%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 36 0 R 47 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417202137+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417202137+01'00') /Title (The Ancient Greeks at War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4189 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Ancient Greeks at War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ancient Greeks at War)] TJ ET BT 164.660 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Louis Rawlings is a wide-ranging and varied survey: it presents a clear and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-informed overview of key issues in the study of Greek warfare and of the modern controversies about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them - though without extensive footnotes. Given the time period surveyed \(1600 BC to 323 BC\), the variety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ways of fighting and of thinking about war, and the difficulties of the evidence and the vast bibliography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the subject, this is an ambitious project. Rawlings wisely does not try to subordinate this sprawling topic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a single argument or theme; his overarching conclusion is merely that 'organized violence between Greek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities manifested itself in a variety of ways' \(pp. 1, 224\). Nevertheless, his treatment is lively and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaging throughout. Most impressive is the range of the topics he covers, from 'survivor's syndrome' to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militarism, and from Ares to the cost of a trireme. Except for a smattering of small objections, I had only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two serious reservations: in one important case Rawlings does not present contrary scholarly arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accurately; some chapters suffered from chronological imprecision. Before turning to these issues, let me )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summarise the book's ten chapters and conclusion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A brief opening chapter, 'War and peace in ancient Greece', treats general attitudes towards war and peace. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rawlings makes cogent arguments against the view that the default relation between Greek cities was a state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of war and that treaties only provided temporary halts in this natural enmity \(pp. 8-10\). He harps, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Thucydides's argument that the period of the Peace of Nicias was not really a time of peace. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(669)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 May, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louis Rawlings)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719056574)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(257pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Hunt)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7616 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misleading. Thucydides's claim is specific to one period and not a generalisation: indeed, Thucydides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presupposes that periods of true peace do exist - or else how could the war have really started in 431? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rawlings rightly emphasises debate and controversy about war \(p. 11\). Although the horrors of war were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-known \(pp. 6-8\), a competitive sense of personal and communal honour was a central factor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraging the recourse to war \(p. 14\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 'Early Greek warfare' Rawlings turns to the conduct of war, the topic of the rest of the book. He discusses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scanty evidence for the nature of Bronze-Age warfare and highlights the symbolic functions of chariots, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(walls, and even swords \(pp. 21-3\). He then turns to Homer's depiction of war, which, following Hans van )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wees, he takes to be largely contemporary and coherent, rather than an amalgam of practices from different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time periods \(pp. 36-7\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 150.668 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 150.668 654.771 m 164.660 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 164.660 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He also endorses van Wees's position that the fighting in Homer was 'a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluid and realistic affair than many commentators have realized' \(p. 37\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 'Makers of war' focuses on the land warfare of the archaic period. Rawlings accepts the controversial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption of E. Jarva that the proportion of different items of equipment found as religious dedications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflects the proportion in use \(p. 46\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 212.984 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 212.984 585.747 m 226.976 585.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 226.976 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This assumption leads him to minimise the importance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevalence of expensive bronze armour, especially the cuirass. Accordingly he is sceptical of the argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that warfare, and thus the state, was dominated by those able to afford metal armour \(pp. 49-50\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition to traditional scholarship, he also argues that hoplites could fight effectively as individuals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only when in tight formations on clear and level terrain. \(p. 57-8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four, 'The patterns of war', is primarily devoted to criticising the position that 'the farmers of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phalanx ensured that ideological constraints were placed on hoplite warfare' - what I shall be calling the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory of the 'hoplite contest' \(p. 63\). He argues that battles fought on agreed terms were rare \(pp. 64-6\); that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hoplite battles were only one aspect of war \(pp. 67-8\); that fighting took place in passes and in rough terrain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than only in level planes \(pp. 71-2\); and that other types of soldiers played a large role \(pp. 66-7\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rawling argues that limits on the intensity of war were mainly economic and logistical: states could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(afford long campaigns and this led to 'a desire to bring the enemy to battle as quickly as possible' \(p. 73\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To some extent the next chapter, 'Battlefield engagements in the age of the hoplite', continues this line of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasoning. Rawlings argues that the relative simplicity of most Greek battles was due to 'the practicalities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organizing and motivating large groups of men to realize their capacity for destruction', rather than to any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to fair fights \(p. 101; see also pp. 82, 90\). He also covers topics such as the role of peltasts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(javelin throwers\) and cavalry in battle, co-ordination between units from different cities, the pursuit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeated enemies - which was quite limited - and the aftermath of battle.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rawlings begins his sixth chapter, 'Naval warfare', by considering the evidence of Homer, who depicts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals organising raids using ships for transport, but does not report actual fighting at sea \(pp. 105-6\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the time of the Persian Wars, the state controlled the construction and maintenance of warships, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fought each other at sea \(pp. 106-7\). Rawlings rightly stresses the mobility of navies compared to land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(armies \(pp. 111, 118-19\) but also notes their high cost, both to construct - which also required a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hard-to-obtain raw materials - and to man \(pp. 112-14\). He also treats with sympathy the argument that naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power contributed to democracy, but notes how inconspicuous naval crews are in our surviving evidence - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(except as the 'naval mob' held in contempt by elitist intellectuals like Plato \(pp. 109-11\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Siege warfare' begins with a discussion of Mycenaean fortifications and, as might be expected, Rawlings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finds no evidence in Homer of any recollection of Bronze-Age siege-craft \(Homer knows only 'direct and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rudimentary' attacks on cities\) \(p. 129\). Rawlings even considers the theory that the Trojan Horse was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battering ram before dismissing it \(p. 130\). He explains the relative lack of evidence for circuit walls in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaic period by arguing that the degree of social organisation of that age was insufficient for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction \(p. 132\). Offensive operations against cities also required the resources of a state and thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became more and more common in the 5th century \(p. 137\). He also makes the perceptive point that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability to conduct sieges often depended on sea-borne supplies and thus naval power \(p. 136\). Unfortunately, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his treatment does not distinguish consistently between starving a city into submission and storming it; )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 150.6677 655.0855 164.6597 666.9655 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 212.9837 586.0615 226.9757 597.9415 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8066 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequently, Philip and Alexander receive scant notice \(p. 140\). But the Macedonians' ability to take walled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities by storm revolutionised warfare and was crucial to their establishing domination over Greece. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, Philip's quick capture of Potidaea is often contrasted with the Athenian siege during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peloponnesian War which took over two years at the height of Athenian power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A long chapter on 'War and the economy' covers four main topics. First, Rawlings considers the extent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural damage an invading army could inflict. His reasonable position is that earlier claims of long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term damage are probably exaggerated - as argued by Hanson )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 333.920 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 333.920 697.539 m 347.912 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 347.912 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( - but that even the threat of 'short-term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famine' could explain why cities often decided to fight to defend their farms \(p. 148\). He next shows the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance, both material and psychological, of acquisition in war - mainly plunder of various forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including slaves. Again the exertion of state control limited but did not eliminate the ability of soldiers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generals to profit individually from war. A short section considers the economic role of arms production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including shipbuilding; given scholarly neglect of this subject even this brief foray is praiseworthy. His final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section focuses on the way that wars were financed. He argues for the 'monetarisation of war' in the classical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period \(p. 160\); the market in mercenaries is but the most obvious sign of this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is laudable that Rawlings devotes an entire chapter to the intersections of Greek religion and warfare, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these were complex and important. Although Ares, the god of war, was a minor god in terms of cult \(p. 178\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other, more important Olympians as well as several lesser deities were regarded as playing a crucial role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war: Zeus and Athena in particular were associated with victory \(p. 178\) and the actual participation of gods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and heroes in battle was sometimes reported \(pp. 179-80\). Greeks consulted the gods, especially the oracle at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Delphi, about recourse to war. There were also rituals to assure divine goodwill at the start of campaigns, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just before battle, and after it \(pp. 187-95\). Some of these rituals aimed simply at winning: Xenophon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represents Spartan religious scrupulousness as 'a key element in their success' \(p. 188\). In a number of cases, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, the intervention of the divine tended to mitigate or limit the conduct of war: war stopped during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truces for Pan-Hellenic festivals such as the Olympics \(p. 189\); the Greeks did not mutilate the corpses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeated enemies but gave them back under truce for burial \(p. 193\); and 'the generous treatment of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeated was viewed as pious, the mistreatment of the defeated could be viewed as contrary to divine law' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(195\). All these restrictions seem )] TJ ET BT 191.996 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(prima facie)] TJ ET BT 246.992 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at odds with Rawlings's earlier view that there were only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical limits on the intensity with which the Greeks fought. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 334.328 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 334.328 386.163 m 348.320 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter treats 'War, the individual and the community'. Rawlings begins by considering individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reactions of rage or despair to the experience of combat and the plausibility of the modern parallels cited by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Shay and Lawrence Tritle \(pp. 203-4\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 266.960 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 266.960 331.395 m 280.952 331.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 280.952 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These individual experiences took place in a social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context as is implied by the frequent reference to shame or its avoidance \(pp. 205-6\). In general shame, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(praise, was a motivating force for soldiers. Sparta, in particular, was 'a place where the values, ethos and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even social structure of the state and its citizens appeared to be geared to celebrating, glorifying and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perpetuating the warrior ...' \(p. 208\). Athenian soldiers lacked the bonding inculcated by the Spartans' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constant military training and communal messes; the Athenian phalanx gained its cohesion from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peacetime bonds of the friends, relatives, and neighbours who fought in units together \(p. 212\) - as Victor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanson has shown. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 130.004 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 130.004 231.603 m 143.996 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 143.996 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Athenian society and culture was not devoid of militarism: the honorific public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceremonies at the coming-of-age of young men who had lost their fathers in war is a conspicuous example )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 215-16\). The last part of the chapter surveys the roles and experiences of women in warfare; in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, when a city was captured, enslavement and sexual subjection to the conquerors was a likely and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much-feared outcome \(pp. 218--20\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The conclusion picks out a few of the most important themes that run through 'the complexity and diversity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Greek experiences of war' \(p. 224\). Although hoplites were 'the most ideologically important infantry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the seventh to fourth centuries' \(p. 224\), they were regularly supplemented by other forces, socially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mixed, and were themselves 'military all-rounders' rather than limited to close formation fighting on open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plains.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even more important, it is in the conclusion that Rawlings most explicitly situates his overall approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the two different grand schemes of the development of Greek warfare that have dominated )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 333.9197 697.8535 347.9117 709.7335 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 334.3277 386.4775 348.3197 398.3575 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 266.9597 331.7095 280.9517 343.5895 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 130.0037 231.9175 143.9957 243.7975 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 42 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 8258 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship of the last few decades. Rather than accepting the view, popular since the late 1980s, that posits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a breakdown of the 'hoplite contest' in the 5th century, Rawlings is sceptical that there every were anything )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but practical limits on the intensity of Greek warfare: '[The Greeks] were limited only by their capacity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organize themselves ... From Agamemnon to Alexander, the evidence suggests that at no time were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greeks ever constrained by a sense of agonism to conduct their wars in a fair and sportsmanlike fashion' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(226\). To explain the increased intensity of warfare in the classical period, Rawlings follows the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hans van Wees and emphasises the crucial role of social organisation, in particular the growth of the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 224-5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rawlings's position is certainly up-to-date; it is mainly within the last decade that criticisms of the 'hoplite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contest' model by scholars such as van Wees and Peter Krentz have gained acceptance. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 454.388 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 454.388 654.771 m 468.380 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 468.380 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rawlings is vehement in his assertions - for example, when he says that 'such modern views simply do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hold water' \(p. 64\) - I had serious reservations about the fairness of his presentation of the position he is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attacking. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 84.008 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 84.008 612.003 m 98.000 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 98.000 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( First of all, scholars such as Victor Hanson and Josiah Ober do not argue that limits on warfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were entirely ideological. They argue that ideology played a role, but also admit practical limits. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, Hanson argues that major battles were limited to one time of year because they had to take place in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late spring during a break in an otherwise busy schedule of agricultural tasks. It is fair enough for Rawlings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to argue that practical considerations ought to be accorded more weight in shaping the nature of Greek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warfare than ideological considerations, but he sometimes ignores the nuance and complexity of the views )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he is criticising. Second, the views of Hanson and Ober are not as naively positive as is implied by Rawlings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he repeatedly describes their position as making Greek warfare 'fair and sportsmanlike': their position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that it was largely the class interests of relatively affluent, often slave-owning farmers that was served by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limitations on warfare according to the theory of the 'hoplite contest'. Third, Rawlings devotes several pages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to showing that formally arranged battles or duals were rare occurrences \(pp. 64-7\). This is true, but obvious; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such cases do not play a major role in most versions of the 'hoplite contest' model as Rawlings repeated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implies they do. Finally, Rawlings correctly points out that the Greeks 'attempted to gain every advantage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they could from terrain' in the Persian Wars \(p. 64\). He does not mention the cogent argument that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeming contrast between the conduct of wars among Greeks and against non-Greeks implies that the limits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on warfare among Greeks were not simply practical matters of military advantage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second source of worries about the book is its treatment of chronology within its topical framework. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topical arrangement of the chapters is a logical and almost inevitable choice - for example, one would not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(want the treatment of naval warfare to be delivered in dollops according to century. In some places, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, more precision would have made matters clearer. First, after an introduction claiming a span of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well over a millennium, the first chapter 'War and peace in ancient Greece' focuses only on evidence from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late classical period without mentioning that early Archaic attitudes may have been very different - not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention Bronze-Age views, about which we know almost nothing. Second, the claim that the book runs to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(323 and thus covers the armies of Philip and Alexander is simply false advertising; they receive only a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scattered sentences - 'sarissa' is not even in the index - in no way commensurate with the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macedonian military innovations and success. A final chronological issue relates to Rawlings's criticism of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the theory of the 'hoplite contest'; pertinent early evidence of blocking passes rather than fighting an open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battle is interspersed with examples from later periods, when even the most adamant modern proponent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limits on hoplite warfare believes that these have broken down \(p. 71-2\). Rawlings argues for significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuity in the conduct of Greek warfare \(p. 40\), but more frequent chronological distinctions would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been useful within his topical framework.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two recent works provide substantial overviews of Greek warfare through the classical period on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approximately the same scale and at the same level as Rawlings's book \(readers may consult Hans van Wees, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Greek Warfare: Myths and Realities)] TJ ET BT 208.652 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or the relevant sections of the first volume of )] TJ ET BT 430.616 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cambridge History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Greek and Roman Warfare)] TJ ET BT 164.324 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 170.324 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 170.324 103.299 m 184.316 103.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 187.316 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cambridge History)] TJ ET BT 301.316 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has the advantage of incorporating diverse scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives, but it is predictably expensive. Hans van Wees's own book is obviously the best place to look )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for his seminal theories about the fluidity of the archaic phalanx and his emphasis on the pivotal role of state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control and organisation in the intensification of Greek warfare. As we have seen, Rawlings summarises and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 454.3877 655.0855 468.3797 666.9655 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 84.0077 612.3175 97.9997 624.1975 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 170.3237 103.6135 184.3157 115.4935 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R ] /Contents 48 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Length 7478 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endorses many of van Wees's ideas. Perhaps the greatest strength of his book is the extremely wide range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics considered, their vivid and concrete treatment with the copious quotation of primary sources in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation and, finally, its generally high level of scholarship - my sundry criticisms notwithstanding.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.059 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most recent versions of these arguments are found in H. van Wees, )] TJ ET BT 409.604 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Greek Warfare: Myths and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Realities)] TJ ET BT 106.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2004\), p. 153-65, 249-52. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 282.332 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 282.332 686.787 m 336.320 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Jarva, )] TJ ET BT 108.668 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Archaiologia on Archaic Greek Body Armour)] TJ ET BT 328.304 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Rovaniemi, 1995\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 427.964 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 427.964 672.531 m 481.952 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(V. Hanson, )] TJ ET BT 121.340 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Warfare and Agriculture in Classical Greece)] TJ ET BT 338.324 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Revised Edition \(Berkeley, 1998\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 511.640 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 511.640 658.275 m 551.636 658.275 l S BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 644.019 m 78.008 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rawlings tries to counter this by insisting that practice was unaffected by these values \(p. 200\), but he )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states earlier that '[t]he cessation of violence on fixed "holy" days and festivals and the observance of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such, even when tactically detrimental, provide evidence that religious scruples could be influential' )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 189\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 108.008 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 108.008 586.995 m 161.996 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(V. Hanson, )] TJ ET BT 121.340 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Western Way of War: Infantry Battle in Classical Greece )] TJ ET BT 419.972 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, 1989\) pp. 117-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 82.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 82.016 558.483 m 136.004 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Shay, )] TJ ET BT 104.684 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Achilles in Vietnam: Combat Trauma and the Undoing of Character)] TJ ET BT 433.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1994\); L. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tritle, )] TJ ET BT 96.680 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Melos to My Lai: War and Survival)] TJ ET BT 296.996 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2000\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 381.320 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 381.320 529.971 m 435.308 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But note A. J. Holladay, 'Hoplites and heresies', )] TJ ET BT 296.312 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Hellenic Studies,)] TJ ET BT 430.304 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 102 \(1982\), 94-103. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 532.292 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 532.292 515.715 m 559.952 515.715 l S BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 501.459 m 90.344 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For an entree to both sides of the controversy see J. Ober, 'Classical Greek times', in )] TJ ET BT 470.600 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Laws of War: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Constraints on Warfare in the Western World)] TJ ET BT 283.352 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. M. Howard, G. J. Andreopoulos and M. R. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shulman, \(New Haven, 1994\) pp. 12-26 and P. Krentz, 'Fighting by the rules: the invention of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hoplite agon', )] TJ ET BT 131.840 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hesperia)] TJ ET BT 175.832 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 71 \(2002\), 23-39. Fuller treatments pro and con can be found in V. Hanson, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Other Greeks: The Family Farm and the Agrarian Roots of Western Civilization)] TJ ET BT 471.332 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, 1999\) )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 219-350 and J. Dayton, )] TJ ET BT 197.336 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Athletes of War: An Evaluation of the Agonistic Elements in Greek )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Warfare)] TJ ET BT 104.012 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Toronto, 2006\) - which seems to have come out too late for Rawlings to take into account. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 387.411 m 118.004 387.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 374.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. van Wees, )] TJ ET BT 131.660 374.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Greek Warfare: Myths and Realities)] TJ ET BT 306.296 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2004\); )] TJ ET BT 390.956 374.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cambridge History of Greek )] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Roman Warfare. Volume I: Greece, the Hellenistic World and the Rise of Rome)] TJ ET BT 466.952 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. P. Sabin, H. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(van Wees, and M.Whitby \(Cambridge, 2007\). 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