%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 31 0 R 36 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721142417+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721142417+01'00') /Title (Law and Authority in Early Modern England: Essays Presented to Thomas Garden Barnes) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4668 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Law and Authority in Early Modern England: Essays Presented to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Thomas Garden Barnes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Law and Authority in Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 250.688 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a tribute to a professor of law and history at the University )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of California, Berkeley who has for over 40 years made important contributions to early modern English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. In fact, as the editors point out, Tom Barnes hardly confined himself to England. To give only a hint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at his range, he has also published on the history of law and the legal professions in colonial Massachusetts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 18th-century Nova Scotia, as well as legal education in 19th- and 20th-century California. Nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British historians will recognise him primarily for his pioneering work in two apparently separate fields, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all of the papers in this volume are devoted to English history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Barnes took his first degree at Harvard, and then went to Oxford to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complete his doctorate in 1955 under the supervision of R. B. Wernham. Published in 1961 as )] TJ ET BT 488.312 168.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Somerset )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1625-1640: A County's Government During the 'Personal Rule')] TJ ET BT 339.356 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, 1961\), the book reflects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wernham's deep knowledge of sources in The National Archives, but it is most impressive as one of the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major studies of a particular locality that was also based on a total immersion in local records such as gentry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence and quarter sessions papers. It was, therefore, a precursor to several generations of works of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1960s and 70s including Alan Everitt's study of Kent, John Morrill's of Cheshire and Anthony Fletcher's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Sussex as well as numerous doctoral dissertations that explored the 'relationship between the centre and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the localities'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 100.172 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 100.172 67.473 m 114.164 67.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 114.164 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Like most of those pursuing this approach, Barnes's examination of local politics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society led him to rethink, or revise, older 'Whiggish' views that stressed the rise of a politically aware gentry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(660)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 30 April, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780874139544)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(31.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(246pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Delaware Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newark, DE)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Brooks)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 100.1717 67.7875 114.1637 79.6675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8404 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that aimed for a greater say in national government, stressing instead the way more parochial interests and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factional quarrels tended to pre-occupy local governors. Culminating in the village study of Terling in Essex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Keith Wrightson and David Levine, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 224.324 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 224.324 766.563 m 238.316 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 238.316 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the trend Barnes was influential in developing formed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cornerstone of so-called 'revisionist' accounts of pre-civil war English political history that emerged during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1980s. Yet, as revisionism became the new orthodoxy, the local study apparently lost its appeal, and it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only during the last decade that questions about the relationship between the centre and the localities have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come back onto the agenda. As a result there has been a renewed interest in the 'state' )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 446.228 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 446.228 709.539 m 460.220 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 460.220 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between individuals and institutions such as the Church of England, the law courts and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military. Here too Barnes made a significant contribution. Having finished with Somerset, he turned in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1960s to the history of the notorious court of Star Chamber. He also started to pioneer a new style of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('historian's legal history', which has come to involve the widespread use of court depositions as a rich source )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for social history, and which aims for a broader consideration of the functions of courts and their role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and economic lives of ordinary subjects as well as the landed elite. Along with William Jones, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote on the Elizabethan Chancery, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 208.640 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 208.640 609.747 m 222.632 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 222.632 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Barnes was an innovator in looking in depth at the workings of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single jurisdiction. He considered legal processes as well as legal doctrines in order to understand how courts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worked, how much it cost to litigate and who and what was involved in contemporary lawsuits. His essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributed enormously to a better understanding of Star Chamber and its generally symbiotic relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the common law prior to the 1630s, when its use by Charles I's government to enforce the policies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Personal Rule led to its largely unopposed abolition by the Long Parliament in 1641. Always in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vanguard, Barnes also utilised early 1970s computer technology in order to make qualitative as well an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantitative analyses of the of the work of the court: his three-volume list and index of Jacobean Star )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chamber proceedings is still an invaluable finding-aid for the archive of the jurisdiction in its heyday \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vast majority of Star Chamber proceedings for the reign of Charles I have been lost\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 443.936 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 443.936 481.443 m 457.928 481.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although none of the eight papers collected here aim for the complete archival mastery that Barnes pursued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in connection with Star Chamber, they well reflect his interests in local as well as national politics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jurisdiction and the kinds of 'sharp practices' and human failings frequently encountered when considering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern legal arrangements. In a concise piece that was previously published elsewhere, the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conrad Russell provides a fascinating insight into the relationship between the common law and King James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VI and I in connection with the union of the crowns of Scotland and England. Russell dissects the character )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 'judge made' English law, which did not normally dwell much on questions about its sources of authority, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with profound insight. Although his contention that common lawyers in the age of Sir Edward Coke were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly hostile to the legal implications of the proposed merger of English and Scottish institutions is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardly novel, his general conclusion that common law eyebrows were invariably raised in this period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whenever there was an outside jurisdictional threat certainly appears to hold true, and as he also suggests, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaction was hardly mollified in this specific instance by James VI and I's intention of achieving a legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convergence between the two countries by means of parliamentary statute. Indeed, William M. Abbott's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed and valuable chapter that chronicles the attack on the secular functions of bishops in the early stages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Long Parliament raises some similar issues, although in this case the lack of much discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer-term history of the relationship between the ecclesiastical polity and the common law makes it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to understand exactly how and why various lay and lawyer MPs expressed such a range of opinions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the issue in 1640-1.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By contrast, as Alan Horstman shows in his chapter on the resurrection of parliamentary impeachment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although Nicholas Fuller, a well-known lawyer and puritan critic of the church courts in the first decade of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 17th century, was also involved in the revival of the judicial role of parliament, the rediscovery of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impeachment in 1621 \(based on precedents from the time of Edward III\), which brought down Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chancellor Bacon as well as the monopolist Giles Mompesson, was evidently relatively uncontroversial. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Everybody agreed that parliament was a court, even if there were questions about the relative roles of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(House of Lords and House of Commons in the process. Yet as Stephen J. Stearns shows in his piece on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('military disorder' in the later 1620s, the introduction of martial law in connection with the wars against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France and Spain was met by parliamentary hostility from lawyers and country squires alike because it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen as an illegal introduction of an alien law into the localities that undermined traditional legal processes )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 224.3237 766.8775 238.3157 778.7575 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 446.2277 709.8535 460.2197 721.7335 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 208.6397 610.0615 222.6317 621.9415 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 443.9357 481.7575 457.9277 493.6375 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 7975 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the magisterial powers usually associated with them. Given the national political importance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates on martial law in the later parliaments of the 1620s, this chapter is particularly valuable in looking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the outcry in London to some of the actual problems that gave rise to criticisms of martial law in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(localities. Stearns shows that there was little precedent for the application of military law on domestic soil \(a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point frequently stressed by lawyer opponents\) but the government, nevertheless, had to confront the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem of maintaining soldiers in arms at home while they were awaiting deployment abroad. The common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law evidently had no way of dealing with desertion and other issues relating specifically to military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline, but laymen became concerned that joint commissions incorporating martial law with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional powers of JPs were liable to subject laymen to military rule and/or undermine the authority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilian magistrates to maintain the peace in their localities by prosecuting offences such as theft by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscripts. In the best Barnes tradition, Stearns shows that most of the problems in the localities arose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily from the indiscipline of soldiers who were often poorly treated and inadequately paid by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government chronically short of money. He explores in some detail one of the most notorious episodes: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Saltonstall's mutiny' at Harwich in the spring of 1627, to demonstrate how the poor treatment of men by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their inexperienced officers could lead to trouble, and concludes that a collapse in the Crown's capacity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support the army in late 1627 and 1628 led to an escalation of disorder among the soldiers and hostility from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local people who had to bear the brunt of it. The Crown naturally assumed that the use of martial law was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most effective means of dealing with the problem, but local justices came to see it as much as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hindrance as a help to them. At the same time, as opposition to all aspects of the war effort \(including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures such as the Forced Loan\) intensified, there was apparently concern that martial law might be also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to discipline civilian critics of the policy. In the midst of this frustration, lawyers such as John Selden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Sir Edward Coke led the attack on martial law in parliament, and they were, according to Stearns, able )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to convince 'conservative' gentry MPs that the application of military law to civilians in England was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrary to the common law unless there was a state of war at home.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the editors observe in their introduction, discontent among soldiers as a result of a lack of provision was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of course matched in this period by a number of well-known episodes in which civilian populations also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resorted to protest and, sometimes, direct action in order to encourage the authorities to enforce the laws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against those who hoarded grain in times of dearth, or bought it up in one locality with the intention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selling it in another - most commonly the rapidly growing and voracious London. This is a subject that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explored in Buchanan Sharp's complex and lengthy contribution. Aimed primarily at challenging the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodox view among literary scholars that the protest scenes involving a Roman mob in William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shakespeare's )] TJ ET BT 103.820 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Coriolanus)] TJ ET BT 157.832 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were a direct reference to the Midlands revolt of 1607 \(primarily an agrarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protest against the enclosure of common land\), the chapter contends instead that the unrest depicted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shakespeare was urban and, therefore, had more in common with the disorders associated with the shortages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of grain in London during the later 1590s. The problem is that while Shakespeare would almost certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been aware of the latter, the best guesses about the composition of the play indicate that it was much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nearer in date to the Midlands revolt. Nevertheless, Sharp convincingly shows that the protest depicted in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(play looks more like an urban food riot than a rising against enclosures. Furthermore, since there is no way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of knowing for certain exactly what was in Shakespeare's mind when he wrote, Sharp plausibly maintains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this cannot be adequately deduced simply from the doubtful evidence about the date of composition \(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed conception\) of the work. At the same time, he also provides some useful detailed material on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character of the London disorders and the reactions of the authorities to them. Here, like most recent scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who have studied such incidents, Sharp concludes that the early modern crowd normally expressed an overt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to law and order, and that both they and the authorities, like Shakespeare's plebs, blamed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failures of grain supplies on illegal market manipulation and individual greed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, Lamar Hill's investigation of four 'narrations of indebtedness' from the archives of the Court of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Requests leads him to remind us that that the picture of reciprocal and 'neighbourly' credit relationships that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has characterised the work of Craig Muldrew and others also needs to account for the no less commonplace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems of fraud, manipulation and deceit. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 247.316 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 247.316 86.787 m 261.308 86.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 261.308 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Although his observations are based on a mere handful of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases, Hill certainly shows that in the face-to-face world of Bristol tradesmen, there was scope for 'hard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice' and the exploitation of deferential, rather than more egalitarian, social relations. This is a subject )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 247.3157 87.1015 261.3077 98.9815 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 8371 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that needs to be pursued further by Hill or others. But, if like John Taylor, the Water-Poet, we accept that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1630s were indeed a 'brazen age', where public as well as private trust were constantly being put to the test, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then the final essay in the collection, by Mark Charles Fissel, aims to show that the disease was entrenched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at least as deeply in the head as in the feet of the body politic. In a fascinating and deeply-researched paper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on 'Early Stuart Absolutism and the Strangers' Consulage', Fissell traces the levies made by the Crown and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its representative on members of the Levant Company trading in Turkey from the late 1620s into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Restoration period. Initially intended as a imposition paid by the merchants in return for protection from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crown, Charles I allowed 'the strangers' consulage' to be collected as a perk that contributed to the income of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his unpaid ambassador and in the 1640s attempted to requisition it to help finance the royalist war effort. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is to simplify greatly an immensely complicated story of the relationship among government, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial interests, and private greed. According to Fissel, much of the problem must ultimately be laid at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the door of the king, who 'plundered' the Levant merchants in much the same way as he did other business )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and trading interests through the various royal 'projects' of the 1630s. While many historians might be more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cautious than he is about labelling this as 'early Stuart absolutism', Fissel is able to show that by the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1640s some members of the Levant Company had reason to think that the Sultan was less tyrannical than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King of England. On the other hand, he also demonstrates that first the Long Parliament and then Oliver )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell also tried to fill their empty coffers by exploiting the Levant trade. If, as Fissel suggests, this sorry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tale provides a background for understanding the 'commercial revolution', it could also be construed as part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the playing out on a larger stage of the 'relationship between the centre and the localities' as English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects ventured forth over the world in larger numbers and negotiated with the institutions in London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily the crown, the legal and jurisdictional frameworks that would underwrite their activities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like many such collections, )] TJ ET BT 171.668 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Law and Authority)] TJ ET BT 261.680 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is in some respects diverse and lacking in a single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overarching theme or subject, but the essays inhabit discernible fields of interest which owe a considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debt to the historian they were written in honour of. Some readers may find them slightly dated, and several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the pieces might have been more concisely written. But all of them have something worthwhile to say and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflect the timeless virtues of empirical research that Barnes advocated. In addition to a useful compilation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his published works, the volume also contains a brief but informative appreciation of his career as scholar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and teacher.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 364.659 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Everitt, )] TJ ET BT 117.344 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Community of Kent and the Great Rebellion)] TJ ET BT 350.336 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Leicester, 1973\); J. S. Morrill, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cheshire, 1630-60: County Government and Society during the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 463.316 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1974\); A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Fletcher, )] TJ ET BT 120.008 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A County Community in Peace and War: Sussex 1600-60)] TJ ET BT 394.640 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1975\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.964 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 478.964 304.131 m 532.952 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. Wrightson and D. Levine, )] TJ ET BT 206.660 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poverty and Piety in an English Village: Terling 1525-1700)] TJ ET BT 494.648 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1979\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 275.619 m 152.000 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most notably, M. Braddick, )] TJ ET BT 200.348 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State Formation in Early Modern England 1550-1700)] TJ ET BT 460.340 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2000\) )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and S. Hindle, )] TJ ET BT 135.680 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The State and Social Change in Early Modern England 1550-1640)] TJ ET BT 456.668 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 232.851 m 152.000 232.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 219.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. J. Jones, )] TJ ET BT 124.676 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Elizabethan Court of Chancery)] TJ ET BT 296.012 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1967\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 377.660 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 377.660 218.595 m 431.648 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 205.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(List and Index to the Proceedings in Star Chamber for the Reign of James I \(1603-25\) in the Public )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Record Office, London, Class STAC 8)] TJ ET BT 246.356 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, American Bar Foundation, 1975\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 464.660 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 464.660 190.083 m 518.648 190.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 177.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Muldrew, )] TJ ET BT 128.012 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Economy of Obligation: The Culture of Credit and Social Relations in Early Modern )] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 104.684 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1998\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 189.008 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 189.008 161.571 m 242.996 161.571 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 146.239 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 128.459 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 128.459 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/660)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 127.065 m 322.316 127.065 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 102.088 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.688 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3634)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 478.9637 304.4455 532.9517 316.3255 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.0117 275.9335 151.9997 287.8135 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.0117 233.1655 151.9997 245.0455 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 377.6597 218.9095 431.6477 230.7895 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 464.6597 190.3975 518.6477 202.2775 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 189.0077 161.8855 242.9957 173.7655 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 127.3795 322.3157 139.2595 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/660) >> endobj xref 0 52 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000586 00000 n 0000000675 00000 n 0000005395 00000 n 0000005504 00000 n 0000005614 00000 n 0000005723 00000 n 0000009284 00000 n 0000009412 00000 n 0000009496 00000 n 0000009525 00000 n 0000009651 00000 n 0000009687 00000 n 0000009792 00000 n 0000018249 00000 n 0000018279 00000 n 0000018407 00000 n 0000018443 00000 n 0000018473 00000 n 0000018601 00000 n 0000018637 00000 n 0000018667 00000 n 0000018795 00000 n 0000018831 00000 n 0000018861 00000 n 0000018989 00000 n 0000019025 00000 n 0000019109 00000 n 0000027137 00000 n 0000027167 00000 n 0000027293 00000 n 0000027329 00000 n 0000027455 00000 n 0000035879 00000 n 0000036007 00000 n 0000036062 00000 n 0000036189 00000 n 0000036244 00000 n 0000036371 00000 n 0000036426 00000 n 0000036554 00000 n 0000036609 00000 n 0000036737 00000 n 0000036792 00000 n 0000036920 00000 n 0000036975 00000 n 0000037103 00000 n trailer << /Size 52 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37198 %%EOF