%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818081353+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818081353+01'00') /Title (Ireland: The Politics of Enmity 1789-2006) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4753 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ireland: The Politics of Enmity 1789-2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Bew has made an extraordinary contribution to Irish historiography over the past 30 years. With Peter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gibbon and Henry Patterson he co-authored a landmark study, )] TJ ET BT 337.292 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The State in Northern Ireland)] TJ ET BT 479.960 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1979\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Downplaying abstract notions of 'nation' or 'imperialism', Bew et al., attributed to the state a pragmatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern with maintaining equilibrium through the balancing of class interests and political tendencies. Crises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulted as balances of power grew lopsided; sectarian conflict was often the result of Britain's well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intentioned but clumsy attempts to redress grievances. Updated frequently since, this book has proven to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the key texts on the Northern Ireland Troubles. In two further volumes a similar optic, focusing on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intersection of state governance, class interests and ideology, was applied to the politics of 20th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent Ireland. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 135.656 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 135.656 172.137 m 149.648 172.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 149.648 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Bew as an individual author composed what was in essence a trilogy tracking the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social bases, material interests and ideological justifications of nationalists and unionists from 1858 to 1916. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 143.625 m 48.008 143.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He has produced a great number of shorter studies and articles ranging over the past 200 years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bew, therefore, is supremely qualified to write the Irish volume in Oxford's prestigious )] TJ ET BT 455.120 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe)] TJ ET BT 69.344 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( series. To those familiar with Bew's corpus, there's a considerable interest in revisiting with him past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual contributions and debates. While his earlier work bore the imprint of a sophisticated Marxism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bew now claims no overarching generalisation other than the 'law of unintended consequences' \(p. 118\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(There is, however, an engaging nod to influences past in one footnote, which cites recondite theorising in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(663)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 30 April, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Bew)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780198205555)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(632pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marc Mulholland)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 135.6557 172.4515 149.6477 184.3315 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 143.9395 48.0077 155.8195 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7514 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notoriously abstruse British Althusserian journal of the early 1970s\) \(p. 328\). Edmund Burke is cited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently. His 'Letter to Hercules Langrishe' \(1792\), says Bew, illuminates a key problem that faced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish polity as it pushed through into modernity. Why were the Protestant middle class and gentry unable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconfigure themselves on non-sectarian lines, admitting Catholics of property and right thinking into a joint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruling class? The answer, said Burke, was to be found in the 'ascendancy's democratic tail' \(p. 93\). Plebeian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestants were naturally unwilling to go along with attempts to re-legitimate the Irish ruling class as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selfless, non-sectarian elite habituated by education and family tradition to the exercise of disinterested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governance. \(For Burke, such organic authority was the very definition of aristocracy; his 'natural' ruling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class in the later 19th century melded with the liberal bourgeoisie, later still a technocratic 'meritocracy'\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burke's analysis Bew considers to be 'foundational' for an understanding of the entire period \(p. 579\) but he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not insist upon its uniform application at all times. As event follows event, he clearly considers an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ample fund of 'human sympathy' to be the most important prerequisite in dealing with the foibles and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obsessions of the fractious Irish \(p. 144\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This investment pays amply. Bew has worked though numerous memoirs, manuscripts, newspapers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodicals. He has always been a master of the revealing quotation and the reconstruction in all their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrity and knottiness of contemporary debates. This practised eye for turns of phrase and his respect for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the seriousness of controversialists past make for a genuinely scintillating work. Historical actors are given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their chance to argue for their convictions with passion, polemical skill, penetrating logic, and devastating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facts. The cut and thrust of political argument as conveyed here is engrossing, Bew's dialectical skill in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conducting the virtual debating chamber is sustained throughout.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The structure of Bew's book is broadly chronological rather than thematic. It is embedded, however, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating digressions that amount to mini-essays. These discussions, based on archival research, range )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across a wide variety of topics: nationalist resentment of English alms during the Great Famine \(1845-50\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the apparition of the Virgin at Knock, the complex interplay of dirty war and secret negotiations during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War of Independence, southern Irish ambivalence during the Second World War, Harold Wilson's persistent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hunt for a way out of the Irish imbroglio in the 1970s, and more besides.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, tracing through these essays in minature is a compelling narrative. In the late 18th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English government was appreciative of the Protestant ascendancy's services as its 'garrison class' in Ireland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but was painfully aware that so long as the governing elite in Ireland were religiously defined, the Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masses would remain unreconciled and thus a potential security threat. The Act of Union, as Bew argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was designed to convert a numerical Catholic majority in the Kingdom of Ireland into a permanent Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minority within the new United Kingdom \(p. 55\). With Protestant supremacy assured, Catholics could in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory be admitted as equals into the governing class. In practice, however, British governments failed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utterly to integrate the Catholic elites. They balked at the necessary price: rapprochement with the priesthood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 562\). The United Kingdom political classes refused even legal admission on the basis of equality to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics until 1829, and even then within Ireland itself governance remained 'implicitly authoritarian' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65\) rather than representative. The means by which Catholic Emancipation was wrested, via a mass civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights campaign led by Daniel O'Connell, 'the Liberator', helped to embed a 'culture of agitation' \(p. 122\) that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sidelined the nexus of country house and urban club so important in British politics. Bew is sharply critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of O'Connell for his failure to reach out to the liberal Protestant currents of Ulster, and his willingness to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indulge a sectarianisation of national identity \(pp. 132, 172\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland's vibrant 'outdoor politics' rested upon an assertive populace: 'There is an air of vivacity, restlessness, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of intelligence and perhaps of mischief ... totally unlike the contented ignorance of the English lower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes', remarked one 1811 observer \(p. 86\). The cataclysm of the Great Famine, however, devastated this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sub-stratum of egalitarian, self-contained rural communities. It gave way to commercial farmers jealously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protective of their petit-bourgeois respectability. Irish nationalists were stricken by an anxious suspicion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Famine exploded their central thesis of an Ireland capable of self-government. The British government, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, was sufficiently cold-hearted to allow an Anglophobic narrative to credibly explain Ireland's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systemic failure. Bew's own view is that an initially generous British response to Irish famine succumbed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('compassion fatigue' \(p. 210\). Certainly, the United Kingdom government was disinclined to treat Ireland as )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 6721 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its own. Lord John Russell in the later 1840s insisted that the English working class should not have pay to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relieve famine distress. This was a charge on the Irish landlords, implicitly because they were the trustees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and beneficiaries of the Union \(p. 193\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bew glimpses a hopeful moment in the aftermath of the Famine, when a 'remarkably ecumenical' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of farmers in the Catholic south and the Protestant north campaigned to secure their tenurial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights. This was aborted, however, by Lord John Russell's 'ignit[ing] the fires of political Protestantism' in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1850, when he launched a campaign against the re-establishment of the Roman Catholic hierarchy in Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain \(p. 235\). Nevertheless, the question of land tenure remorselessly moved centre-stage. Bew delineates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with great panache, and very convincingly, that anxious passion for security which motivated the militancy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Irish farming classes in the latter half of the 19th century \(p. 251\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nationalist radicals were convinced that Westminster, as a landlord parliament, would never meet the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspirations of tenant farmers in Ireland. Mobilising the Irish tenantry on transitional demands for land reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would expose the baleful class bias of the Union and highlight the need for Irish separation. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutionalist nationalist leader Charles Stewart Parnell \(himself a Protestant landowner\) believed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, that Westminster could be induced to introduce reform in the tenants' interests. By reconciling the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class interests of tenant farmers and landlords, Parnell hoped to wean the latter off their dependence upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, and have them accepted as rightful leaders of the Irish nation \(pp. 313, 322\). Parnell, indeed, came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to recognised as a "hero of the bourgeoisie" \(p. 341\). In Ulster, however, burgeoning economic success was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributed to the virtues of Protestant liberty \(p. 565\), and all classes of the Protestant majority here cleaved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet closer to the Union.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parnell was right to believe that Britain could legislate for peasant proprietorship in Ireland. The Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentry, however, showed little capacity to take command of the Catholic democracy. Indeed the new 'kulak' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class of small farmers were even less enamoured of the Union when it appeared, with the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Liberalism and Labour, that property would be expected to contribute to the maintenance of insecure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wage-workers in British cities \(p. 386\). With its substantial urban proletariat, north-east Ulster, in contrast, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had the social demography to benefit from such 'welfare unionism' \(p. 543\). Both in prosperity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recession, Ulster's socio-economic profile suited the economies of scale and transfers of wealth possible in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the large United Kingdom.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While majority Irish 'political culture' by the 20th century was characterised by 'patriarchal Catholicism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism ... and, hardly surprisingly in a nation of peasant proprietors, property right' \(p. 455\), Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestantism in its democratic heartland of Ulster had fundamentally veered off:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the eighteenth century it was possible for a significant section of the Protestant political class )] TJ ET BT 64.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the north to have a natural primary identity with Ireland. Yet, all the key developments of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century had weakened that identification: the development under O'Connell of a form )] TJ ET BT 64.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Catholic nationalism which disregarded the concerns of Protestant liberals; the dramatic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialization of Belfast, locked into a Belfast-Glasgow-Liverpool triangle of economic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interconnectedness ... and last but not least, the willingness of the British state until, at least, the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1880s to regard the Protestants as at least a potential garrison against Catholic revolt \(p. 369\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Partition of some sort, it seems clear for Bew, was likely from the 1880s. Partition within the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingdom might have better protected northern nationalists, as their southern compatriots would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retained clout at Westminster \(p. 383\). As it happened, the steep decline of Protestants as a percentage of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern Irish state's citizenry after partition reduced any incentive for the Unionist government in Belfast to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treat its Catholic nationalist minority with generosity \(p. 458\). In post-partition Ireland, governing parties on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both sides of the border adopted 'populist' rhetoric and clientelist systems of patronage the better to wield )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together pan-class alliances around the 'national question' \(pp. 449, 458\). While this mode of populism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhibited the Republic's economic modernisation, its consequences were politically far more explosive in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6051 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northern Ireland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The great mistake in the early Troubles, Bew suggests, was the failure to dissolve the devolved, Unionist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government when British troops took over the main weight of security in 1969. Britain was seen by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics as attempting to maintain a Protestant ascendancy \(p. 496\). By the mid-1970s, sections of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British political elite were considering withdrawal from Northern Ireland. The government of the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic made clear its opposition of any such Pontius Pilate swerve, and nothing came of it. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Provisional IRA understandably felt that it had been conned and strung along. For over a decade afterwards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any movement towards a peace process was hobbled by its suspicions of British perfidy \(p. 522\). By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1990s, however, Britain consciously abandoned its ambition of marginalising the republican movement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 539\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the Good Friday/Belfast Agreement of 1998, in its constitutional architecture, owed little to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republican initiative or goals, Sinn Fin, with 'great tactical brilliance' \(p. 549\) positioned itself as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(champion of Catholic nationalist ethnic pride in the new dispensation. The result was a renewed round of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inter-communal competition, and the emergence of Sinn Fin and Ian Paisley's Democratic Unionist Party as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the largest political parties within their respective communities. The Republic of Ireland, invigorated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-consciously modern after its brush in the 1970s and 1980s with political dysfunction, looked upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(north with a proprietary interest, but also an anxiety that the compromises required of conflict resolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might in time undermine its own political integrity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an impressive and compelling survey of Irish history, notable in particular for its deft integration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives north and south. As ever, the reviewer has certain caveats. Bew's emphasis is firmly political, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is not the attention paid to social, economic or gender history that one would like. We do find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intimations of an international contextualisation - Fenianism in the 1850s and 1860s, for example, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admitted as 'a formidable mass nationalism by any serious comparative European criteria' \(p. 262\) - but these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leave us wishing for more. Bew quotes the Liberal politician Lord Spencer, writing in 1887 of the literate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internationally-aware peasantry, particularly conscious of the norms and expectations of the United States's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proprietor farmers. The Irish peasantry's 'social condition', he thought, '[was] a hundred years behind their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state of political and mental culture' \(p. 300\). This kind of combined and uneven development could well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been explored more directly by the historian.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the tiny minorities that were ever violent revolutionaries or serious paramilitants are ascribed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable, at times primary agency \(pp. 394, 499, 579\), these cadres remain in something of a black box. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The anthropology and ideology of political violence is little examined. Bew does generalise about the War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Independence in a manner of evidently wider applicability:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence on a large scale creates an emotional context, because of the investment of those )] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved on both sides, which inclines in its early phases towards the defeat of the peace )] TJ ET BT 64.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process. It is only when a moment has been reached when the combatants know for sure that )] TJ ET BT 64.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further violence is unlikely to vindicate their project, and may even lead to dreadful defeat and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demoralization, that the negotiators can gain the upper hand over the militarists \(p. 411\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is likely very true, but I would have liked more exploration. The voice of the gunman, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains mostly silent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Still, one is not left frustrated by such inevitable lacunae; rather, the reader is hooked as Bew seizes onto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each fresh topic or conundrum with relish, verve, and at times, controversialist daring. There is not easy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settling on bland consensus or received wisdom in this volume. Bew takes us with him though an engaged, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questing and ongoing exploration. The journey is exhilarating, and the book indispensable.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 2821 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With H. Patterson, )] TJ ET BT 156.344 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sean Lemass and the Making of Modern Ireland, 1945-66)] TJ ET BT 434.648 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 1982\); with H. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patterson and E. Hazelkorn, )] TJ ET BT 201.320 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Dynamics of Irish Politics)] TJ ET BT 347.984 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1989\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 432.308 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 432.308 729.555 m 486.296 729.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Land and the National Question, 1858-82)] TJ ET BT 264.692 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 1978\); )] TJ ET BT 345.356 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conflict and Conciliation in Ireland, 1890 - )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1919)] TJ ET BT 88.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1987\), )] TJ ET BT 169.664 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideology and the Irish Question, 1912-16 )] TJ ET BT 371.312 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1994\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.960 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.960 701.043 m 503.948 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.181 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net-reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 646.275 m 240.992 646.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journal)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://tcbh.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/4/536.extract)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 617.763 m 296.336 617.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 299.336 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 614.431 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 596.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 596.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/663)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 595.257 m 322.316 595.257 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 570.280 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 555.880 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3637)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.480 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=14478)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.080 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://tcbh.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/4/536.extract)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 432.3077 729.8695 486.2957 741.7495 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 449.9597 701.3575 503.9477 713.2375 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 646.5895 240.9917 658.4695 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=14478) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 618.0775 296.3357 629.9575 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://tcbh.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/4/536.extract) >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 595.5715 322.3157 607.4515 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/663) >> endobj xref 0 38 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000551 00000 n 0000000647 00000 n 0000005452 00000 n 0000005561 00000 n 0000005671 00000 n 0000005780 00000 n 0000009341 00000 n 0000009469 00000 n 0000009553 00000 n 0000009582 00000 n 0000009710 00000 n 0000009746 00000 n 0000009775 00000 n 0000009901 00000 n 0000009937 00000 n 0000010002 00000 n 0000017569 00000 n 0000017634 00000 n 0000024408 00000 n 0000024473 00000 n 0000030577 00000 n 0000030689 00000 n 0000033563 00000 n 0000033691 00000 n 0000033746 00000 n 0000033874 00000 n 0000033929 00000 n 0000034056 00000 n 0000034157 00000 n 0000034284 00000 n 0000034391 00000 n 0000034519 00000 n trailer << /Size 38 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34614 %%EOF