%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140419023551+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140419023551+01'00') /Title (Madness in Seventeenth-Century Autobiography) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4431 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Madness in Seventeenth-Century Autobiography)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katharine Hodgkin's )] TJ ET BT 136.160 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Madness in Seventeenth-Century Autobiography)] TJ ET BT 369.128 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a welcome, thought-provoking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to our understanding of the cultural history of madness. It partly draws on Michael Macdonald's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seminal work on the popular beliefs and social practices related to insanity in 17th-century England, and on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his lucid analysis of the detailed case notes of the physician Richard Napier. But it also seeks to examine the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives of the sufferers by focusing on three spiritual autobiographies by people who had experienced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and recovered from\) some transient form of madness during that century. Furthermore, its intricate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration of the articulations of the self makes this study distinct from Jeremy Schmidt's recent work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the intertwining of medicine, religion and moral philosophy in the English 17th-century context. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 499.652 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 499.652 186.393 m 513.644 186.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first of the 'spiritual autobiographies' examined by Hodgkin was written around 1610 by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentlewoman Dionys Fitzherbert, the unmarried daughter of a rich landowner from Oxfordshire, and has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been preserved in its \(unpublished\) original autograph and two fair copies she had deposited in libraries. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second, published in 1683 \(and in 1997\), deals with the melancholia suffered 20 years earlier by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widowed Hanna Allen, whose respectable Presbyterian mercantile family lived in Derbyshire and London. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third, written in 1693 and published posthumously in 1713 \(and in 1974\), presents the episodes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hallucination, delirium and violence experienced in the mid-1650s by George Trosse, the reprobate grandson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a West Country merchant, before undergoing conversion and becoming a Nonconformist minister in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(671)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 May, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katharine Hodgkin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781403917652)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(53.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elena Carrera)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 499.6517 186.7075 513.6437 198.5875 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7035 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exeter. All three people turned to autobiographical writing after experiencing a radical crisis of identity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation; having come to be seen by their financially comfortable families, doctors and carers as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentally disturbed, they received medical treatment and spiritual guidance, and interpreted their eventual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recovery in spiritual terms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Noting that these three narratives offer more detail about the specific domestic, geographic, religious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical circumstances of their protagonists, and about their relationships to other people, than most of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritual autobiographies written in England during this period, Hodgkin discusses their main themes in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fairly broad context: identity crisis; early modern notions of madness and melancholy; the role of religion in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaping the experience of disturbance and providing a cure; the interface between medicine and religion; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender differences; attitudes to the body, to clothing and to food; the passions and the loss of self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government; and the function of language and social interaction in the therapeutic process. She also reflects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on how first-person accounts of madness may provide clues for a broader understanding of 17th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articulations of the self and subjectivity in writing, in language and in the body, and within familial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social relations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In examining the specific cultural contexts of three examples of mental disturbance, Hodgkin convincingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that madness and sanity need to be seen as a continuum, and that the themes and tensions underlying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the narratives she examines are but 'the more general raw materials of psychic life' \(p. 134\). Taking the view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that 'people go mad with the cultural materials they have to hand' \(p. 190\), Hodgkin looks at the ways in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which madness is culturally articulated and defined, while demonstrating that the experience of madness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be reduced to purely social or conceptual constructs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Endorsing the value of seemingly universal psychoanalytical concepts \(such as the unconscious, fantasy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory\) as analytical tools that may help understand the 'articulation of psychic processes with and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture' \(p. 15\), Hodgkin also stresses the 'need to find ways of hearing the voices of unreason in history' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14\), and thus counteract the excessive emphasis placed on the rationality of early modern Protestantism by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians and literary scholars in the last 40 years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hodgkin undertakes this by engaging with crucial theoretical and practical questions about how we may best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach the historical study of madness. She acknowledges the controversial reception in Anglo-American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academia of Foucault's approach, but nonetheless defends the validity of his general suggestions about how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(madness has been constructed through language and through the institutions which have dealt with the mad. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Foucault's emphasis was on how 17th-century French institutions created an artificial separation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the sane and the insane, confining the latter to silence, Hodgkin demonstrates on a much smaller )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale how the division between sanity and insanity, reason and unreason, is indeed artificial.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inspired by Foucault's label 'archaeology of silence', Hodgkin shows awareness of the practical implications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of seeking to give a voice to the mad. In her theoretical discussion she takes on board the seemingly extreme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view that 'language itself excludes the possibility of mad speech' \(p. 21\). However, her ensuing analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers a much more nuanced picture of the fluidity of the early modern conceptions of madness, and of mad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people's access to language. The protagonists of the three chosen narratives show a wide range of symptoms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related to speech. For instance, Fitzherbert was speechless for many days \(p. 36\), while Trosse went from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inability to control his filthy language during his episodes of raving delirium to biting his tongue forcefully, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or refusing to speak by closing his eyes and sealing his lips \(pp. 56-7\). Similarly, Allen's melancholy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifested as two extreme forms of linguistic behaviour: at times she could not stop her obsessive lamenting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and dreadful expressions of sorrow and fear of damnation, whereas other times she refused to speak or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply gave short scornful answers \(p. 57\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The three narratives discussed by Hodgkin also show how the experience of madness is necessarily shaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by 'language' in a broader sense, by being inscribed in the available discourses which grant it meaning. Thus, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fitzherbert's and Trosse's retrospective accounts of transient, reversible states of 'confusion' and 'delusion' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resort to religious discourse to make sense of those experiences in terms typical of spiritual autobiography: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sin, the fear of condemnation, conversion and the hope of redemption. Whether they had actually been mad, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6832 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Trosse seems to believe, or simply been perceived as mad, as Fitzherbert argues, their narratives shed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important light on the blurred boundaries between reason and unreason, and on the intricate relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between religion and mental disorder.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is possible to argue that some 17th-century religious practices might have exacerbated mental disturbance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that religion might have been particularly attractive to those with 'turbulent personalities'. Nonetheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hodgkin's study demonstrates how religion, rather than being a cause or effect, acted as a language through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which mental disorder was both experienced and articulated. The experience of madness was not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood but also shaped by the available medical, religious and moral ideas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, for instance, Fitzherbert recounts how she was 'as one utterly deprived of all sense and understanding' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(MS e Mus. 169, f. 3v; in Hodgkin, p. 36\), claiming that her condition was not the effect of melancholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humour, but that it had a clear spiritual origin: after her backsliding in her religious practices, she began to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be tormented by Satan; she was not possessed, but lost all ability for self-government, and this had a serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on her health. Even though people might have seen her distracted behaviour as laughable, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributed it to physical causes, Fitzherbert insists that they should be made aware of the true religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of her distractedness, caused by her intense affliction of conscience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen, on the other hand, does not appear to have perceived any separation between the mental, spiritual, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotional and physical aspects of the melancholia she suffered following her husband's death. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even though sexual abstinence was perceived by her contemporaries as a possible cause of melancholia in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, Allen makes no reference to this. She provides instead a religious explanation: her melancholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disorder was a form of punishment for the excessive love, the 'inordinate affection' she had had for her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husband.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 17th-century England, it was not uncommon for madness to be perceived as a punishment from God. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern interaction between religion and medicine in explaining and dealing with mental disturbance is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well illustrated by the autobiographical accounts of Fitzherbert, Allen and Trosse. Their experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(madness was related to, and often indistinguishable from, affliction of conscience for sin. The methods used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to deal with their madness clearly show that the medical was not clearly separated from the spiritual: they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included the standard Galenic cures \(vomits, purges, bleeding, and a regimen of sleeping and forced feeding\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other traditional methods such as physical restraint, combined with prayer, bible reading and godly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversations with family members and spiritual advisers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In contrast with the unsympathetic and brutal methods of restraint and discipline which have tended to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with early modern mental care, these socially privileged individuals were treated primarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through reasoning and persuasive methods. In Hodgkin's account one can discern three main reasons for this. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, Fitzherbert, Allen and Trosse were looked after within domestic environments by family members, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friends, advisers and housekeepers, who often occupied ambivalent positions of power and authority. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, some of the fears they expressed, such as being damned or having committed a certain sin, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics on which godly people with no special qualifications would have felt free to give advice. Third, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unclear boundaries between religious despair and mental disorder allowed room for negotiation about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning and consequences of extreme expressions of emotions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hodgkin also discusses how the boundaries between religious fervour and mental disturbance shifted during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 17th-century with the growth of sectarian religion. By the mid-century, England had seen a marked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increase in the public expression of religious enthusiasm, eccentric behaviour and extreme manifestations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotion, which some religious groups took as a guarantee of authentic religious experience but which would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be out of fashion by the 1660s and generally perceived as mental disorder by the end of the century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Trosse wrote his spiritual autobiography, in the last decade of the 17th-century, he was an established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minister within the moderate Dissenting community of Exeter. His life narrative, intended for posthumous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication, is openly exemplary and uses a polemical, homiletic tone to emphasise his idle and morally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unprincipled youthful activities of drinking and travelling in France and Portugal, and his subsequent )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7734 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapse into raving madness and delirium, before he was cured and went on to study at university to become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Nonconformist minister, and to experience religious prosecution under Charles II and James II. The young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trosse was confined in a private house in Glastonbury three times. But, unfortunately, Trosse's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiography does not mention the methods used by the Glastonbury 'mad-doctor', since this episode of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life is only relevant in as far as it illustrates the wider religious significance of his life changes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As autobiographical narratives, the three texts chosen by Hodgkin pose a number of questions related to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selectivity, accuracy and reliability. Besides the modesty generally expected of self-narratives, a common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pattern of spiritual autobiography in the Augustinian tradition is for the writer to stress his or her personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortcomings in religious terms \(with reference to vices such as pride, vanity, greed and hypocrisy\), while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focusing on a selection of episodes which fit the pattern of salvation and show how the old self has given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way to the new, more spiritual self. The fact that Fitzherbert, Allen and Trosse structured their life-narratives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around conversion encouraged them to see their madness as resolved, as belonging only to their past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In questioning the accuracy of their descriptions of their past episodes of madness, Hodgkin explores a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of lay perceptions of what it means to be mad. She asks how one might interpret narratives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(madness if 'to be mad is to be dislocated from one's past, unable to recognise or remember one's closest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friends and families' \(p. 20\). This somewhat reductive view of madness is corrected by Hodgkin's ensuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the less radical forms of madness and dislocation experienced by Fitzherbert, Allen and Trosse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In connection with the more general question about the 'bare possibility of representation, of articulating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condition of madness' \(p. 21\), Hodgkin comments on Trosse's uncritical attitude towards the 'reliability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his knowledge of what happened when he was distracted' in a passage in which he describes how he fancied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that God was looking for opportunities to destroy him \(p. 34\). Alternatively, one can argue that it is likely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Trosse was aware of the content of his delusions even though he did not recognise them as such. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be best understood in connection with the early modern conception of the mind \(found in Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burton and Thomas Adams, and discussed by Hodgkin in a later chapter\) as consisting of three functions: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory, understanding and fantasy, each occupying a different ventricle of the brain. Fitzherbert, Allen, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trosse, and people around them, were probably familiar with the idea that it was possible to be mad and still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be able to reason, if only the imagination \(fantasy\) was impaired. Hodgkin \(p. 47\) refers to a passage from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Locke that makes it very clear that, unlike idiots, mad people may be able to reason, even if they make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the right deductions from the wrong ideas, 'having taken their Fancies for Realities' \()] TJ ET BT 440.276 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Essay Concerning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Human Understanding,)] TJ ET BT 147.344 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( p. 161\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This conceptual framework can help understand why spiritual advisers and family members appear to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spent a considerable amount of time trying to persuade Fitzherbert and Trosse out of their errors. Fitzherbert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recounts that even during her early episodes of raving, people pointed out to her that she was mistaken, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while Trosse acknowledges that in his most delirious raving states he was not receptive to people's advice. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This non-professional spiritual counselling was not limited to conversations, but also offered through letters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hodgkin stresses the therapeutic effects of 'logical deduction' \(p. 112\) and notes that the reading of good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books also had 'a role to play in reawakening the reasoning faculties' \(p. 110\). One may add here that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devotional books, like spiritual counsel, did not simply work on people's intellect, but addressed the affects, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and thus some of the underlying affective causes of mental disturbance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fear, sorrow and despair were clearly at the root of the obsessions, fantasies and delusions described by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fitzherbert and Trosse. The biblical connection between lust and madness, which appears to underlie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trosse's progress from his 'amorous Glances, Words and Actions' and 'Lewdness of Heart' to his 'filthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Language' \()] TJ ET BT 90.488 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life, )] TJ ET BT 115.160 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 58-9, 81, 105\), was also drawn upon in a passage by Edward Reynoldes cited by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hodgkin \(p. 44\): 'so Lust and Anger are sometimes, in the Scripture, called Madnesse; because it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transporteth the Soule beyond all bounds of Wisdome or Counsell' \()] TJ ET BT 360.152 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Treatise of the Passions,)] TJ ET BT 478.160 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( p. 72\). As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hodgkin notes \(p. 43\), the connection between the passions and madness was also made explicit by Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wright: 'passions ingender Humours, and Humours breed passions' \()] TJ ET BT 363.296 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Passions of the Mind, )] TJ ET BT 491.300 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 64\). Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though Hodgkin does not dwell on how the passions were perceived to have a direct impact on physical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mental health, this notion can explain the 17th-century use of spiritual counselling and devotional reading as )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 5215 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methods for dealing with madness. It is then possible to see how religion would not have simply contributed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to exacerbate certain emotions, such as sorrow or affliction of conscience, but that it may have had a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive impact in channelling desire, fear, sorrow and despair, and reducing their interference with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workings of the mind. These, like other questions arising from Hodgkin's stimulating discussion, invite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further study in a broader European context.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hodgkin succeeds in covering a large number of issues related to articulations of the self in 17th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England. She does not engage in a theoretical discussion of 'spiritual autobiography', but she refers to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Book of Margery Kempe,)] TJ ET BT 155.324 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the 17th-century spiritual autobiographies of John Bunyan, the Quaker Dorothea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gotherson, the Baptist Jane Turner, and those of Alice Hayes and Elizabeth Stirredge from the 18th century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is curiously no mention of the )] TJ ET BT 211.664 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life)] TJ ET BT 230.336 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the Antwerp-based English Discalced Carmelite nun Catherine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burton \(1668-1714\), based on the influential spiritual autobiography of the 16th-century Spanish religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformer Teresa of vila. One can thus assume that when Hodgkin refers in her discussion to 'conventional' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or 'traditional' spiritual autobiography, she is simply alluding to the English Protestant tradition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After this fascinating study of madness in 17th-century English autobiography, one can only look forward to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hodgkin's forthcoming edition of the autobiographical writings of Dionys Fitzherbert.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(June 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.731 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 481.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 481.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Schmidt, )] TJ ET BT 120.692 481.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Melancholy and the Care of the Soul: Religion, Moral Philosophy and Madness in Early )] TJ ET BT 64.016 466.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern England)] TJ ET BT 145.676 466.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Aldershot, 2007\). This monograph, like A. Gowland's excellent study, )] TJ ET BT 492.800 466.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Worlds )] TJ ET BT 64.016 452.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Renaissance Melancholy: Robert Burton in Context)] TJ ET BT 324.656 452.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2006\), appeared too late to have )] TJ ET BT 64.016 438.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been taken into account by Hodgkin. It is nonetheless surprising that she does not refer to Schmidt's )] TJ ET BT 64.016 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier 'Melancholy and the therapeutic language of moral philosophy in seventeenth-century thought', )] TJ ET BT 64.016 409.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of the History of Ideas)] TJ ET BT 211.676 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 65 \(2004\), 583-601. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 316.664 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 316.664 408.435 m 370.652 408.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 383.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 357.317 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 343.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 328.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 327.411 m 154.700 327.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 328.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 300.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/502/739.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 298.899 m 312.332 298.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 315.332 300.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 295.567 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 277.787 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 277.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/671)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 276.393 m 322.316 276.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 251.416 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.016 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3645)] TJ ET BT 34.016 222.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.360 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/biography/v031/31.4.lederer.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 193.960 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/502/739.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 316.6637 408.7495 370.6517 420.6295 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 327.7255 154.6997 339.6055 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/biography/v031/31.4.lederer.html) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 299.2135 312.3317 311.0935 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIII/502/739.full) >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 276.7075 322.3157 288.5875 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/671) >> endobj xref 0 33 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000554 00000 n 0000000643 00000 n 0000005126 00000 n 0000005235 00000 n 0000005345 00000 n 0000005454 00000 n 0000009015 00000 n 0000009143 00000 n 0000009227 00000 n 0000009256 00000 n 0000009384 00000 n 0000009420 00000 n 0000009485 00000 n 0000016573 00000 n 0000016638 00000 n 0000023523 00000 n 0000023588 00000 n 0000031375 00000 n 0000031480 00000 n 0000036748 00000 n 0000036876 00000 n 0000036931 00000 n 0000037058 00000 n 0000037202 00000 n 0000037329 00000 n 0000037438 00000 n 0000037566 00000 n trailer << /Size 33 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37661 %%EOF