%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722104805+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722104805+01'00') /Title (William Wykeham: A Life) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4217 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(William Wykeham: A Life)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the six centuries after his death in 1404 William Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, has not lacked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographers. As prelate and patron of learning, he inspired pious remembrance. Dr Thomas Aylward, one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his executors, composed a brief memoir shortly after his death, and Robert Heete, a beneficiary of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patronage, compiled a more substantial memoir in the early 1420s. A more extended account was prepared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the circle of Matthew Parker in the Elizabethan period. In 1759 Robert Lowth, later bishop of London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced a scholarly biography that acknowledged Wykeham's larger role in public life. The standard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography by George Herbert Moberly was written as long ago as 1887. It offers a detailed narrative and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series of useful appendices, including editions of the early memoirs. It is, nonetheless, somewhat uncritical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and quaint in its judgements. Its address to the 'Wykehamical public' is indicative of its tone. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 481.640 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 481.640 172.137 m 495.632 172.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is every reason to welcome, then, Virginia Davis's new study. Davis has brought to the task expertise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the church and the fruits of wide-ranging archival research. She has presented a wide-ranging and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instructive study of a pivotal figure in the political, ecclesiastical and educational history of late medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Wykeham was born around 1324 in Wickham, Hampshire, and the son of John Long, a villager of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some substance. If not quite a story of 'rags to riches', his spectacular career can have owed little to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family background. Presumably John Long was able to sacrifice his son's labour on the farm and provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(670)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 May, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virginia Davis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781847251725)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(266pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hambledon Continuum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Bennett)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 481.6397 172.4515 495.6317 184.3315 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7534 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some support for his education. There were several schools in Winchester, ten miles away, and numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches and religious houses that could provide support for able and industrious clerks. Wykeham gained a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good grounding in grammar, and valued the education he received. He seems not to have attended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university, and certainly never graduated. Still, it should not be assumed that he lacked the means to further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his studies. He may have been tempted by the prospect of more gainful employment. Winchester was not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bad place to build a career, not least given royal interest in the city, accentuated in the 1340s by the renewal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the French wars and Edward III's Arthurian interests.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Robert Heete's memoir, Wykeham found early employment with the constable of Winchester )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(castle. Wykeham certainly had connections with Sir John Scures and Sir William Sturmy, who successively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(held this office in the late 1330s and early 1340s. There may be some truth in the early tradition that through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his work at the castle he came to the attention of the king. What Davis shows, however, is the range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible connections that brought him into the orbit of the royal court. The crucial early break probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came with the advancement of William Edington, Edward III's treasurer \(and later chancellor\), to the see of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winchester in 1346. Wykeham was in Bishop Edington's service by 1349, and thenceforward had many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities to impress the king with his ability and zeal. Nonetheless, there is no record of royal patronage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until 1356. Over a number of months in that year he was appointed the clerk of works at several minor royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(palaces, then justice of labourers in Windsor, and finally surveyor of the works at Windsor castle and park. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This appointment registered his arrival in court circles. It also provided the platform for remarkably rapid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advancement in the royal service.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a tradition that the words 'Hoc fecit Wykeham' were carved on a wall in Windsor castle, and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wykeham explained to the king that they did not mean that he had made the castle, but that the castle had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made him. Though not recorded before the 16th century, the story seems wholly apposite. His appointment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Windsor gave him the opportunity to show his mettle in an enterprise to which the king was deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed. Davis might have stressed more the manner in which Wykeham's meteoric rise coincided with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wholly exceptional times and opportunities. The English triumph at Poitiers in 1356, involving the capture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the French king and many leading nobles, marked the high point of Edward III's power and prestige. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged, and provided the means to pay for grand displays of regal magnificence. Wykeham had the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talent and energy to make them happen. From commandeering the labour force for the work on the castle, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managing the money flowing in from ransoms, he made himself indispensable to the king. He soon became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the king's most trusted agents in the wider business of the realm. He may have accompanied the king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the great expedition to France in 1359-60. He was certainly prominent among the men in Calais )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiating the Treaty of Bretigny in 1360.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By this stage Wykeham was a major beneficiary of royal patronage, increasingly in the form of presentation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to church benefices. He was, nonetheless, still a clerk in minor orders, and had made no irrevocable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to the church. As Davis points out, it was by no means inevitable that he would pursue an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical career. Geoffrey Chaucer, who also first appeared in court circles in the late 1350s, had similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skills and later served in Wykeham's former office of clerk of the works, settled on a secular career. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wykeham, who was 37 when he took the first step towards ordination, certainly left his options open for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unusually long time. His decision to proceed to holy orders in 1361 may have been a calculated move. No )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one knew better than him that following the peace with France the king would find it increasingly hard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reward the laymen in his entourage. Once the profits from ransoms were exhausted, the pickings would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slim. The king could best support his servants by promoting them in the church. Still, Davis is right not to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unduly cynical. Wykeham had a high regard for the priesthood, and his subsequent career suggests that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a genuine vocation. It might have been noted that the king himself had a conversion experience of sorts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in France in April 1360. A fearsome tempest on 'Black Tuesday' prompted him to abandon the campaign and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make a solemn vow to the Virgin Mary to accept any fair terms to bring the war to an end. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.936 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.936 117.555 m 484.928 117.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 1360s Edward remained reliant on Wykeham for the conduct of his affairs. In 1363 he described him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as 'his secretary, who stays by his side in constant attendance on his service and who with all his servants is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the king's special protection' \(p. 31\). A ministerial reshuffle after the retirement of Bishop Edington as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chancellor led to the appointment of Wykeham as keeper of the privy seal. A number of contemporaries )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 470.9357 117.8695 484.9277 129.7495 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7641 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noted, disapprovingly, his influence with the king. His income from the church continued to increase. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topped the list of clergymen holding livings in plurality in 1366, with an income of 873 5s 8d, three times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as large as his nearest rival. The author of a Wycliffite tract presumably had him in mind when he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complained about the preferment to churches of men who were not 'clerks of learning or of good life but a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kitchen clerk or a penny clerk or one wise in building castles or other worldly doing although he cannot well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read his psalter and knoweth not the commandments of God nor sacraments of the church'. Finally, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bishop Edington's death in 1366, the king instructed the monks of St Swithuns to elect Wykeham to the see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Winchester. In his account of the event in his chronicle, John of Reading added the bitter comment: 'The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mammon of iniquity raises the unworthy to be prelates' \(p. 41-2\). The pope played for time before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirming the election. In 1367, barely five years after being ordained as priest, Wykeham was duly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consecrated bishop. In the following year he had the satisfaction of being installed bishop of his native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diocese. In the mean time he was appointed chancellor of England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1360s saw significant developments in the history of the English state. Wykeham's role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative reform and the establishment of the concept of public finance is hard to assess. Davis is more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive in her assessment than most scholars. She stresses his managerial success and attention to detail. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This line is not wholly compelling. His organisational flair and business acumen may rather have made him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impatient of bureaucratic forms and consultative processes. It is clear that Bishop Edington made much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the running in relation to the reforms, and Archbishop Langham probably played the greater role in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political management. Still, Davis is right to question the degree to which the parliamentary proceedings that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led to his dismissal in 1371 should be seen as an indictment of his term in office. In the Good Parliament of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1376 the Commons regarded him as an ally in its assault on the court party. Conversely, John of Gaunt and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his allies viewed him as their enemy, serving him in kind by laying charges of maladministration during his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time as chancellor. Wykeham was stripped of the temporalities of the bishopric, and found himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent on the charity of his friends. According to Thomas Walsingham, the particular cause of the royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spite was Wykeham's role in spreading the rumour that Gaunt was a changeling. It was claimed that Queen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philippa had revealed this fact to Wykeham on her deathbed, and asked him to make the truth known if ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaunt sought the crown. The allegation with respect to Gaunt certainly had some currency in the late 1370s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though Wykeham's role in its dissemination cannot be credited. Still, Gaunt was seeking a change in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order of the succession in 1376, and Wykeham was presumably among the lords who opposed this measure. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 369.651 m 48.008 369.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is instructive that on Richard II's accession in 1377 he was fully restored to royal favour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite his continuing service to the crown, Wykeham did not neglect his diocese. Since it extended to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(south bank of the Thames, he was able to use his palace at Southwark to attend meetings of council and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament in Westminster. Davis shows him to have been a conscientious diocesan. He pursued an active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy with respect to the estates of the bishopric of Winchester, increasing the number of manors under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direct management and the acreage in demesne. More remarkable, in view of his limited experience with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cure of souls, is his solid record with respect to pastoral affairs. During his pontificate he conducted almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all the ordinations in person. He took some care to assess the qualifications of ordinands, and encouraged the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy to pursue further education. He was attentive to the state of the fabric of the parish churches, not least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the churches that had been appropriated by monasteries. From 1373 he conducted a number of visitations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his diocese, and maintained a close oversight over the monasteries. Needless to say, Wykeham proved a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great builder. At the cathedral he was largely responsible for the transformation of 'an essentially Norman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nave to a contemporary and magnificent Perpendicular one' \(p. 114\). He renovated the episcopal palaces, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially Bishop's Waltham, his favourite residence in his last years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A major concern from the late 1360s was his chantry and collegiate foundations. In 1368 he acquired lands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to endow a chantry for his parents in Southwick priory. In 1369 he secured property in Oxford to form an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endowment for scholars. By this time he was probably already supporting both schoolboys at Winchester )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and students at Oxford, and making plans for the establishment of linked colleges. In 1379 he established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saint Mary College of Winchester, soon known as New College, in Oxford. It was remarkable for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(munificence, the provision of places for undergraduates, and its preference for theology over law. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second component of his scheme came to fruition with the establishment of the college at Winchester in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 369.9655 48.0077 381.8455 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7140 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1382. His foundations certainly have a personal dimension: a deep piety with respect to his family and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefactors, and an acknowledgment of his own debt to schooling. Yet they are monuments to broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns: prayer for the king and the kingdom, and the provision of educated priests for the ministry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wykeham remained active in government in the reign of Richard II. A member of the regency council, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also served on the various councils that effectively took the crown into commission in the late 1380s. At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age of 65, Wykeham undertook a second term as chancellor in 1389. Even after his surrender of the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seal in 1391, he remained an active member of the king's council. Davis is right not to play down this record )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of service. It is not easy, however, to be clear about its import. It is tempting to regard him as an elder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statesman guiding the young king. His second term as chancellor coincided with the most constructive phase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Richard's rule. The old bishop and the young king shared an interest in building, and employed the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architects and craftsmen on their projects. Wykeham entertained Richard at his palace in Winchester in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1393. On the other hand, the relationship cannot have been entirely problem free. Davis suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anxiety, especially his concern for the future of his chantry and collegiate foundations, prompted him to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vigilant. He had good reason to be wary of the king. After all, he had served on the councils that the king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed had encroached on his prerogative. His concerns would have been raised by the banishment of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colleague Archbishop Arundel in 1397. He waited on events during the revolution of 1399, but was an active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(member of Henry IV's council until shortly before his death in 1404.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davis is a careful scholar, and does not stray far from what the sources allow. She provides a good account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Wykeham's public life, but finds it hard to probe the inner life. Davis does her best to document )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wykeham's own religion. He was devoted to the Virgin Mary; he drew comfort from the liturgy and church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(music; and he believed in church ornamentation and the power of prayer. It was a conventional, public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion. His greatest achievements were the buildings and the collegiate institutions that gave expression )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and permanence to his vision. His early biographers offer occasional vignettes regarding his piety: his resort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a child to the shrine of the Virgil Mary in the cathedral to hear mass intoned by Richard Pekis, one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monks, and his faith and his humility as he approached his end. Davis's study is most interesting where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(details begin to coalesce, as in her accounts of his kindred, his accumulation of benefices, his building )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projects, his network of gentry friends, and his dinner guests. It is especially instructive when it sets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wykeham's life and career in a comparative context. Perhaps more could be achieved here. Instructive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparisons could be made with other clerks on the make in the late 1350s, like John Winwick, or other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bishops of his generation, like his neighbour William Rede, bishop of Chichester. Winwick was likewise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuing a somewhat hybrid career. As keeper of the privy seal, he was closer to the king than Wykeham. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though not a graduate, he too seems to have had in mind a collegiate foundation at Oxford. His death in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1360 eliminated a real rival. William Rede became bishop of Chichester by papal provision in the year in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Wykeham was installed at Winchester. A graduate and a notable scholar, he likewise seems to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been concerned to promote an educated priesthood. He acquired a vast collection of books that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transferred, in instalments, to Merton and other colleges in Oxford.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All in all, Davis has produced a book that will provide much food for thought. Wykeham's remarkable career )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates what was possible in 14th-century England. However, while he was able to give his kinsmen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and friends a better start than he enjoyed, none of them enjoyed a modicum of his success. Given the scale of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the endowment of Winchester and New Colleges, it is striking how few early Wykehamists achieved careers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of note. High mortality rates are part of the story: 10 per cent of his scholars died at Winchester College, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('many others died at New College or shortly after graduating, before their careers had made much impact' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(159\). Wykeham himself clearly owed something to a robust constitution. Interestingly enough, his long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pontificate marked the beginning of a trend at Winchester. His immediate successors, Henry Beaufort and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Waynflete, each occupied the see for around 40 years. Remarkably, there were only three bishops of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winchester between 1366 and 1486. Each of them, and indeed many of their predecessors and successors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served as chancellor of England. Collectively they provided a significant degree of stability and continuity in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English public life in the later middle ages.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 2606 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. H. Moberly, )] TJ ET BT 140.672 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life of William of Wykeham, sometime Bishop of Winchester, and Lord High )] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chancellor of England)] TJ ET BT 174.020 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Winchester, 1887\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 275.660 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 275.660 729.555 m 329.648 729.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. J. Rogers, 'The Anglo-French peace negotiations of 1354-60 reconsidered', in J. S. Bothwell, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Age of Edward III)] TJ ET BT 172.004 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Woodbridge, 2001\), pp. 211-13. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 336.980 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 336.980 701.043 m 390.968 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. J. Bennett, 'Edward III's entail and the succession to the crown, 1376-1471', )] TJ ET BT 447.104 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Review)] TJ ET BT 98.672 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 113 \(1998\), 586-7, 590. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.660 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.660 672.531 m 275.648 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 647.669 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/511/1480.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 617.763 m 319.004 617.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 322.004 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 614.431 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 596.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 596.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/670)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 595.257 m 322.316 595.257 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 570.280 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 555.880 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3644)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.480 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/511/1480.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 275.6597 729.8695 329.6477 741.7495 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 336.9797 701.3575 390.9677 713.2375 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 221.6597 672.8455 275.6477 684.7255 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 618.0775 319.0037 629.9575 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/511/1480.full) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 595.5715 322.3157 607.4515 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/670) >> endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000533 00000 n 0000000622 00000 n 0000004891 00000 n 0000005000 00000 n 0000005110 00000 n 0000005219 00000 n 0000008780 00000 n 0000008908 00000 n 0000008992 00000 n 0000009021 00000 n 0000009149 00000 n 0000009185 00000 n 0000009269 00000 n 0000016856 00000 n 0000016886 00000 n 0000017014 00000 n 0000017050 00000 n 0000017134 00000 n 0000024828 00000 n 0000024858 00000 n 0000024984 00000 n 0000025020 00000 n 0000025085 00000 n 0000032278 00000 n 0000032390 00000 n 0000035049 00000 n 0000035177 00000 n 0000035232 00000 n 0000035360 00000 n 0000035415 00000 n 0000035543 00000 n 0000035598 00000 n 0000035725 00000 n 0000035834 00000 n 0000035962 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36057 %%EOF