%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818112418+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818112418+01'00') /Title (Household Gods: The British and their Possessions) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4282 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Household Gods: The British and their Possessions)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The homes of the British middle class in the third quarter of the 19th century, as depicted in contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photographs, were cluttered with furniture, soft furnishings and objects. Walking across a room required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careful negotiation of lightweight tables that might easily topple over and spill the numerous items that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decorated their surface. Textiles added comfort, with upholstered furniture often deeply buttoned, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several layers of curtains swathed the windows; in addition, textiles draped over doorways and even dangled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from mantelpieces. Surface pattern was lavish and often in clashing colours and designs which produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gorgeously three-dimensional representations of the natural world. Never before or since had interiors been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a riotous display. Deborah Cohen's book )] TJ ET BT 256.820 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Household Gods: the British and their Possessions)] TJ ET BT 501.488 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyse how this came about. With particular emphasis on the period between the 1830s and 1930s, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contextualises home-making and taste in interiors by considering the influences that produced the cluttered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interiors and the subsequent artful interiors. She focuses on gender, religion, changes in the manufacture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retailing of objects for the home, and the changing advice given to home-makers, as well as the changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the advisors. Her central aim is to explore the 'bad taste' that resulted from 'middle-class self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashioning' and how 'self-expression' became important in furnishing the home \(p. xv\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cohen harnesses a multitude of sources, many that will be new to her readers and which bring a fresh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective to 19th-century interiors. Her sources include business archives, diaries, household magazines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(658)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 30 April, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deborah Cohen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300112139)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(313pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Ponsonby)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7160 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a great many photographs of 'ordinary' homes that allow scrutiny of these previously somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglected interiors. However, this is not merely a collection of images or an account of changing styles in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interiors but is above all a sustained and provocative argument to explain why homes looked the way that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they did.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The organisation of the book is in seven chapters that deal with interiors chronologically and that address the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes that Cohen identifies as significant for leading to the British obsession with their homes. In the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, she establishes that evangelicalism was important for the development of the middle class. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of religious conviction fed into a particular form of consumption for the home despite the apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tensions between morality and materialism. Cohen traces how evangelicalism began and how its religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes resulted, she suggests, in austere interiors due to the fear that luxury was corrupting. Interiors were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacking in objects in comparison with the later 19th century and this was encouraged by low wages that kept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption down. The turning point for producing the changes in interiors, Cohen suggests, was the 1860s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1870s, when religion was ebbing but morality remained. With more disposable income, the middle class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(felt the need to reconcile material prosperity with their conscience and so made a virtue, she claims, out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consuming for the home.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The somewhat familiar story of the 1851 exhibition is covered, along with the design reform movement and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the link between design and morality; 'poor design' Cohen argues 'posed a threat to the decency of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(household' \(p. 18\). Cohen does, however, give a useful re-appraisal of the design reform movement from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural and social history viewpoint. What is particularly stimulating is the notion of the British attitude to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(furnishing the home being forged by evangelicalism together with the subsequent demise of religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observation, and the ongoing concern for giving the home a moral character that would benefit its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhabitants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The themes of morality and the design of the home are then enlarged on in a chapter on retailing for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home. The chapter gives an overview of its changing nature, and the emphasis is rightly on quantity rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than mass production. Cohen follows in the footsteps of Rosalind Williams )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 398.012 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 398.012 416.931 m 412.004 416.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 412.004 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( who portrayed department )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stores of the later 19th century as 'cathedrals of commerce'. Consumers' desire for novelty and their love of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decoration were catered for by such furnishing emporia as Wylie and Lochhead in Glasgow and Maples on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London's Tottenham Court Road. These bigger and better shops, it is suggested, made consumption easier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and more tempting with extravagant displays of goods. The opportunity to furnish the home completely from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one store was an added incentive to consume. Cohen argues that coupled with the temptation of shops was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the increased information and advice as to what to buy to furnish the home since the same period saw an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explosion in printed literature connected with home-making and furnishing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cohen's argument continues with an exploration of how art became important in the home. Ruskin's and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris's contribution is well known, as too is the Aesthetic Movement but not so the 'lady art advisors' who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made art indispensable in the home. 'The lady art advisors would endow artistic furnishing with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irresistible purpose; they made it something that no self-respecting middle-class household could do without' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 65\). The material that is presented to support this aspect is intriguing and has been largely ignored before. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cohen demonstrates that such little known figures as Mrs Mary Eliza Haweis probably had a far wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence on middle-class interiors than the celebrated names of interior design. She suggests that the taste )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these female writers fostered continued until the 1930s when modernism made artistic interiors appear 'fusty'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cohen suggests that up to the 1890s furnishing was a man's world. The earliest home decoration manuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were written by men for men. In the late 19th century and up to the 1920s, this situation, she claims, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reversed. Women became more assertive around the time of the Women's Property Acts of 1870 and 1882. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By this period the home had become 'personal, a reflection of a woman's individuality' \(p. 111\). Whereas the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid-century angel in the house had been subservient to her husband's wishes, the new woman thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domesticity equalled creativity not self-sacrifice. This was even though women continued to have limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power over property and even less power in society generally.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The central theme, that homes came to express 'personality', is returned to throughout the book. Cohen )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 398.0117 417.2455 412.0037 429.1255 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8198 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relates how incarnationalism and design reform 'combined forces' and 'redeemed consumption from sin' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(76\). In the relationship between people and their possessions, art was midway between sin and self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression. 'Making a good impression had always been important, especially in the middling ranks in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society. But the emphasis upon self-expression was new' \(p. 84\). Cohen suggests that this was a fluid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society, upwardly mobile but also insecure. It was not simply who you were that was important but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what you owned. Therefore, how homes were furnished both expressed and conferred status. The self could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be defined by the home. Here her argument offers a new way of problematising the notion of emulation as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an explanation of consumption. Cohen provides a brief overview of the theory but concludes that it does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fully explain the desire for individuality. A common problem in consumer society is explored: that despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased consumption people are discontented with what they have and what they have chosen, since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choices fail to express individuality adequately.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having established that women took control of furnishing the homes of the late 19th century, Cohen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that men had withdrawn their interest. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 263.324 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 263.324 612.003 m 277.316 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 277.316 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The growth of suburbs contributed to this process since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men were increasingly removed from the home. Also significant was the dubious reputation attached to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new Aesthetic style. The numerous cartoons on the subject in )] TJ ET BT 331.640 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Punch)] TJ ET BT 362.300 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the like helped to give home dcor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a bad name, and the trial of Oscar Wilde appeared to prove these suspicions correct. Cohen develops her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument of the separation of masculine and feminine home-making through a consideration of antique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(furniture. It has been suggested before that men distinguished their consumption practices from that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, by emphasising the supposed 'serious' nature, and therefore masculine character, of their purchases. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 512.211 m 48.008 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Cohen's focus on antique collecting as a predominantly male preserve adds to such arguments. Buying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antiques also required cultivation and was 'a mark of distinction not easily replicable' \(p. 147\) since it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the means of most people. These objects were worshiped as household gods. Therefore, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different to Aesthetic interiors, the antique collectors also imbued their homes with 'personality' albeit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the notion of the objects with which they were surrounded being the repositories of the lives of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous owners. As with other chapters, the practice of antique collecting is illustrated through the example )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a little known home-maker, in this instance a Cardiff pharmacist Robert Drane. His diary entries, listing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his many acquisitions, are scrutinised for the intentions behind his purchases.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cohen suggests that following the First World War taste was increasingly levelled down and homogenised. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Safety was prized and few broke away from the neutral schemes. This reflected a broad consensus of style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across the middle class to the extent that in the inter-war period it was more important to fit in than stand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out. However, although this chapter suggests that these views were widely held by the middle class, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence is thinner than in previous chapters. Examples are drawn mainly from wealthier protagonists; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people who might have used the services of Syrie Maugham or shopped in Fortnum and Mason. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent photographs showing the homes of doctors, builders and butchers shown in earlier chapters are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in evidence here but rather the imaginary interiors of shops and exhibitions. Evidence is also taken from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magazines and what they recommended but without any suggestion of how their readers might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mediated advice. More visual evidence was needed to show how actual home-makers created their interiors. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, the survey on taste carried out by )] TJ ET BT 246.992 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Listener)] TJ ET BT 307.328 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is used to conclude that the middle class of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels preferred a safe 'good' taste. However, no discussion is included of how people responded to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibitions and questionnaires. The lack of mediation is addressed in the epilogue but it is concerned with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the present day and it is a pity that this analysis was not present in the discussion of inter-war homes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are, perhaps inevitably, problems when presenting material that spans several hundred years to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one strong and coherent thesis. Some of Cohen's premises appear rather contrived at times. For example, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insistence that homes had been austere before the mid-19th century ignores the fact that middle-class homes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 1830s were far more comfortable and luxurious in comparison with the earlier homes of the middling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sort. Indeed, by the later 18th century goods such as ceramics, carpeting and cotton textiles were becoming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cheaper, which aided consumption. Similarly, the celebration of shops in the later 19th century as retail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('palaces of consumption' has, buried in a footnote, the point that, 'the term "retail revolution" must be used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cautiously' \(p. 226 n. 7\) since a body of work now exists that traces the many innovations in retailing during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the earlier period. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 121.988 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 121.988 60.531 m 135.980 60.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 135.980 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Unfortunately, much of the chapter expounds the development of retailing as a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 263.3237 612.3175 277.3157 624.1975 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 512.5255 48.0077 524.4055 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 121.9877 60.8455 135.9797 72.7255 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 6994 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatic revolution dating from the mid-19th century and, indeed, the term is employed as a sub-heading. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This stance amplifies a rather out-moded chronology of retail development predicated on the department )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(store.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This ambitious book attempts both breadth and detail. It brings a fresh analytical twist to some areas much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covered in design history; the 1851 exhibition, the design reform movement and Aesthetic design, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example. Many readers will find this wide-reaching overview useful, and the detail, especially for the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th century, brings some intriguing new evidence to light. The photographs are particularly welcome. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interiors of 'ordinary' middle-class homes are fascinating to see. The new angles on antique collecting are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also very welcome. The exploration of the reasons for middle-class consumption for the home, the gendered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimensions, the reasons for the changing attitudes to the home and how it should look are refreshing and add )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much to the debate especially for explaining the curious filling up of interiors in the later 19th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the slight reservations suggested above, Deborah Cohen's book is a fine achievement. It is written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with style and humour. It makes the changing nature of interiors coherent; it brings together skilfully the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence and produces a sound and provocative argument that is largely convincing. This will be a much-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used book by students and academics with an interest in the design history and the social and cultural history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the home throughout the period covered. Where other historians of this subject have produced fine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed accounts, whether bound by class, retail history, type of object, gender considerations, named )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designers and celebrated consumers, this book brings them together to produce a persuasive argument that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tries to make sense of the dense and fascinating subject - our relationship to our home.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 480.963 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 450.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Williams, )] TJ ET BT 128.024 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dream Worlds: Mass Consumption in Late 19th-Century France)] TJ ET BT 439.676 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkley, 1982\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.660 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.660 448.947 m 552.320 448.947 l S BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 434.691 m 90.344 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 421.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This argument is also suggested in J. Tosh, )] TJ ET BT 273.344 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Man's Place: Masculinity and the Middle-Class Home in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Britain)] TJ ET BT 146.360 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven and London, 1999\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 310.988 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 310.988 406.179 m 364.976 406.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 393.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Breward, )] TJ ET BT 125.336 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hidden Consumer: Masculinity, Fashion and City Life 1860-1914)] TJ ET BT 463.664 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999\); C. Hosgood, '"Doing the shops" at Christmas: women, men and the department store in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, c. 1880-1914', in )] TJ ET BT 193.832 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cathedrals of Consumption: the European Department Store, 1850-1939, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. G. Crossick and S. Jaumain, \(Aldershot, 1999\); L. Ugolini, 'Men, masculinities, and menswear )] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advertising, c. 1890-1914', in )] TJ ET BT 207.164 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Nation of Shopkeepers: Five Centuries of British Retailing)] TJ ET BT 499.160 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benson and L. Ugolini \(London, 2003\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 257.672 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 257.672 320.643 m 311.660 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Cox, )] TJ ET BT 104.684 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Complete Tradesman: A Study of Retailing 1550-1820)] TJ ET BT 387.008 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Aldershot, 2000\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 481.328 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 481.328 306.387 m 535.316 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 281.525 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2006/nov/04/houseandgarden.society)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 251.619 m 377.324 251.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 380.324 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/victorian_studies/summary/v049/49.4hilton.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 223.107 m 406.712 223.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 409.712 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 219.775 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 201.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 201.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/658)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 200.601 m 322.316 200.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 175.624 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3632)] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.824 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2006/nov/04/houseandgarden.society)] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/victorian_studies/summary/v049/49.4hilton.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 524.6597 449.2615 552.3197 461.1415 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 435.0055 90.3437 446.8855 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 310.9877 406.4935 364.9757 418.3735 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 257.6717 320.9575 311.6597 332.8375 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 481.3277 306.7015 535.3157 318.5815 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 251.9335 377.3237 263.8135 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2006/nov/04/houseandgarden.society) >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 223.4215 406.7117 235.3015 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/victorian_studies/summary/v049/49.4hilton.html) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 200.9155 322.3157 212.7955 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/658) >> endobj xref 0 48 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000552 00000 n 0000000634 00000 n 0000004968 00000 n 0000005077 00000 n 0000005187 00000 n 0000005296 00000 n 0000008857 00000 n 0000008985 00000 n 0000009069 00000 n 0000009153 00000 n 0000016366 00000 n 0000016396 00000 n 0000016524 00000 n 0000016560 00000 n 0000016658 00000 n 0000024909 00000 n 0000024939 00000 n 0000025067 00000 n 0000025103 00000 n 0000025133 00000 n 0000025259 00000 n 0000025295 00000 n 0000025325 00000 n 0000025451 00000 n 0000025487 00000 n 0000025620 00000 n 0000032667 00000 n 0000032795 00000 n 0000032850 00000 n 0000032976 00000 n 0000033031 00000 n 0000033159 00000 n 0000033214 00000 n 0000033342 00000 n 0000033397 00000 n 0000033525 00000 n 0000033580 00000 n 0000033707 00000 n 0000033825 00000 n 0000033952 00000 n 0000034079 00000 n 0000034207 00000 n trailer << /Size 48 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34302 %%EOF