen, beaten bloody, starved, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglected, and abused. Even the gentry - who should have known better if anyone did - regularly over-taxed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their mounts. Indeed, it stands as a signal, if predictable, irony that the enlightened methods of horse-care )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocated by early modern husbandry manuals seem to have had their earliest major impact not in the stable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but in the classroom, where they provided an argument by analogy for new, enlightened methods of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the meantime, the English only became more and more reliant upon their horses. 'In 1558 the Venetian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambassador reported that English peasants were accustomed to ride on horseback and concluded that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country could be called the land of comforts' \(p. 74\). Dedicated riding mounts may have been relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scarce, but millers and yeomen sat astride their work-horses; servants rode their masters' stock; and ladies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rode \(sometimes, scandalously, in men's attire\) or more demurely sat in the new sprung coaches that began )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearing in the land from the late 1500s on. In the late Tudor period, hackneymen had already become so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous in certain parts of the realm that they required regulation, and in general, horse-related )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misbehaviour proliferated. Men injured themselves - and their mounts - when ambling home in the dark after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an evening of drink; for their part, coachmen neglected their charges, consorted with whores, and in at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one case drank until they fell off their boxes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But it was in the theoretically-related areas of sport and warfare that the horse underwent perhaps its most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signal change of status during the early modern period. As an instrument of combat, it had already begun its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slow and inexorable slide into obsolescence during the Hundred Years War, with the slaughter of heavy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French cavalry by English bowmen at Crcy \(1346\), Poitiers \(1356\), and Agincourt \(1415\). With the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction of gunpowder weapons into European combat in the 15th and 16th centuries, the vulnerability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of medieval heavy cavalry to projectile weapons only increased. This is not to say that the horse immediately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a military anachronism; the development of field artillery actually made horses more important than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever for logistical purposes, as they hauled arms and ammunition to and from the field of battle. Cavalry, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too, remained tactically relevant by shedding their heavy armour plate, adding pistols and carbines to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weaponry, and working in concert with artillery and musketeers. But this change of tactics removed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mounted warrior from his pre-eminent position on the battlefield. After the Battle of Pavia in 1525, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ended with 'the humiliating defeat of Franois I and his mounted knights by a detachment of imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harquebusiers,' according to Edwards 'the proportion of cavalrymen in armies steadily declined' \(p. 146\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7693 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This decline, in turn, was bound to affect the nature of equestrian sports, which were understood in the 15th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 16th centuries largely as analogues for warfare, instilling in their practitioners the skills required of them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the battlefield. In this capacity, the foremost pastimes were hunting and the joust; however, the latter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was specifically designed to simulate the conditions of horse-mounted combat, quickly fell victim to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes in military tactics and equipment. 'Jousting ... had its adherents, especially at the beginning of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([early modern] period' \(p. 126\), but it became more and more a coterie anachronism, limited to those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could afford it and who had a vested interest in the ideology and social distinctions it implied. Thus '[t]he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport, increasingly focused on the court, became highly exclusive and symbolic' \(p. 126\) and eventually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vanished altogether, 'apart from occasional Gothic revivalist events such as the Eglinton Tournament of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1839' \(p. 121\). Hunting, on the other hand, survived, but in radically altered ways that reflected the changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecology of the English countryside. Most notably, hunting )] TJ ET BT 316.676 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(par force)] TJ ET BT 361.004 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, with horse and hounds, changed its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(object. Whereas the medieval and early modern hunt favoured noble and dangerous game such as the hart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the boar, whose mettle was deemed appropriate to members of the warrior class, enclosure and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline of habitat made these beasts less and less available for sport. The way was thus clear for them to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplanted by game once despised as vermin - specifically, of course, the fox.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As martial pastimes, the joust thus dwindles into quaint irrelevance, while the hunt is translated into Wilde's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuit of the inedible by the insufferable. In their place emerges an entirely new elite equestrian sport, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which attests increasingly to the transformation of the gentry from a warrior to a leisure class: horse-racing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwards dates the earliest references to English horse-racing to 1512, while noting that the new sport's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('progress was slow until the second half of the sixteenth century'; by 1625, on the other hand, 'punters could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choose from about three dozen venues' in their quest for such entertainment \(p. 89\). But it was in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Restoration that horse-racing really established itself as the sport of English kings, with Charles II directing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his enthusiastic patronage to the races at Newmarket. Lesser meets flourished as well, so that by 1740 there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were so many as to require government regulation. At the same time, whatever character horse-racing may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once have had as a test of manly or martial qualities began to decline; gentlemen rode their own horses less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and less at the races, ceding that privilege instead to hired jockeys. And the racecourse itself steadily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metamorphosed from an all-male preserve into 'an integral part of the fashionable social scene' \(p. 116\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alongside these trends, horses drove yet another development which speaks to changes in the nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English social elite: the growing fashion for vehicular transportation. 'Until the mid sixteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal conveyances were used largely by women, the old and the infirm'; moreover, their general form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was 'rather basic ... and very uncomfortable for passengers' \(p. 211\). This state of affairs began to change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the reign of Mary Tudor, when sprung coaches of a sort originally engineered in Hungary were first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imported for the queen and select peers. However, the innovation was not without its opponents: 'At first, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditionally minded gentlemen were reluctant to travel in a coach ... The image of a rider on his horse had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become so deeply engrained in their psyche that they felt it was "unmanly" to ride in a conveyance' \(p. 214\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Tyndale, for one, complained that 'In Sir Philip Sidney's time 'twas as much disgrace for a cavalier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be seen riding in London in a coach as now [in the 17th century] 'twould be to be seen in a petticoate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(waistcoate' \(p. 214\). But such prejudices faded as the wealthy succumbed to the twin temptations of comfort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a new opportunity to advertise their privileged status. Likewise, the middling sort came to appreciate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convenience of horse-drawn conveyances as England developed a well-articulated system of stage coaches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 18th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In surveying this capacious field of subject-matter, Edwards draws on three general bodies of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information: 'the views of intellectuals ... writing [on horses] in philosophical terms'; 'handbooks on horse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management, ... breeding, training, discipline, and the treatment of injuries and diseases'; and 'information on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actual practice' \(p. 242\). As is usually the case with early modern historical data, documents of the third sort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been less consistently and coherently preserved than those of the first two; moreover, the accounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('actual practice' that do survive tend to be weighted heavily in favour of the privileged ranks of society, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which kept better records and preserved those records longer. Edwards himself is probably the foremost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(current authority on horses in early modern England, and his treatment of the subject exhibits a masterful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(command both of scope and detail. He is particularly conversant with issues of military history and the horse )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4279 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade, both topics upon which he has published extensively in the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand - and this view may well reflect my own bigotry as a literary scholar - like many social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, Edwards doesn't always seem to know how to write an English sentence. It would be too much to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say that in this book no modifier goes unmisplaced. However, Edwards does regale his readers with such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barbarisms as 'Returned to local fairs, metropolitan dealers bought them [i.e., pre-owned horses] as fully-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trained cart and coach horses' \(p. 199\); 'eight regiments ... defended the city, all but one of which consisted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of infantry units' \(p. 178\); and 'Because of their value and social significance, rulers obtained coaches and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horses as diplomatic gifts' \(p. 218\). Nor does Edwards fare much better in his relationship with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troublesome tribe of pronouns. We learn, for instance, that 'carriers could buy a draught horse for about 3, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but to obtain particularly powerful specimens they had to . . . go to a specialist fair to find it' \(p. 198\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that "[T]he authorities viewed meetings of its political opponents with suspicion' \(p. 142\). In general, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwards's writing could have benefited a good deal from one more round of serious editing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the level of content, however, )] TJ ET BT 197.312 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Horse and Man in Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 399.296 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offers scholarly readers the best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available overview of the ways in which its title species interacted during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to produce English society as we have come to know it. Indeed, Edwards's book chronicles an inter-species )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship whose importance can scarcely be overestimated, one that produced major changes in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of transportation, trade, sport, warfare, agriculture, art, diplomacy, and much more besides. In a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense, one could say that )] TJ ET BT 155.996 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Horse and Man in Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 357.980 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( gives us the familiar tale of Britain's rise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to politico-economic supremacy, but retold this time from the perspective of the animals that made it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible. If historical writing is as much about the present as about the past, then Edwards's book should lead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us to reflect further upon the nature of inter-species relations in our own moment as well, and given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of that moment, such reflection seems particularly timely.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 401.599 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 383.819 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 383.819 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/657)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 382.425 m 322.316 382.425 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 357.448 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 343.048 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3631)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.648 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 382.7395 322.3157 394.6195 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/657) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000540 00000 n 0000000622 00000 n 0000004895 00000 n 0000005004 00000 n 0000005114 00000 n 0000005223 00000 n 0000008784 00000 n 0000008912 00000 n 0000008996 00000 n 0000009061 00000 n 0000016411 00000 n 0000016476 00000 n 0000024222 00000 n 0000024306 00000 n 0000028638 00000 n 0000028766 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28861 %%EOF