%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140729002217+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140729002217+01'00') /Title (Mao's Last Revolution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4075 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Mao's Last Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First time as tragedy, second time as kitsch. During the 1990s, China took on board Deng Xiaoping's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(message that 'to get rich is glorious'. Yet some of the country's elite, jaded by the endless supply of luxury )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods now available in Beijing and Shanghai, favour restaurants with a new spin: the peasant cuisine of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cultural Revolution. In the midst of the city's neon lights, these eateries would recreate the simple rice, meat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and vegetable dishes that were experienced by the urban youth 'sent down' to the countryside at Mao's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orders; the food a homage to a time imagined by many as a simpler, more honest era when China had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong, common purpose. Only the prices brought the diners back to the present day: despite the simple fare, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this was cuisine affordable exclusively by the most well-heeled.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The idea of recalling an era of honesty and simplicity was itself dishonest, a rosy recreation of a time when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China was turned upside down. Yet this tendency was not merely an attempt to rehabilitate an era of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction. The 'Mao craze' of the 1990s, which saw other reworkings of the Cultural Revolution era )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including a disco remix version of songs such as 'The sun is deepest red, Chairman Mao is dearest of all' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the classic 'The East is Red', was instead an attempt to disarm what is still a dangerous but under-examined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era in recent Chinese history. By rendering it as nostalgia, there was the possibility of somehow making the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period's poisonous memories harmless. Similar attempts could be seen in former East Germany in the 1990s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(668)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 May, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roderick MacFarquhar)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Schoenhals)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780674023321)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(688pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belknap Press of Harvard University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, MA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rana Mitter)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7602 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where a Berlin restaurant dressed its waiters in the military police uniforms of the old regime for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amusement of sophisticated \(presumably West Berliner\) diners.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This type of nostalgia, whether from the Chinese themselves or from westerners still fond of the Maoist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s, will receive little support from MacFarquhar and Schoenhals's monumental )] TJ ET BT 433.796 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mao's Last Revolution)] TJ ET BT 541.700 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Devastating in its detail and analysis, this volume is the essential survey history of the Cultural Revolution. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That description, however, may make the book sound necessary but dull, which would be profoundly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misleading. The nearly 500 pages take the reader through a maze of intrigue, ideology and unending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence, but they are leavened throughout by a black, coruscating wit. Lu Xun, generally considered China's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatest 20th-century author, was noted for his dark, despairing humour about his countrymen's failings. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although )] TJ ET BT 82.352 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mao's Last Revolution)] TJ ET BT 190.256 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is meticulously researched history, not fiction, the wry voices of its authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make it a worthy successor to the writings of Lu Xun, Gogol, or any other author who sees irony in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(darker side of human nature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Cultural Revolution has some claim to be the strangest political movement anywhere in the post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world. Nothing like it was ever seen in any other socialist society. Before 1966, as the authors point out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('China was by and large a standard Communist state, if more effective than most' \(p. 1\). But in the summer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of that year, the leader of the Chinese Communist Party \(CCP\), Chairman Mao Zedong, declared war on his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own party and government. 17 years after the foundation of the People's Republic of China \(PRC\), Mao was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned on a variety of fronts. His own personal status was precarious. After the disastrous Great Leap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Forward of 1958-62, in which millions of Chinese farmers had starved to death as the result of his utopian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural policies, Mao had been forced to step back from his paramount role within the leadership. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition, he was concerned that the revolutionary ardour that had fuelled his revolution was fading. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s, for the first time in over a century, a generation of Chinese was coming of age that did not have to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worry about foreign aggression, or of the country being torn apart by civil war. Aside from the major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disaster of the Great Leap, the economy was doing well. The Party, Mao felt, had become bureaucratised, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complacent and stale, keener on office than revolution. As obsessed with continuous revolution as he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been as a young man, Mao decided that it was the CCP itself that must be destroyed so as to renew itself and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the country's youth would be the instrument of that renewal. In spring and summer 1966, Mao )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuaded his colleagues to launch the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, a movement that would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventually destroy many of the comrades who had helped Mao to bring it about. The most obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifestation of the new order, causing consternation in the outside world, was the authorisation of China's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young to declare themselves to be 'Red Guards' who were charged with correcting the 'mistakes' of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elders. The Guards promptly attacked teachers, doctors, party officials and anyone else who thought that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their authority lay in their age or expertise, rather than in a fanatical devotion to the thought of Chairman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mao. Before the Cultural Revolution was officially ended in 1976, China would be transformed. Some 12 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(million Red Guards made their way to Beijing, determined to get a glimpse of Mao in Tiananmen Square; a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar number of urban youth were 'sent down' to the countryside to 'learn from the peasants' \(even though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the peasants were not particularly delighted to see them\). Some 2.2 billion Chairman Mao badges would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forged as part of the cult of personality that raised Mao Zedong Thought almost to a theology. During 1967, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most violent year of the Red Guard period, national industrial output dropped by 14.9 per cent, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the damage was mostly concentrated in the cities and affected agriculture far less. Most lastingly, China's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schools and colleges were effectively shut down for years, producing a generation of Chinese, now in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50s and 60s, who gained little education and found themselves profoundly ill-equipped for the high-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology, globalising turn that China has taken since the 1980s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1981, the 'Gang of Four' \(the top leaders who promoted the Cultural Revolution on Mao's behalf\), were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(put on trial. One of the Gang, Mao's widow Jiang Qing, declared defiantly that she could have done nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without the permission of the Chairman himself, and that she was merely 'Mao's little dog'. Nonetheless, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show trial ended as the post-Mao leadership had wished, finding the Gang guilty of having manipulated Mao )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his last days for their own ends. Conveniently, the turmoil which had overturned a nation of hundreds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(millions had been the fault of just four people. Yet although this interpretation seems ludicrous to outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observers, western conventional wisdom on the Cultural Revolution has also tended to divide its most )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7481 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famous players into misleading separate categories of perpetrators and victims. In this interpretation, Liu )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shaoqi, the president of the PRC, was the primary target. Although he was Mao's designated successor, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soon found himself the victim of the intrigues of Mao and his new ultra-revolutionary supporters. Purged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and expelled from the party, Liu was put under house arrest and died of medical neglect in 1969. Also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purged, but able to recover, was Deng Xiaoping, accused of being 'Capitalist-Roader No 2' \(the sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telegraphic accusation in which the Cultural Revolution delighted, meaning 'second most powerful person )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking the road of capitalism', the first most powerful being Liu Shaoqi\). Liu and Deng, then, were the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominent victims. In retrospect, heroes of the Cultural Revolution are harder to identify, but even today, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of Zhou Enlai, the savvy prime minister, is regarded as one of moderation, particularly within China, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where he is regarded as responsible for actions such as saving the Forbidden City and its treasures from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hordes of marauding Red Guards.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacFarquhar and Schoenhals destroy all these assumptions. Liu and Deng were indeed victims, but they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were far from being innocent ones. In March 1966, before the Cultural Revolution had officially begun, four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major leaders including Peng Zhen, the mayor of Beijing, were condemned at a Politburo meeting over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Liu presided. An earlier accusation against the leadership stalwart, and veteran of the Long March, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General Luo Ruiqing, led him to attempt suicide. Liu Shaoqi noted coldly to the Politburo that 'He suffered a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few injuries, but didn't die ... if you're going to commit suicide, you have to have some technique.' Deng )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Xiaoping added: 'He jumped like a female athlete diver ... resembling an ice lolly' \(p. 27\). The latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment seems particularly chilling from a man whose son, Deng Pufang, would later be thrown out of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(window during a 'struggle session' and be paralysed for life. The meeting itself set the tone of black farce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which would run as an undercurrent throughout the Cultural Revolution. In a document which, as the authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say, was 'one of the most bizarre statements ever submitted to a meeting of the Politburo', defence minister )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lin Biao responded to anonymous letters from the wife of one of the accused leaders by certifying that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('when she and I met, [my wife] Ye Qun was a pure virgin, and she has remained faithful ever since' \(p. 35\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zhou Enlai, meanwhile, was present at all the meetings where, one by one, over the years, top leaders were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picked off by Mao. The few, less famous, leadership figures who made a more concerted attempt to oppose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Cultural Revolution were swiftly destroyed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacFarquhar and Schoenhals note that throughout the Cultural Revolution there was little need for Mao )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressly to make his wishes known, and that his fellow-leaders would vie with each other to carry out his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aims even beyond what he himself had stated. They term this tendency 'working toward the Chairman' - a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term borrowed from Ian Kershaw's idea of 'working towards the Fhrer', by which the Nazi leaders all tried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to divine what Hitler wanted without it being explicitly stated. And rightly, the author's point out that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantage of his colleagues 'working toward the Chairman' was that it enabled Mao to step back from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences of his actions, stating disingenuously about the violence which the Cultural Revolution had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unleashed: 'it's a mistake when good people beat up on good people, though it may clear up some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misunderstandings, as they might not otherwise have got to know each other in the first place' \(p. 162-3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It seems unlikely that the Cultural Revolution was truly marked by 'good people' beating up other 'good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people'. Perhaps the most eye-opening aspect of the book is its detailed accounting of the sheer violence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unleashed by the movement. Again, in the west, we tend to have a generalised picture of the Red Guard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, when China's youth were given permission to turn on authority figures and subject them to 'struggle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sessions' in which they stood in painful poses such as the stretched-out 'airplane position', while teenagers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(howled at them that they were 'cow demons' or 'snake spirits'. Yet even this confrontational image fails to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justice to the sheer scale of violence unleashed; Mao himself later described China in 1967 as being in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grip of 'all-round civil war' \(p. 199\). In December 1966, some 120,000 Red Guards from two rival factions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battled for four hours in Kangping Road in Shanghai \(p. 163\). Regular Chinese army \(PLA\) troops and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvised army linked to the city's Revolutionary Committee clashed in the southern city of Nanning in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spring 1968, bombing the river front and leaving some 50,000 people homeless \(p. 245\). China even played )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(host to the world's first test of that very contemporary fear, a radioactive 'dirty bomb', which was somehow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cobbled together in 1967 by the 'revolutionary masses' experimenting with equipment found in a geological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institute in the north eastern city of Changchun \(p. 220\). Even in the midst of destruction, comic-opera )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7472 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements intervened. In January 1967, Red Guards tried to capture the commander of the Nanjing Military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Region, a senior officer who was also a 'onetime Buddhist who had studied martial arts in the legendary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shaolin Monastery as a teenager.' Panicked phone calls reached the defence ministry, reporting that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commander 'was drinking heavily and threatened to open fire if anyone tried to seize him' \(p. 176\). It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incidents such as this which eventually forced Mao to authorise the army to clamp down on the Red Guards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1969. Yet, in another counterintuitive interpretation, MacFarquhar and Schoenhals show that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposedly peaceful later period of the Cultural Revolution, from 1969 to the arrest of the Gang of Four in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1976, actually resulted in more deaths than the earlier, more flamboyant years. This later period saw Deng )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Xiaoping challenged. Temporarily released from exile by Mao in 1975, Deng was faced with a rebellion in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shadian, a small Muslim village in Yunnan province, where the villagers were in a standoff with tax )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collectors. Deng authorised the use of the army to end the confrontation. 21 days later, the village was razed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and more than 1,600 villagers, including 300 children and elderly, had been killed while trying to flee. 14 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years later, protesters in Tiananmen Square would also feel the ruthlessness behind Deng's avuncular, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatic image.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the areas that the authors touch upon briefly is the comparison between Mao's techniques of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership and those of Hitler and Stalin. The authors get in a sideways comparison to Hitler through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet reference when they say that 'Unlike Stalin, [Mao] did not feel the need for ... a final solution' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(184\). Later, the mysterious Central Case Examination Group, charged with meting out violent revenge on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mao's enemies, is described as 'the Cultural Revolution equivalent of Lenin's Cheka and Hitler's Gestapo' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(282\). However, these tantalising hints at the authors' assessment of Mao will, one hopes, pave the way for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fuller comparative analysis in a future volume. Even these fleeting references will cause controversy among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China specialists, as there are many scholars who still reject any comparison between the regimes of Mao )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Hitler, even when it is clearly not the content, but the technique of leadership that is being compared. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The differences between Hitler's and Mao's regimes are manifold. At its core, Nazism explicitly rejected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas of Enlightenment rationality, whereas the rhetoric of the Cultural Revolution portrayed it as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimate leap into a particular type of scientific, rational modernity. Most importantly, Nazism was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherently genocidal, and Maoism, for all the deaths it caused, was not \(although it did inspire the genocidal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Khmer Rouge in Cambodia\). Nonetheless, the connections between the two regimes are too numerous to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignore: the use of the cult of personality; the obsession with the renewal of society and the destruction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bourgeois liberalism; and the essentially modern techniques of mass mobilisation, parades, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupation by the state of much of the private sphere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Comparing the Cultural Revolution with violent mass mobilisations elsewhere in the 20th century would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also force more detailed answers to the question of )] TJ ET BT 280.964 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(why)] TJ ET BT 300.296 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( China erupted in such violence in 1966. Would this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have happened in other societies if their structures of government had been similarly challenged? The revolt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of youth against their elders was a global phenomenon in the 1960s, and the 73-year-old Mao himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a symbol of rebellion to young radicals in Paris and Berkeley. The baby boom phenomenon that had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fuelled the youth rebellion of the west - a generation coming of age with a strong sense of personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entitlement, no personal memory of the horrors of wartime, and deep concern that there would not be enough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(college places or jobs for them - were also relevant to China. Yet the violence and fervour of the Cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution truly was different from demonstrations at the LSE or riots in Sproul Plaza, and many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons were internal to China. Violence was endemic throughout 20th-century China: warlord battles in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920s, total war with Japan in the 1930s and 1940s, and, as recent studies show, immensely violent terror )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns in the 1950s that accompanied land reform and mobilisation for the Korean War. It is misleading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to assume that violent coercion in Mao's China should be considered in stark contrast to enthusiastic co-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operation with the regime. Co-operation and violence ran hand in hand, fuelled in part by an undercurrent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Social Darwinism that had emerged as early as the 19th century, laying a highly un-Confucian stress on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformative and positive power of destruction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The violence running through MacFarquhar and Schoenhals's narrative brings to mind one particular feature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Cultural Revolution: its assumptions based in a particular type of aggressive masculinity. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of the era is obsessed with transformation through force: a young woman Red Guard, Song Binbin, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7406 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was told by Mao that her personal name, meaning 'suave' was not aggressive enough, and that she should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change it to 'Yaowu', or 'be martial'. Propaganda posters showed women wearing camouflage outfits and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wielding rifles; they did not show men feeding babies. Fiction of the era is obsessed with a romantic view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology, with paeans to the glorious future shaped by motorised piledrivers, massive electricity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generating stations, and the ultimate symbol of technological virility, the atom bomb. While China's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbours across the Sea of Japan regarded nuclear weapons as the dark side of modernity, remembering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the experience of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Lin Biao declared that the highest compliment that could be paid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Mao Zedong Thought was that it was 'a spiritual atom bomb of infinite power'. The reverse side of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(romantic virility was a deep prurience, with a rhetoric of 'liberation' masking the reality that personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships were now decided by the party's dictates, just as Confucian orthodoxies had forced men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women into loveless unions a century earlier.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacFarquhar and Schoenhals end with the hope that, as the Party searches for ways to deal with its various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crises, it may 'decide that political pluralism is an opportune way to diffuse responsibility and deflect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism ... Then, the Chinese may be ready publicly to confront the horrors of what they did to one another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Cultural Revolution and render a final verdict on the responsibility of the Chairman who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unleashed them' \(p. 462\). The authors' hope that China may choose a pluralist, more liberal path for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, is laudable. Yet even if it does, comparable examples of democratisation show that there is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guarantee that the reckoning will come. West Germany, South Africa and Taiwan all found ways to deal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the legacies of Nazism, apartheid, and the destruction of the island's elite by Chiang Kai-shek's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government in 1947. Yet Spain democratised by agreeing to avoid judgements on its Civil War past, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even now, no final verdict on Franco has been reached. The events in 2006 in Budapest surrounding the 50th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anniversary of the 1956 uprising have showed that it is possible for that incident to be reclaimed not only by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal democrats, but also by apologists for Soviet rule and fascism. In China, opening up discussion about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Cultural Revolution will not only allow more victims to put their stories forward, but also for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perpetrators to try and justify their actions. Particularly at a time when the liberal internationalism of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1990s is fading, a democratic Chinese government may decide that this is simply too dangerous a sentiment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to let loose and turn its attention to the future rather than the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the moment, although there is growing interest in the Cultural Revolution in China itself, with memoirs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(films and even university courses tackling aspects of the era, huge areas of discussion \(such as the true role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Zhou Enlai\) are still closed for discussion. This means that MacFarquhar and Schoenhals's work, studded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by astounding access to documents handed over in secret, or ferreted out through diligent trawls through flea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets in Beijing, is likely to remain the standard account of the Cultural Revolution for a generation or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more, at least until voices within China can tell their own story freely. As such, the book serves as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immensely important record for the Chinese who can gain access to a copy \(one assumes a Hong Kong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation will be swiftly smuggled into China\), as well as for western readers who will find it meticulous, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balanced and fair.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Cambridge economist Joan Robinson was just one member of the British left who was enthralled by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outbreak of the Cultural Revolution in China. 'Now another generation of teenagers and students have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plunged into the revolution and become committed to it', she wrote in 1969. 'Running their organizations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without the aid of grown-ups, and later on Long Marches, they learned more about politics and about their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own country in a few months than they ever could have learned out of books.' The last word on the reality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Cultural Revolution, however, should perhaps go to Chen Yun, one of the greyer bureaucrats in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership, and a central planner through and through. 'At this point', he observed to an audience of bankers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1973, 'a considerable distance still separates us from that era that Lenin described as one when some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public toilets will be made out of gold' \(p. 373\). China today is getting rich in way that could not have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dreamed of in the era of Mao. But its new wealth is distributed with great unevenness. Perhaps the greatest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crime of the Cultural Revolution is that it took worthy instincts - the desire to break down unnecessary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchy and reduce economic inequality - and turned them into a quest for personal aggrandisement, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent revenge and cultural destruction. As a result, the only gold plumbing likely to be seen in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary China is in the bathrooms attached to the expensive restaurants serving up a sanitised )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 1643 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nostalgia for an idealistic, communal Cultural Revolution that never was.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nytimes)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/06/arts/06iht-idbriefs7C.3055900.html)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 740.307 m 384.704 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 387.704 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(washingtonpost)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/10/26/AR2006102601304.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 711.795 m 483.692 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 486.692 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 708.463 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 690.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 690.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/668)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 689.289 m 322.316 689.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 664.312 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3642)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/06/arts/06iht-idbriefs7C.3055900.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/10/26/AR2006102601304.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 740.6215 384.7037 752.5015 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/06/arts/06iht-idbriefs7C.3055900.html) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 712.1095 483.6917 723.9895 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/10/26/AR2006102601304.html) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 689.6035 322.3157 701.4835 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/668) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000538 00000 n 0000000620 00000 n 0000004747 00000 n 0000004856 00000 n 0000004966 00000 n 0000005075 00000 n 0000008636 00000 n 0000008764 00000 n 0000008848 00000 n 0000008913 00000 n 0000016568 00000 n 0000016633 00000 n 0000024167 00000 n 0000024232 00000 n 0000031757 00000 n 0000031822 00000 n 0000039281 00000 n 0000039379 00000 n 0000041075 00000 n 0000041202 00000 n 0000041322 00000 n 0000041449 00000 n 0000041585 00000 n 0000041713 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41808 %%EOF