%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141021073835+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141021073835+01'00') /Title (George II: Puppet of the Politicians?) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4143 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(George II: Puppet of the Politicians?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If there is a popular image of George II, it derives from the Whig historians of the 19th century, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established him as the counterpoint to their chief subject of 18th-century interest, his grandson and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successor, George III. Claims that George III from 1760 wilfully disrupted a working two-party system, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unconstitutionally attempted to resurrect an older, Stuart-style personal rule, were made to seem plausible by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparing his actions with those of his immediate predecessor. George II, by contrast with George III, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared as a king thoroughly controlled by the leading politicians of the day, as a captive of the Old Corps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whigs and who might complain bitterly that 'ministers were kings in this country', but buckled down to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perform his duty as a proper constitutionally limited monarch.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Recent historiography has done much to correct this crude caricature. George III is now recognised to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been operating in a political environment in which the two-party polarity of earlier decades had all but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappeared. He did not abolish the distinction between Whig and Tory; that distinction had lost nearly all of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its meaning before he ascended to the throne. The manifest decline of the Stuart alternative to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanoverians from the time of Culloden \(1746\) meant that the Tories - for long suspected of residual loyalty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Pretender - were able to appear more respectable and less dangerous. William Pitt had effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ended the party conflict during the Seven Years War, when his coalition government allowed Tories back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into office to promote national unity and thereby denied them the final cohesion provided by a sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(659)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 30 April, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeremy Black)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780859898072)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(319pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Exeter Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exeter)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Conway)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8169 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusion and persecution. From that point onwards, politics became more factionalised, and could not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehended by the simple \(and outdated\) labels of Whig and Tory. The new king's room for manoeuvre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was accordingly much greater than under his Hanoverian predecessors. The kingly powers are also now seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have remained significant; George III was not seeking a return to Stuart despotism, but merely using the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prerogative authority left intact by the Revolution Settlement of 1689-1701.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George II has been reassessed too. John Owen began the process in an important essay published in 1973. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 545.252 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 545.252 711.795 m 559.244 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George was depicted by Owen as a more active monarch than the traditional Whig historiography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged, and as constrained more by political circumstances than by a lack of determination to assert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his kingly authority. Aubrey Newman continued the theme in an inaugural lecture at the University of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leicester, published in 1988 as )] TJ ET BT 185.996 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World Turned Inside Out: New Views on George II)] TJ ET BT 452.972 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. German scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have also brought George more clearly into view, exploring his role as elector of Hanover as well as king of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great Britain and Ireland. Perhaps the most notable contribution has been by Uriel Dann, in his )] TJ ET BT 493.952 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hannover )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(und England 1740-60 )] TJ ET BT 141.680 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1986\), which was translated into English in 1991.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The German context is now beginning to interest British historians. The popular appeal of both George I and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George II as Protestant warrior kings has been emphasised by Hannah Smith in an important monograph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on her doctoral dissertation, )] TJ ET BT 201.320 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Georgian Monarchy: Politics and Culture, 1714-60)] TJ ET BT 449.972 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2006\). Andrew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson, meanwhile, has highlighted the Protestantism of the Hanoverian monarchs in his excellent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain, Hanover and the Protestant Interest)] TJ ET BT 247.340 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2006\). Nick Harding, for his part, has examined in detail the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between Britain and Hanover over the whole of the personal union in )] TJ ET BT 428.948 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hanover and the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire 1700-1837 )] TJ ET BT 127.340 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2007\). A stimulating collection of essays edited by Brendan Simms and Torsten Riotte, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hanoverian Dimension in British History, 1714-1837)] TJ ET BT 312.344 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2007\) provides further context for understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George II and the other Hanoverian monarchs, while Simms's monumental \(and beautifully written\) )] TJ ET BT 516.764 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victories and a Defeat: The Rise and Fall of the First British Empire, 1714-83)] TJ ET BT 411.344 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2007\) sets out the case for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the centrality of Hanover and Germany generally in British strategic thinking in the 18th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With recent scholarly attention turning to the Hanoverians and the Hanoverian connection, Jeremy Black's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new biography of George II is timely, for if the context of George's reign is now more fully understood, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there has been no recent study of the life of the king himself. Black is, of course, immensely well qualified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the role of biographer of this particular monarch. He has already produced a study of )] TJ ET BT 460.904 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(George III: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(America's Last King )] TJ ET BT 134.924 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2006\) and so is well placed to continue the process of correcting some of the flawed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions that persist long after the Whig historiography that created them has gone out of fashion. Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is also very well acquainted with the diplomacy of the 18th century, having published extensively on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject over the last two decades. For the first half of the century, in particular, he must be the most well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed and knowledgeable scholar of British foreign policy. He is, furthermore, especially strong on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German politics in which George II himself was steeped. Among his many publications in the field, Black's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important study of )] TJ ET BT 125.684 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Continental Commitment: Britain, Hanover, and Interventionism, 1714-93 )] TJ ET BT 508.004 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2005\), is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here distinctly relevant, exploring thoroughly, as it does, the influence of Hanover in British foreign policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and war-making.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is, it must be said, a distinguishing feature of Black's work that sets it apart from most of the recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography on the Hanoverian connection. Whereas the bulk of the work on British-Hanoverian links )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either seeks to understand the importance of the connection without assessing its value, or suggests its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefits for Britain, Black has presented the Hanoverian dynasty, at least until George II's death in 1760, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at best a very mixed blessing. He has been openly sceptical about the value of the German connection, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depicting it as a severe limitation on British foreign policy, and even as a millstone round the national neck. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ability of the French, in particular, to threaten Hanover at times of European tension has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlighted in Black's works as a major weakness in Britain's position on the international stage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given his views on Hanover and British politics, it might be supposed that Black's biography of George II )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would paint an unfavourable picture. But this is not the case. He produces a rounded and well-balanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account. His opening chapter explores the role of monarchy in 18th-century Britain, establishing clearly its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing importance, despite the Revolution Settlement. He then goes on to look at the Hanoverian )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 545.2517 712.1095 559.2437 723.9895 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7495 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succession, and George's role as Prince of Wales. The tradition of Hanoverian monarchs falling out with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their heirs, as Black demonstrates, began in George I's reign; the relationship between Prince George and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(father was frosty at best and at times marked by bitter hostility on both sides. The next chapter attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paint a picture of George's realm on his ascending to the throne in 1727. The book then begins a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological progress through the reign, breaking the narrative to consider George's character and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preoccupations \(chapter five\), and rounding off with a look at the king's reputation among historians. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successive chapters, then, we are taken through the early years of the king's reign; his relationship with Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Walpole, first minister when George came to the throne, who eventually fell in February 1742, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite the king's wish to keep him in office; the crisis years of the War of the Austrian Succession, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Forty-Five Rebellion, and the ministerial instability of 1742-6; the dominance of the Pelhams; and George's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old age, coinciding with the outbreak of a new Anglo-French conflict and involving the French invasion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanover. The influential role of George's wife Queen Caroline, who died in 1737, is well brought out, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is helpful and clear coverage of the key episodes of ministerial conflict, particularly when George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to block Pitt's entry into office, was defeated when he tried to retain the services of Carteret, and was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then forced to return to the Pelham brothers after trying briefly to sustain an alternative administration in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power. Yet, for all the limitations on George's freedom to choose whomsoever he wanted as ministers, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains clear that the king was more than a puppet, to use the phrase in Black's subtitle. The views of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarch still mattered, as witness the efforts made by his ministers to secure and retain his support, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way in which opponents of the ministry of the day tended to look to the heir to the throne for sponsorship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and support, whether that was George's son Frederick in the 1740s, or his grandson George in the late 1750s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George II's Hanoverian predilections are fully acknowledged, though Black reflects \(as he has done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere\) that the connection was not simply of doubtful value for Britain, but damaging for Hanover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was exposed to attack and occupation by Britain's European enemies. The importance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international 'Protestant Interest' to George is well established \(building on the foundations provided by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Thompson\); George took seriously the idea of a confessional bond between Protestants in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British kingdoms and Protestants throughout Europe, especially in his native Germany. Even so, Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solidarity did not dictate British foreign policy and the forging of alliances. For much of his reign, George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained committed to the Catholic Habsburgs, and deeply reluctant to ally with Protestant Prussia. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military cast of George's mind is discussed at some length. He was seemingly never happier than when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewing troops - British or Hanoverian - and took special care to make sure that their uniforms and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equipment were as they should be. George was also, and hardly surprisingly, proud of his own experiences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the field, as a young man with the Hanoverian army at Oudenaarde in 1708, where he had displayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal bravery, and as king at Dettingen in 1743, when he was present but not actively engaged. He was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also a stickler for military duty. When, in 1757, his son William, duke of Cumberland, failed to defend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanover from the French, George had no hesitation in publicly humiliating him, obliging the duke to resign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his military commands.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If I may venture a criticism it is that the chapter on George's new realm works rather less well than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others. Perhaps inevitably, it consists of a rather disjointed and impressionistic tour of the British inheritance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the king, touching upon issues of interest but not expanding on them. One is left with the feeling that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter would have been better if it had been longer and more reflective, or had been omitted altogether. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason for its inclusion, I suspect, has much to do with Black's target readership - or the readership that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishers envisage. A chapter briefly sketching George's kingdom, including its cultural highlights, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably thought necessary to provide the background for the general reader, whom Black makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable efforts throughout this book to help. Terms that are familiar to specialists in the field are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined in parenthesis, making the work accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject, even if they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come to it with little prior knowledge or understanding of the period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To write a book that engages with recent scholarship, fills a gap in the literature, and yet is likely to appeal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a general readership is no mean achievement. To base it not simply on secondary and printed primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material, but also on a vast range of archival resources held in this country, Germany, Austria, France, Italy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the United States, is characteristic of Black's approach to the writing of 18th-century history. Over the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 2348 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years, he has worked in countless archives across Europe and the United States, public and private, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the process accumulated a vast treasure store of insights and fascinating details. In his commitment to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of manuscripts, no-one, surely, can surpass him.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Black is very grateful to Professor Conway for his thoughtful and interesting review of his book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and he feels that his review is absolutely fine.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 692.547 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 661.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Owen 'George II Reconsidered', in )] TJ ET BT 243.620 661.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Statesmen, Scholars and Merchants: Essays in 18th-Century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Presented to Dame Lucy Sutherland)] TJ ET BT 276.992 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. Whiteman, J. S. Bromley and P. G. M. Dickson )] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1973\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.664 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.664 632.019 m 196.652 632.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 607.157 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 578.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/509/985)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 577.251 m 293.336 577.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 296.336 578.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 573.919 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 556.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 556.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/659)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 554.745 m 322.316 554.745 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 529.768 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.368 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3633)] TJ ET BT 34.016 500.968 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/509/985)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.6637 632.3335 196.6517 644.2135 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 577.5655 293.3357 589.4455 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/509/985) >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 555.0595 322.3157 566.9395 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/659) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000540 00000 n 0000000622 00000 n 0000004817 00000 n 0000004926 00000 n 0000005036 00000 n 0000005145 00000 n 0000008706 00000 n 0000008834 00000 n 0000008918 00000 n 0000009002 00000 n 0000017224 00000 n 0000017254 00000 n 0000017382 00000 n 0000017418 00000 n 0000017483 00000 n 0000025031 00000 n 0000025129 00000 n 0000027530 00000 n 0000027658 00000 n 0000027713 00000 n 0000027840 00000 n 0000027943 00000 n 0000028071 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28166 %%EOF