%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140903033323+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140903033323+01'00') /Title (Justice and Grace: Private Petitioning and the English Parliament in the Late Middle Ages) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4322 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Justice and Grace: Private Petitioning and the English Parliament )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(in the Late Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The central place of petitioning in the work of the English parliament has long been recognised. The 18th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century editors of the rolls of parliament included unenrolled petitions in their text wherever they felt able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assign them to a particular assembly, and to this day Members of the House of Commons may deposit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written petitions in a bag provided for this purpose at the back of the Speaker's chair in their chamber at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westminster. Yet, while historians of the 13th and early 14th centuries have continued to take an interest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the place of petitions in the work of parliament, students of the second century of the English parliament )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have of late rather taken their eye off this particular ball. To this day, the articles of Alec Myers and Doris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rayner on the subject, first published between 1937 and 1941, continue to be the central \(and almost the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only\) works on the subject. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 167.336 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 167.336 150.753 m 181.328 150.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 181.328 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is the declared - and laudable - aim of Dr Dodd's new book 'to restore the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private petition to its rightful place in our considerations of the late medieval English parliament' \(p. 317\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Undeniably, Dodd, who has devoted much of the last ten years to the detailed study of medieval petitioning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both in his own postdoctoral work and latterly as one of the directors of a publicly funded project to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recatalogue and digitise the class of parliamentary petitions \(SC8\) in the The National Archives \(TNA\), is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uniquely well placed to undertake this task.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The roots of the practice of petitioning kings or rulers for grace or redress of grievances are impossible to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(665)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 30 April, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gwilym Dodd)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199202805)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(386pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hannes Kleineke)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 167.3357 151.0675 181.3277 162.9475 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7524 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trace. By contrast, the origins of the formal procedure of presenting a petition in the English parliament can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be pinpointed fairly precisely. Far from evolving gradually, so Dodd asserts, the practice of petitioning the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king in parliament was the result of 'an abrupt and deliberate shift in government policy' \(p. 19\) in the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of Edward I's reign. Although the evidence is not entirely conclusive, it appears that the invitation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual and corporate members of the community of the realm to bring their requests to parliament may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have formed part of Edward's wider judicial programme; certainly, there is an indication that the king used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the practice of hearing petitions as an aggressive tool in his wars of conquest in Wales and Scotland by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraging the inhabitants tacitly to acknowledge his jurisdiction - and by inference sovereignty - by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(petitioning him for justice or grace. Throughout Edward's dominions, subjects eagerly seized upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to present petitions at parliament time, and by the first quarter of the 14th century private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(petitions in their hundreds came at times to dominate the business transacted. This is not to say that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a steady growth of petitioning from parliament to parliament to the detriment of weightier matters. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crown's normal business continued to be discharged; some assemblies did not consider the grievances of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private individuals at all. Nevertheless, although not all of Edward II's parliaments were flooded by private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplications, so intrinsic a part of their functions had the dispatch of petitions become by this date that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was explicitly included in the New Ordinances imposed upon Edward in 1311.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliamentary petitioning, then, fulfilled an important role within the workings of royal government more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadly; it made up for the shortcomings of other parts of the administration, most notably, perhaps, of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king himself. In keeping with this argument, Dodd finds that under Edward III the proportion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary time devoted to private petitions declined overall. This, as he points out, was not simply a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of that king's disinclination to address his subjects' grievances, or a dogged determination that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament should concentrate upon the more important business of providing funds for the French wars, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related at least in part to the re-establishment of strong government at home. Whereas under Edward II, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose name has become synonymous with his disregard for the duties of kingship, a petition in parliament )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had become an important avenue of securing justice from the Crown, the strengthening of the mechanisms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law enforcement under Edward III opened to the subject a reasonable prospect of gaining redress by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normal channels of the evolving common law.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, even if only some parliaments were to function as a clearing house for private business which other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(branches of government had failed to address adequately, large-scale petitioning in parliament, nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed the normal conduct of the king's business under considerable strain: the initial encouragement given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to petitioners had created an expectation that during parliament, time and resources would be devoted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(address the grievances put forward, which could only be met to the detriment of the Crown's other affairs. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was thus essential to devise mechanisms that allowed for the dispatch of petitions without bringing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crown's business to a standstill. To this end at an early date committees of receivers and triers of petitions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were introduced, designed to satisfy the petitioners' needs while allowing parliament as a whole to attend to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weightier matters. They did not do so absolutely: those petitions which the triers deemed to affect the king or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Crown's interests directly were referred to the king or the king and council for decision.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For reasons that remain unclear, the membership of the committees of triers underwent considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion just as the numbers of petitions dealt with by parliament apparently diminished. Initially made up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in fairly equal proportion of royal judges, spiritual and temporal peers, from the 1350s the numbers of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two latter groups appointed to the committees expanded to such a degree that by the end of the reign as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many as half the lords summoned to parliament were formally triers. Although, so Dodd suggests, there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no obvious change in parliamentary procedure, from the 1370s the broadening of the committee found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formal reflection in the diplomatic language of the petitions, which were increasingly addressed to the 'king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Lords of parliament' \(p. 97\). By contrast, another new form of addressing the parliamentary petition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which began to appear about the same time indicated a very real change in the work of parliament. Since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reign of Edward II the Commons had presented certain grievances deemed to be relevant to the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community as 'common' petitions; these were distinguished from the mass of private petitions by being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compiled into a single schedule and the Commons jealously defended their control over what should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included among them. From the 1370s individual petitioners for their part began to address their requests to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7750 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Commons, rather than directly to the king or Lords, seeking the intercession of the representatives of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shires and boroughs with the monarch and the peers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This development was indicative of the growing importance of the Commons in a period which saw the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crown increasingly reliant on repeated grants of taxation, but it was also rooted in the increasing exclusivity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the process of petitioning in parliament. For a majority of supplicants, redress of grievances was more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easily obtainable elsewhere. Institutions such as the evolving court of Chancery dispensed the king's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equitable justice, and successive monarchs were prepared personally to lend an ear to a wide range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplicants: both Henry IV and Henry V were said to have heard petitions regularly for a period after dinner, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Dodd is indeed at pains to emphasise that at no point did a parliamentary session lead to a complete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspension of the monarch's normal activity, and that 'the king continued to receive and deal with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overtures of his subjects much as he did when parliament was not in session' \(p. 200\). What continued to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heard in parliament in the 15th century was only a heavily reduced number of exceptional cases which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warranted the effort that the promotion of a petition before the Lords or Commons increasingly required: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials ranging from the Speaker of the Commons to the doorkeepers of either House needed to be paid, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and - if the petition was to be presented to the Commons - the support of MPs secured. Simultaneously, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of the parliamentary petition became increasingly standardised, and as the legal profession rose to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominence among the Members of the lower house, so intending supplicants found themselves obliged to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(call upon the services of legal counsel to assist not only in the drafting of their requests in the proper format, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also in their promotion in parliament.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final part of the book, Dodd turns his attention to the specific content of the petitions brought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament and the identity of the individuals and corporate bodies who presented them. As might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expected, complaints about the king's officers and the conduct of royal government, which could not readily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be addressed elsewhere in the judicial system, as well as requests for the monarch's assistance and favour, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made up more than three quarters of all petitions presented. Perhaps rather less obvious is the finding that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of social groups particularly disadvantaged by the sluggishness and cost of the common law, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as peasants and single women, who at least in the 13th and 14th centuries might have been expected to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of the direct access to royal justice that a petition in parliament offered, were poorly represented among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the recorded petitioners. Conversely, members of the higher aristocracy whose social position might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought to have given them privileged access to the monarch's ear at all times, were interestingly also highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominent in the petitioning of parliament. For groupings whose lack of corporate identity precluded the use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the common law in search of redress of grievances, the parliamentary petition offered a useful opportunity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to sue as a community. This was particularly relevant in the case of the 'county communities' who through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their representatives in parliament formally adopted a clear common identity which they did not otherwise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possess. Dodd's finding of a close correlation between the attendance of county representatives in parliament )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the period when they were not routinely summoned and the presentation of 'county petitions' provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important evidence not only of the role of MPs in the first century of parliament's existence, but also of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary perceptions of a county community.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Dodd himself admits, it is essential to his argument to establish that the petitions gathered in the artificial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(TNA class SC8 are indeed of parliamentary provenance, and it would thus have been helpful if he could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have found room in this book for the more detailed exposition of his methodology for which the reader is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referred to one of his past articles. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 200.636 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 200.636 188.835 m 214.628 188.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 214.628 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( At the root of this methodology lies an examination of a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obsolete indexes and notebooks which were compiled prior to the archival reorganisation of the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, and which, so the author asserts, allow him to trace the provenance of his material back to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval files in which the petitions were placed after being expedited in parliament. It is here that potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems arise. Until the later 14th century when some petitions began to be explicitly addressed to the king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the 'lords of parliament', they bore no outward marks that distinguished those put forward during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament from those that were presented at other times. Did the medieval clerks who were charged with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(filing petitions after they had been discharged really distinguish between the two types? That this was not so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to be the implication of Dodd's contention that royal letters warranted ')] TJ ET BT 405.620 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(per petitionem in consilio)] TJ ET BT 528.620 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(' in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the principal rolls of the king's chancery and exchequer frequently, but by no means exclusively, arose from )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 200.6357 189.1495 214.6277 201.0295 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8159 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(petitions presented in parliament. His finding that particularly in the case of the Gascon petitions of the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1340s the dates of the warranty notes often diverged markedly from the periods when parliament was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(session surely goes some way to demonstrate that the material placed in the medieval files of 'parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(petitions' may not have been uniformly of parliamentary provenance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the later period, when the parliamentary provenance of a petition is frequently more readily apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from its address, archival problems of a different nature arise. Any work as wide-ranging as this must of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need be selective in its use of evidence, but this is not so much a study of parliamentary petitioning, as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survey of what a particular record class can tell us about petitioning. Dodd himself is not unaware of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(record series that might have provided him with additional sources, but at times he does not seem to take on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(board their implications for the fullness of his material. Thus, for instance, he concludes that 'All the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(petitions presented in 1455 by supplicants wishing to be excluded from the Act of Resumption passed in that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year appear to have been considered, and adjudged, solely within the confines of the upper house' and finds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that 'There are at least eighteen original petitions on this matter in file 28 in SC8' \(p. 177\). This may well be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so, and is in itself interesting, but surely these 18 are in fact strays from the larger series of similar provisos )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the same act \(at least 75 items\) preserved in The National Archives class of parliamentary proceedings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(C49, files 61, 63-65\)? It has, in any case, to be doubtful how useful for the illustration of ordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary practice these documents which originated in the exceptional circumstances of the 1455-6 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament \(an assembly which saw Henry VI incapacitated for a second time in as many years\) are: Michael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hicks has recently discussed in considerable detail the way in which similar petitions for proviso were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoted ten years later. It is generally accepted that Edward IV's first reign saw little innovation, so might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dodd not consider whether Hicks's findings for the 1460s mirror the practice of preceding decades? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 515.732 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 515.732 497.955 m 529.724 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Equally, the author may be too categorical in his refutation of Sayles's and Richardson's contention that large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers of petitions were either dispersed, or copied and dispersed. Part of his argument is that duplicate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(petitions do not survive in sufficient numbers in TNA class SC8 to suggest that copies were regularly made, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but surely this is to misunderstand the process of the creation of the class. While the 19th-century archival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reorganisers brought together files of petitions where they found them, they did not systematically scour the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writ bundles of the royal courts to extract parliamentary petitions. Most of the relevant files of the court of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common pleas held by The National Archives are as yet unsorted and consequently inaccessible, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(recorda)] TJ ET BT 72.008 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( files of the King's Bench which survive from Richard II's reign onwards contain a number of copies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 15th-century parliamentary petitions. Might it not be the case that similar material would have been filed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the \(now lost\) corresponding files in earlier reigns?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dodd's discussion is a thoughtful and wide-ranging one that seeks to address broader questions of kingship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its projection into the localities alongside the more specific minutiae of the parliamentary process. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naturally, the author is most at home in the first half of his period, where his own chronological specialism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lies; he is at his best in discussing the heyday of petitioning in the 14th century. It is thus perhaps prudent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he curtails his discussion in the mid-15th century, but it nevertheless seems a pity that he consequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not find room to examine the evolution of parliamentary petitioning into the bill procedure of the Tudor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era; might not the account of proceedings in the Commons' chamber recorded by the MPs for Colchester in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Parliament of 1485 have afforded some interesting clues as to how petitions were physically treated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lower house? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 118.328 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 118.328 215.091 m 132.320 215.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 132.320 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Such a perspective from the floor of the Commons would be all the more welcome, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is an occasional sense that the author's fascination with the niceties of the administrative process and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their implications for the wider question of the exercise of kingship causes him at least partially to lose sight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the real individuals that populate his discussion. His prosopographical analysis of the magnate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership of Edward III's and Richard II's committees of triers is an interesting one, but might perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have gained from a clearer sense of the demographic factors that affected an individual lord's or bishop's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(availability for service as a trier. How old, and possibly frail, were some of the lords and prelates who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excluded? Was their service curtailed by disabling ailments, such as the well-known blindness of Edward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Courtenay, earl of Devon, which serves to explain his poor record of personal parliamentary attendance? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Surely the failure of Guichard d'Angle, earl of Huntingdon, to become statistically prominent as a trier owed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something to his death less than three years \(and four Parliaments\) after his creation \(p. 98\)? At other times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author's argument could be strengthened by a proper identification of the men and women about whom )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 515.7317 498.2695 529.7237 510.1495 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 118.3277 215.4055 132.3197 227.2855 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 6189 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he is writing. So, for instance, the 'abbot of Wheathampstead' \(p. 187\), who complained about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speakership election of 1454, was of course the chronicler John Whethamstead, abbot of St. Albans, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Thomasin, wife of William Fornivall' \(p. 211\), who petitioned for maintenance from her husband in or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before 1383, was Thomasine Dagworth, the wife of William, lord Furnival. Both Whethamstead and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furnival received summons to parliament, and their membership of the Lords surely adds an interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective to the cases respectively involving them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an interesting book which in many respects sheds welcome light on an often neglected aspect of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of the medieval English parliament, especially in its early period, when even the membership - let )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alone the business - of successive assemblies is often difficult to determine. It has much to say about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities of individual Members of the Lords and Commons in the petitionary process, but importantly also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws attention to the far greater number of informal attendees of parliament: the supplicants, their counsel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other retainers, who combined to make the atmosphere in which parliament met, in Dodd's words, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('extremely chaotic' \(p. 311\), a theme which has to date attracted rather more interest from early modern than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from medieval historians. It is to be hoped that this study will encourage others to undertake further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation of some of its many themes, but they need to be aware of the serious methodological and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archival problems that it throws up.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 535.731 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. R. Myers, 'Parliamentary petitions in the 15th century', )] TJ ET BT 344.648 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 470.648 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 52 \(1937\), 385-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(404, 590-613; 'Some observations on the procedure of the commons in dealing with bills in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lancastrian period', )] TJ ET BT 161.816 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(University of Toronto Law Journal)] TJ ET BT 329.828 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 3 \(1939\), 51-73; D. Rayner, 'Forms and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(machinery of the "commune petition" in the 14th century', )] TJ ET BT 346.604 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 472.604 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 56 \(1941\), 198-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(233, 549-70. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.012 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.012 446.691 m 182.000 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Dodd, 'The hidden presence: parliament and the private petition in the 14th century', in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Expectations of the Law in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 273.008 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. Musson \(Woodbridge, 2001\), pp. 135-49. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 513.980 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 513.980 418.179 m 553.976 418.179 l S BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 403.923 m 78.008 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M.A. Hicks, 'King in Lords and Commons: three insights into late 15th century parliaments, 1461-85', )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 76.352 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(People, Places and Perspectives: Essays on Later Medieval and Early Tudor England in Honour of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ralph A. Griffiths)] TJ ET BT 149.696 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. K. Dockray and P. Fleming \(Stroud, 2005\), pp. 131-53. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 442.004 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 442.004 361.155 m 495.992 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parliamentary Texts of the Later Middle Ages, )] TJ ET BT 290.672 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. N. Pronay and J. Taylor \(Oxford, 1980\), pp. 185-9. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 332.643 m 118.004 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 307.781 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/506/140.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 277.875 m 313.004 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 316.004 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 274.543 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 256.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 256.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/665)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 255.369 m 322.316 255.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 230.392 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3639)] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.592 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/506/140.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 128.0117 447.0055 181.9997 458.8855 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 513.9797 418.4935 553.9757 430.3735 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 404.2375 78.0077 416.1175 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 442.0037 361.4695 495.9917 373.3495 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 332.9575 118.0037 344.8375 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 278.1895 313.0037 290.0695 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/506/140.full) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 255.6835 322.3157 267.5635 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/665) >> endobj xref 0 48 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000599 00000 n 0000000688 00000 n 0000005062 00000 n 0000005171 00000 n 0000005281 00000 n 0000005390 00000 n 0000008951 00000 n 0000009079 00000 n 0000009163 00000 n 0000009192 00000 n 0000009320 00000 n 0000009356 00000 n 0000009421 00000 n 0000016998 00000 n 0000017082 00000 n 0000024885 00000 n 0000024915 00000 n 0000025043 00000 n 0000025079 00000 n 0000025170 00000 n 0000033382 00000 n 0000033412 00000 n 0000033540 00000 n 0000033576 00000 n 0000033606 00000 n 0000033734 00000 n 0000033770 00000 n 0000033896 00000 n 0000040138 00000 n 0000040266 00000 n 0000040321 00000 n 0000040449 00000 n 0000040504 00000 n 0000040630 00000 n 0000040685 00000 n 0000040813 00000 n 0000040868 00000 n 0000040995 00000 n 0000041050 00000 n 0000041177 00000 n 0000041285 00000 n 0000041413 00000 n trailer << /Size 48 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41508 %%EOF