%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140725182631+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140725182631+01'00') /Title (Popular Conservatism in Imperial London 1868-1906) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4333 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Popular Conservatism in Imperial London 1868-1906)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1900 the Conservatives won 51 of the 59 London parliamentary seats. Alex Windscheffel's fine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph provides a commentary on how the party achieved such parliamentary dominance in the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(busy and complex of British cities. Yet the book is much more than just a commentary, as its manifesto-like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction makes clear. Windscheffel has a number of points that he considers need to be made firmly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his opening statement. This is a self-consciously revisionist book and its language reflects its clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intentions. Hence Windscheffel seeks to 'revisit', 'rethink' and 'relocate' the transformation of Conservatism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the late 19th century. This entails providing a clear critique of the arguments of previous historians, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Windscheffel is not afraid to challenge directly. In a thorough and critical discussion of the current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography, Windscheffel interrogates and dismisses accounts of Conservative success based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociological explanation. He considers that notions of 'Villa Toryism', whereby the middle class drifted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inexorably towards Conservatism as they recognised their class interests, made electorally effective by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful party organisation, are an inadequate explanation for Conservative success. Such explanations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were used by Liberals in the late 19th century, seeking to provide an alibi for their own poor electoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance. If it was becoming natural for the middle classes to support the Conservatives, then Liberals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were defeated not by their own weakness but because it was unavoidable. The Liberals often blamed anyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but themselves for their poor electoral showing, and historians tended to agree with the positivist Frederic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harrison that 'the sleek citizens, who pour forth daily from thousands and thousands of smug villas ... [have] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(667)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 May, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alex Windscheffel)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780861932887)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(260pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Ward)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7461 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(swung round to Conservatism' \(pp. 1-2\). Such an explanation was fully accepted and explored by J. P. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cornford in the early 1960s, becoming orthodoxy when class seemed to provide such a full explanation for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics both in the present and in the past. Windscheffel rejects such sociological explanations. He tells his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers that 'theoretical interpretations that privilege social explanation are becoming increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unattractive among historians of modern Britain', that 'social class no longer appears as the master category )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Victorian period', and that we have witnessed 'the de-classing of British history over the last twenty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years' \(p. 12\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Windscheffel therefore positions himself with the historiographical turn associated with the consideration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance of political discourses and vocabularies that had the power to draw to them voters who found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resonance in party appeals. He associates himself with, and acknowledges his debt to, historians like Jon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence, Miles Taylor and Duncan Tanner. Hence, the rise of Labour is not to be associated inevitably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the emergence of the working class in an urbanising and modernising society, but with the ability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour to represent themselves as a class party and then for this representation to tap into the forms of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity that some wage earners held for themselves as working class. Hence, as Windscheffel would have it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral success was not based on class but on 'the dynamic and creative function of political parties' \(p. 13\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this case through an appeal to vocabularies rather than sociologies of class. Likewise the success of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives is not to be located in a general drift of the propertied vote to the right based on material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests but in the successful appeal of the party to the identities of the middle and upper classes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Windscheffel is not yet finished with presenting his manifesto. He considers that the study of popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics needs to be shifted from where it has previously resided, in the north and on the left, towards the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(south and the right. Hence there is a 'pressing need' to 'reassert the importance of London' \(p. 21\) and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allow the study of popular politics to uncover the complexities of Conservatism as it has done for socialism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Windscheffel emphasises the importance of place in the construction of social identities to which parties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then appealed and, in the context of metropolitan politics, foregrounds both local identities associated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boroughs as well as global identities associated with being the capital of the British empire. He also wants to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasise the Conservatives' ability to appeal to working-class Londoners through a variety of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vocabularies based on, for example, the championing of working-class culture in its masculine forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drinking and leisure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essence of Windscheffel's success in his approach is his engagement with the archival sources. It is one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thing to challenge previous historiographies with new ideas, but another entirely to ensure that one's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges have sufficient evidence to support them. In each of his chapters, Windscheffel draws on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive research to support his arguments. Chapters two and three, which follow the extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction, continue to fly the flag for the book's manifesto, entitled as they are 'The Making of London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatism: Electoral Languages and Discourses.' They carry an account of the development of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political systems and elections for both parliamentary and municipal politics that takes into account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberalism as well as Conservatism \(the chapters are divided chronologically from 1868-84 and 1885-1906\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The elections of 1886 are seen as providing the 'electoral climacteric' that transformed Conservatism into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant force in parliamentary elections while municipal metropolitan politics was dominated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Progressive alliance of the Liberals with a weaker Labour component. These chapters assert the fluidity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, in its geography and in its cultural meanings, and Windscheffel considers that 'It is only through an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation of the political archaeology of London post-1868 that its political cultures can be uncovered' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 35\). He then shows how in 1868 London Conservatism was weak, holding only two of London's 22 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary seats, but was able to advance in subsequent elections: ten seats in 1874 and to eight in 1880, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until in 1885, with the expansion of the number of London seats to 59, the Conservatives won 36 seats. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Windscheffel suggests that the real electoral turning point came in 1886 when the party won 48 of the 59 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seats, allowing the Liberals to hold only 11. The issue was not social class but Irish Home Rule. And 'For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives, Home Rule foretold the disintegration of empire, the spoliation of property rights and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desertion of the Irish protestants to the "odious domination" of Catholicism' \(p. 56\). The Conservatives were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to position themselves not just as representatives of class interest but as patriotic defenders of national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and imperial interests. There was some Liberal revival in 1892 and Conservatives bemoaned the lack of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5585 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact that Home Rule for Ireland had on the election of that year, suggesting instead that the Liberals had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made a successful appeal to the electorate on the basis of a programme for London. This elaborates a theme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Windscheffel carries throughout the book - the continuing importance of localised political cultures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even in a period that Jose Harris has characterised, in )] TJ ET BT 292.280 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Private Lives, Public Spirit: A Social History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain, 1870-1914)] TJ ET BT 126.020 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: OUP, 1993\), as seeing the 'nationalisation' of politics. This is a book about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London )] TJ ET BT 74.348 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(qua)] TJ ET BT 92.348 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( London in national politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1895 and 1900 the Conservatives, with the Liberal Unionists, reached their apotheosis, winning 51 seats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in both years. Windscheffel discusses the electoral registration system and arguments about the value of each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vote \(Conservatives wanted to see London benefit from the reduction of the number of Irish MPs\), drawing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out the range of appeals the Conservatives made to the electorate in the )] TJ ET BT 378.944 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fin de sicle)] TJ ET BT 436.268 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The Conservatives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valorised masculine political and cultural virtues, rejecting temperance and opposing pauper alien )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigration. There was nothing inevitable about Conservative success, instead 'Party messages - whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative or Liberal - needed to be adapted, recalibrated and renegotiated in successive contests' \(p. 83\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having fully established this argument, Windscheffel relegates the importance of party organisation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointing out that the historiography that has emphasised organisational efficiency has usually downplayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance of ideology to the Conservatives. Two chapters follow which suggest that 'the claims made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the effectiveness of party organization ... cannot be sustained' \(p. 88\). There is evidence for local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disorganisation, skeletal associations and defective registers, failings which emphasise the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locality in politics. There was not a pattern of national development but instead an attempt at a local level to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meet the challenges of a mass electorate. The redistribution of 1885, creating single-member constituencies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amplified the importance of the politics of place: candidates who failed to respond often had to bear the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral brunt of voters who considered their districts and neighbourhoods to have an importance beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the national in elections.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a chapter on 'Municipal Conservatism and London Local Government,' Windscheffel draws on his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective involving the importance of place. The chapter considers London in the imagination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians seeking to represent the metropolis as municipality and points out that often this entailed 'an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to visualise an artificial unity when no-one could be sure where the geographical boundaries of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city lay: literally, a process of inventing London' \(p. 131\). Reforms of local government are discussed, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as relations between the new London County Council \(LCC\), the City of London Corporation and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London boroughs. Conservatives disliked the LCC not least because of the paradox that while they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated London in the parliamentary arena, at council level, the Moderates, as the Conservatives were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known, did far less well. The Progressives were able to develop a vision for London that appealed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class voters, including fair wages which outflanked Moderate calls for economy. Additionally, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Progressives viewed London as a whole, while Conservatives portrayed it as unstable, preferring instead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation through boroughs. There is a further paradox here, in that the Conservatives celebrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London's role as imperial city and capital, a celebration that implied London's unity.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5610 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such confusion and complexity emerged in the way in which the Conservatives tried to emphasise London's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(links to empire. Windscheffel discusses the Unionist candidacies of Henry Morton Stanley and Mancherjee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Merwanjee Bhownaggree, at Lambeth North and Bethnal Green North East respectively. Stanley's candidacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drew empire into metropolis through emphasis on his heroic explorations in Africa \('the man who found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Livingstone and enjoyed his friendship, who opened up the Congo river', one supporter called him\) \(p. 168\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bhownaggree 'held intermeshing Indian and British identities, and claimed to articulate simultaneously the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests of Bethnal Green and India' \(p. 177\). Yet neither candidacy was straightforward. Stanley failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(win the Lambeth seat in 1892 and while he won in 1895, Liberals challenged the benefits of empire to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British working man, so Charles Trevelyan dismissed Stanley's claims by saying 'your life has been spent in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa; your knowledge is of Africa, and not of England' \(p. 175\). Bhownaggree won Bethnal Green in 1895 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\('I was kicked out by a black man, by a stranger from India', complained his defeated opponent, George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howell\) \(p. 176\). Yet Bhownaggree's vision of India's relationship with Britain was challenged by Dadabhai )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naoroji, the veteran Indian nationalist. There were opposing versions of empire, and the Unionist grip on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial London was never complete.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Windscheffel does add weight to the recent historiographical controversy over the impact of empire inside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain. He considers that 'Late-Victorian London was imbricated with the cultures of imperialism' \(p. 163\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using the Khaki election of 1900 to show the ubiquity of imperial and patriotic rhetoric. The Unionists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged with 51 London seats to the Liberals' poor showing of only eight. That Liberals and Labour were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keen to engage Unionist imperialism strengthens Windscheffel's claims.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After 1900, things fell apart for London Conservatism. Empire played a part in encouraging the adoption of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tariff reform as a policy, embraced wholeheartedly in the London party but allowing Liberal fortunes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revive, there as elsewhere. Here again, ideas and policies mattered more than sociology, though how one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed the 'dear loaf' of protection was shaped by material interests as well as political ideas. The number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London Unionist MPs fell from 51 in 1900 to only 19 in 1906. Recovery in January 1910 to 33 was spoilt by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the loss of three seats in December, with the Liberals and Labour almost matching Unionist numbers. Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Windscheffel's approach, seeing electoral fortunes as contingent on parties' abilities to resonate with voters' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities, means that he does not share the view of a systemic Conservative crisis in Edwardian Britain, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead considers misfortune was due to 'short-term political choices and decisions, and as such the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Conservative] party's position was far from irrecoverable in 1914' \(p. 205\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his admirable conclusion, Windscheffel takes us once more through his methodology and applies it firmly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his conclusions. He once more rejects 'Villa Toryism' as an explanation for Conservative success and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead suggests that he has recovered 'the uncertainty, fluidity and indeterminacy of late nineteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics' \(p. 206\). Conservative success at parliamentary level was due to the party's ability to 'forge a viable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative political culture' and to do so through a 'vision of London as an imperial and financial capital, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the emphasis on the inter-section of empire with daily routines of Londoners' \(p. 207\). For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Windscheffel, the articulation of political languages was the key factor in Conservative success, and such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language had to be restated repeatedly and shifted in new directions in response to an electorate which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also fluid and unstable.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2791 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a remarkably strong book, fully representative of the rigour of the new historiography of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British politics. It has taken the linguistic turn yet by firm adherence to the empirical imperatives of archival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research, is firmly grounded in testable evidence. It is because of this that Windscheffel is right to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confident about his determined critiques of previous historians' account of Conservative electoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance in particular and materialist accounts of politics generally. He takes due account of identities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with class, gender and place - factors that went far towards limiting people's adoption of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegiances detached from the social surroundings in which they lived, but shows that there was nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deterministic about the way in which the working class, or women, or Indians in Britain, would respond to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics. This enables a fuller understanding of the Conservatives' success in London in the late 19th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based as it was on their ability to persuade voters that they understood London's place in the nation and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author thanks Professor Ward for his generous review and summary of the book, and does not wish to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment further)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net-review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 545.235 m 240.992 545.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 541.903 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 524.123 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 524.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/667)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 522.729 m 322.316 522.729 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 497.752 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 483.352 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3641)] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.952 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=14569)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 545.5495 240.9917 557.4295 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=14569) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 523.0435 322.3157 534.9235 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/667) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000559 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000005026 00000 n 0000005135 00000 n 0000005245 00000 n 0000005354 00000 n 0000008915 00000 n 0000009043 00000 n 0000009127 00000 n 0000009192 00000 n 0000016706 00000 n 0000016771 00000 n 0000022409 00000 n 0000022474 00000 n 0000028137 00000 n 0000028228 00000 n 0000031072 00000 n 0000031199 00000 n 0000031300 00000 n 0000031428 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31523 %%EOF