%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140916063215+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140916063215+01'00') /Title (The Strange Survival of Liberal England: Political Leaders, Moral Values and the Reception of Economic Debate) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4549 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Strange Survival of Liberal England: Political Leaders, Moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Values and the Reception of Economic Debate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Clarke's influence on the historiography of modern Britain in the last 30 years has been immense. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansive Clarkean oeuvre stretches from his agenda-setting )] TJ ET BT 328.280 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lancashire and the New Liberalism )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 503.288 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 503.288 236.289 m 517.280 236.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 517.280 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pioneering studies of early social-democratic thinkers, through to definitive works on Keynes and Cripps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and numerous essays on electoral politics and political economy, not forgetting that firm staple of every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergraduate reading list, )] TJ ET BT 165.320 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hope and Glory: Britain, 1900-90. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 336.308 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 336.308 193.521 m 350.300 193.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 350.300 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This volume of essays by former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colleagues and students pays tribute to a distinguished scholarly career by expounding and expanding on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme for which Clarke's name has become a veritable shorthand: the nature and reception of liberal, social-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic and socialist political ideas since the late 19th century. The result is a Festschrift-style collection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, in the best traditions of the genre, honours the man and his work while directing its core intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns into new and sometimes unexpected terrains. These scholars share Clarke's preoccupation with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what the editors Duncan Tanner and the late Ewen Green describe as 'the relationship between ideas, human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agency and politics' \(p. 3\), a formula which serves as an agreeable point of departure for a set of wide-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging and thoughtful essays in political and intellectual history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Tanner and Green explain in their synoptic introduction, the title of the volume is an inversion of George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(661)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 30 April, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duncan Tanner)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ewen Henry Harvey Green)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521881678)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(328pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen McCarthy)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 503.2877 236.6035 517.2797 248.4835 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 336.3077 193.8355 350.2997 205.7155 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7478 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dangerfield's classic 1935 work )] TJ ET BT 190.808 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Strange Death of Liberal England. )] TJ ET BT 381.812 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Famously, Dangerfield argued that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberalism as a political creed had reached the end of its natural life-span by 1914, brought to its knees by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fatal combination of industrial unrest, suffragette agitation, resurgent Irish nationalism and the apocalypse of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(total war. Politics subsequently polarised into a two-party system in which socialist ideologues vied with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical and reactionary defenders of capitalism in a battle to master and assuage the seemingly intractable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems of modern industrial society. Peace, retrenchment and reform, that holy trinity of Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberalism, found no place within this new ideological order and slowly faded away as the discredited credo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a lost age.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many historians either endorsed this polarisation thesis in its entirety or, noticing the comparatively mild )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character of the British case, sought to explain this peculiarity by reference to the subordinate place of ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within political life. If Britain was largely spared the extremes of fascism and communism, so the argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ran, it was a consequence of her singularly anti-intellectual political culture. Thus was born the notion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(which still crops up in popular discourse in the present day\) that British politicians are profoundly non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological creatures: driven by personal ambition, sectional loyalties or a managerial passion, certainly, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never, unlike their more cerebral continental counterparts, by the power of ideas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Clarke was one of the first historians to challenge these assumptions in a sustained and convincing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner. This he accomplished in the first instance by delineating the existence of a 'progressive tradition' in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late Victorian Britain, which substituted in place of familiar laissez-faire orthodoxies a new evolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(optimism about the capacity of the modern state for ameliorating social and economic conditions. Nurtured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the two-way traffic of ideas between Liberal intellectuals and the nascent Labour movement and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mediated through a complex set of institutional relationships and cultural forces, this tradition blossomed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a rich current of thought and action, guaranteeing the legitimacy and relevance of Liberalism well into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 20th century. Secondly, Clarke pioneered a distinctive form of intellectual biography. Suspending his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects within a densely-spun web of electoral imperatives, ideological impulses and economic realities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarke's work delivered \(and continues to deliver\) a richness of interpretation lacking in more conventional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political biographies and 'high' political narratives, or indeed in the 'forward march' school of labour history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These conceptual and historiographical issues receive a thoughtful exposition in the editors' introduction, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the essays for the most part, like Clarke himself, wear their theory lightly, electing to demonstrate through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grounded, empirical analysis rather than abstract reflection the dynamic interplay of personality, ideas and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events. The reception of economic debate in Britain since the mid-Victorian era supplies the broad context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for these endeavours, which are loosely grouped into three themed sections and include two enlightening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographical diversions by way of early 20th-century American progressivism and post-war Italy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part one on 'economic ideas and political leaders' opens with an elegant essay by Boyd Hilton exploring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between Gladstone and his Chancellor Robert Lowe. Challenging the conventional wisdom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which explains Lowe's demotion in 1873 as the result of poor administrative performance, Hilton argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead for the primacy of ideas, demonstrating that the two men adhered to substantially different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophies of the role of government. Despite sharing his premier's commitment to the principles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical political economy, Lowe, Hilton contends, was a child of the Foxite Whigs, believing in state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention for the purpose of guiding social and moral progress, with discretionary powers delegated to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cadre of trained, 'expert' officials. Gladstone's Tory-Peelite roots, by contrast, instilled in him a faith in rule-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based bureaucracies whose operations would not interfere with the cultivation of 'manly independence' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst the citizenry. Don't be fooled, Hilton warns us, by the )] TJ ET BT 338.144 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(appearance)] TJ ET BT 394.796 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of agreement over economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory and policy, as this can mask 'philosophical differences that have nothing directly to do with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economics' \(p. 37\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is little danger of committing this latter error while reading the essay by James Thompson which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follows, an analysis of the multiple economic theories and ideological positions available to participants in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late Victorian and Edwardian debates over wage regulation. Here, the volume moves squarely into Clarkean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territory, revealing the complex interchange of ideas between Liberal and Labour thinkers and British and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American progressives over such issues as the role of the state in industrial relations, the likely impact of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7325 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention upon patterns of employment and the rights and obligations of consumers versus those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producers. Thompson's impressively wide-ranging discussion illustrates how arguments over economics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were constantly shaped by ethical considerations through, for example, the highly-publicised cause of anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sweating, although it is perhaps regrettable that he leaves himself no room to reflect upon the implications of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Edwardian legacy for the post-war Lib-Lab relationship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Thompson takes up the theme of trans-Atlantic dialogue in an essay which revisits the problem of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explaining America's entry into the First World War in 1917. The ideas of British radicals such as J. A. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hobson and H. N. Brailsford were formative in shaping the attitudes of American progressives opposed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(US participation, whose arguments typically dwelt upon the insatiable needs of expansive capitalism. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critique evolved during the 1920s and 1930s into a damning indictment of interventionism, providing a basis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the Neutrality Laws of 1935-7 and fomenting popular discontent over the alleged machinations of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private arms trade. Thompson traces the influence of this interpretation in the New Left historiography of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cold War and Vietnam era, but ultimately takes issue with its core assumptions. He argues instead for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully-contextualised, multi-causal account of America's actions in 1917, placing particular weight upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the transformed position of the US economy and the threat to national prestige posed by German submarine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warfare. The radical economic critique, Thompson's essay seems to imply, was effective in mobilising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressives during the period of American neutrality, but its usefulness as a framework for historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis has proved far less enduring.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the last essay of this section, Duncan Tanner brings the student of modern British politics back to more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar ground by offering a fresh perspective on a well-defined historical debate: the economic policy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the second Labour government \(1929-31\). Tanner combines a concern for institutional dynamics with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the socially-constructed values of individual leaders, in this case Prime Minister Ramsay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacDonald and his Chancellor Philip Snowden. Together these men shaped the reception of economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advice during a period which ended in national crisis and the schism of the Labour party. Tanner's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meticulously researched essay shelves the more conventional problem of establishing whether viable policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternatives were available in favour of explaining the Labour government's actual course of action. This he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sees as conditioned not only by the economic advice on offer at the time but by the individual orientations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacDonald and Snowden, formed by the cumulative experience of several decades in the Labour movement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and one brief stint in government in 1924. Pointing to the absence of any formal structures for facilitating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy development or harnessing 'expert' advice, Tanner argues that the pre-existing incapacities of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour party permeated the Prime Minister and Chancellor's 'way of seeing the economic world' \(p. 114\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Explaining the economic policy of these crucial years thus entails the careful unpacking of the institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture of the Labour party itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tanner's essay provides a fitting segue into part two, which contains three essays on the political reception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the thought of John Maynard Keynes. In the first of these, Richard Toye explores how Labour leaders from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macdonald to Blair absorbed and made use of the Cambridge economist's ideas, borrowing Clarke's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important analytical distinction between the 'real' or 'historical' Keynes and his 'Keynesian' followers. Toye )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how socialist intellectuals in the 1930s drew on Keynes's critique of orthodox finance in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengthen their own case for a planned economy, while post-war Labour governments defended physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controls - never advocated by Keynes himself - as a necessary counterpart to 'Keynesian' demand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management. Toye admirably refrains from holding his subjects guilty of cynically appropriating economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory, arguing that the framing and interpretation of ideas through political debate is an integral element of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the policy-making process, as Keynes himself well understood.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This perceptive observation finds support in Ewen Green's essay which, with agreeable symmetry, traces the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative party's engagement with Keynes and Keynesianism in the same era. Demonstrating how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keynes's ideas were recalibrated to fit a series of Conservative world-views, Green traces the Keynesian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence from the radical prescriptions of inter-war Tory dissidents, through the 'consensus' era of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butskellism and finally to the economic thinking of the New Right. Particularly fascinating is the author's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the challenge issued to Labour's proprietary hold on Keynes by Conservatives during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher years. Audaciously claiming that Keynes himself had not been a Keynesian, figures such as Keith )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7670 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph and Nigel Lawson restyled him as the original monetarist, an arguably anachronistic assertion but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one which demonstrated the enduring purchase of the great man's name within political and economic debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the 1970s and 1980s. The essay also provides additional ammunition for Green's earlier thesis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brilliantly sustained in )] TJ ET BT 144.356 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideologies of Conservatism )] TJ ET BT 278.684 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2002\), by identifying and illuminating yet one more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(front on which Conservatives proved themselves willing to take on the left in the battle of ideas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eugenio Biagini supplies the last of this trio of essays with a fascinating exploration of the reception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keynes in post-Fascist Italy. The slow and partial diffusion of Keynesian thinking, Biagini argues, cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributed to the alleged insularity or provincialism of Italian political culture following the forced isolation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Fascist era. Liberal economists in Italy were, in fact, highly conversant with Keynes's ideas during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inter-war years, but the appropriation of aspects of his work by fascist-corporatist thinkers served to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengthen the allegiance of anti-fascist intellectuals to orthodox political economy. Despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enshrinement of social-democratic values in the Constitution of the new republic in 1947, political advocates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a Keynesian third way within the radical Partito d'Azione and the progressive wing of the Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Democrats wielded insufficient institutional muscle to embed their ideas in the post-war Italian state. With )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the defeat of the Keynesian revolution thus clinched almost before it had begun, Biagini's essay offers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of Britain an illuminating and nuanced account of the trajectory of economic ideas within a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political context radically different from that explored in the preceding two essays.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third and final section on 'Economic Forces and their significance' arguably lacks the thematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherence of its predecessors with two markedly dissimilar - though equally fascinating - essays. Stefan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collini's intriguing contribution focuses on inter-war perceptions of the relationship between cultural decline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the economic imperatives of 'modern' society. Collini shows how economic crises, Marxist influences, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the spectacle of mass consumer culture prompted many inter-war intellectuals to search for the origins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their present discontent not in the familiar territory of 19th-century laissez-faire ideology, but in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern period. T. S. Eliot's notion of a 'dissociation of sensibility' is presented as the foundational text for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this critique, but most of the essay is devoted to a detailed analysis of R. H. Tawney's )] TJ ET BT 446.804 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religion and the Rise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Capitalism )] TJ ET BT 102.032 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1926\), with its central proposition that the unities of the medieval world-view were eclipsed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the course of the 17th century by a conception of economic activity as existing outside the ambit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral relations. Collini deconstructs the text with virtuosic skill but lacks space to develop the arguably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more suggestive observations of the concluding section, particularly concerning the 'rhetorical excess' of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strand of cultural criticism. As the author rightly points out, the declinist perspective largely failed to register )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the appearance of new institutional and legal frameworks for economic activity during this period. Setting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Tawney critique alongside the ideas of those who detected in the emergent public monopolies and co-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partnership initiatives of the inter-war years the seeds of a humanised capitalism would be a fascinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future endeavour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final essay of the volume transports the reader from the close examination of a single text to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(panoramic survey of the changing political economy of modern Britain. Revisiting his Coffin Lecture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999, Barry Supple suggests that the long-run trend of the last century towards an increasing supply of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods and services has raised rather than lowered the moral stakes in play within policy debates. Whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the matter at issue is tariff reform versus free trade, membership of the Common Market or how to pay for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pensions, economic arguments, Supple contends, are always freighted with moral baggage because of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unavoidable implications for distributional outcomes. Politicians make active choices - albeit frequently in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances not of their own choosing - which create winners and losers; nowhere is this logic more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposed than in the sphere of welfare provision, where humanitarian impulses and demands for social justice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become entangled with judgements about what the state can 'afford' and what the economy can bear. Quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apart from its impressive range, Supple's essay is an important inclusion \(and fitting conclusion\) to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume because it exemplifies the Clarkean approach in seeking to pull down the disciplinary walls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separating economic, political and intellectual history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As with any volume of this kind, the reviewer is inevitably tempted to pick a fight with the editors over what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they have left out. Illuminating and pertinent essays could have been written, no doubt, on the politics of free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade, the economic dimensions of internationalist thought, the role of 'middle opinion' in shaping economic )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 5466 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate, the rise of corporatism and the marginalisation of more extreme responses to economic crisis in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, both of a communist and fascist variety. It is, perhaps, especially regrettable that feminist political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy makes no appearance in these pages, despite the richness of early 20th-century argument and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate concerning equal pay and family allowances. But this is to nit-pick over what is, after all, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherently selective enterprise, and there is no doubting the intellectual pedigree of the essays making the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final cut.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volume is unlikely to be much-thumbed by undergraduates, but specialists of modern Britain will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciate the subtlety and nuance of much of what is argued here. As one would expect with a collaborative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project of this nature, the volume offers no overarching narrative or startlingly new interpretation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period other than the very general one suggested in the title: the 'survival' of British Liberalism. In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect, it might be fruitfully read as a companion piece to Peter Mandler and Susan Pedersen's )] TJ ET BT 493.760 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(After the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorians )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 87.020 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 87.020 626.259 m 101.012 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 101.012 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which dwelt in similar fashion upon cultural and intellectual continuities between the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th and mid-20th centuries \(and, appropriately enough, contained an essay by Clarke himself on Keynes\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More generally, the collection attests to the ongoing interest among historians in the resilience of liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values long after the formal demise of the Liberal party. Above all, the volume adds texture and richness to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the basic proposition of Clarke's work - that Britain's moderate political tradition must be understood as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affirmation of the power of ideas within the national culture, rather than as proof of their irrelevance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.475 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. F. Clarke, )] TJ ET BT 127.352 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lancashire and the New Liberalism )] TJ ET BT 302.360 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1971\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 399.680 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 399.680 489.459 m 453.668 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. F. Clarke, )] TJ ET BT 127.352 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hope and Glory: Britain, 1900-90 )] TJ ET BT 295.340 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1996\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 376.664 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 376.664 475.203 m 430.652 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 462.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(After the Victorians: Private Conscience and Public Duty in Modern Britain, )] TJ ET BT 437.324 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. S. Pedersen and P. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mandler \(London, 1994\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 188.996 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 188.996 446.691 m 242.984 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 421.829 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/507/484.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 391.923 m 313.004 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 316.004 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net-reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 363.411 m 240.992 363.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 360.079 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 342.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 342.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/661)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 340.905 m 322.316 340.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 315.928 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.528 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3635)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.128 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/507/484.full)] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.728 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=15548)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 87.0197 626.5735 101.0117 638.4535 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 399.6797 489.7735 453.6677 501.6535 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 376.6637 475.5175 430.6517 487.3975 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 188.9957 447.0055 242.9837 458.8855 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 392.2375 313.0037 404.1175 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/507/484.full) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 363.7255 240.9917 375.6055 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=15548) >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 341.2195 322.3157 353.0995 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/661) >> endobj xref 0 43 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000619 00000 n 0000000715 00000 n 0000005316 00000 n 0000005425 00000 n 0000005535 00000 n 0000005644 00000 n 0000009205 00000 n 0000009333 00000 n 0000009417 00000 n 0000009446 00000 n 0000009574 00000 n 0000009610 00000 n 0000009639 00000 n 0000009767 00000 n 0000009803 00000 n 0000009868 00000 n 0000017399 00000 n 0000017464 00000 n 0000024842 00000 n 0000024907 00000 n 0000032630 00000 n 0000032756 00000 n 0000038275 00000 n 0000038305 00000 n 0000038432 00000 n 0000038468 00000 n 0000038596 00000 n 0000038651 00000 n 0000038779 00000 n 0000038834 00000 n 0000038962 00000 n 0000039017 00000 n 0000039144 00000 n 0000039252 00000 n 0000039379 00000 n 0000039480 00000 n 0000039608 00000 n trailer << /Size 43 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39703 %%EOF