%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 31 0 R 45 0 R 55 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140729070650+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140729070650+01'00') /Title (The Malleus Maleficarum) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4503 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Malleus Maleficarum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As P. G. Maxwell-Stuart notes in his introduction to these selections, the )] TJ ET BT 386.336 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus Maleficarum)] TJ ET BT 489.992 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(c.1486\) has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elicited periodic interest throughout the last hundred years, perhaps more than it ever did in the two centuries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or so of witch persecution after its first publication \(p. 36\). Despite this interest, scholars without access to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary editions have, until recently, been reliant on partisan translations - in English, that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montague Summers originally published in 1928. An interested student can now find the 1948 edition of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation freely available on the internet. It is, however, biased in favour of the Catholic inquisitors and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written in a style which can sometimes seem archaic even by the standards of the 1920s; it is also inaccurate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and lacks a reliable commentary. A more conscientious scholar now has an impressive array of translations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to weigh up. The first of these is the excellent critical German translation which appeared in 2000. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 508.928 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 508.928 143.625 m 522.920 143.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 522.920 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reader without German or wanting a complete Latin edition, there is Christopher Mackay's two-volume, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dual-language set. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 124.328 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 124.328 115.113 m 138.320 115.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 138.320 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For many individuals and libraries, the cost of Mackay's edition is likely to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prohibitive and they will therefore look to Maxwell-Stuart's selections, the subject of this review, as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suitable alternative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maxwell-Stuart's edition begins with a relatively short essay introducing the intellectual 'ambience' of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 47.483 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(672)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 June, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heinrich Institoris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. G. Maxwell-Stuart)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719064432)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Durrant)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 508.9277 143.9395 522.9197 155.8195 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 124.3277 115.4275 138.3197 127.3075 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 9200 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, magic in the 15th century, Heinrich Institoris, an overview of the work from which the selections )] TJ ET BT 509.276 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made and its later history. We are then presented with selections covering most of the questions raised in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three parts of the )] TJ ET BT 117.992 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET BT 156.656 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or, more accurately, of the 1588 Frankfurt edition of it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introductory essay provides a useful survey of the context of the )] TJ ET BT 366.620 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET BT 405.284 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Maxwell-Stuart tells of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church engaged in a millenarian struggle against dualist heretics and invading Muslims. Whether intentional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or not, mention of the latter conveniently alerts the reader to the alleged conspiracies \(said to be organised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews, bankers, Bolsheviks and communists\) which provided the backdrops for previous 20th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translations. Whilst Maxwell-Stuart floats these possibilities \(p. 36\), he falls short of placing his own edition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in such a context. It may not have been his purpose, of course, to draw parallels between the controversial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aims and practices of Heinrich Institoris and recent activities in Iraq. They are, however, difficult to resist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because the elements are all there: the creation of a global, largely imaginary, conspiracy against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christendom, the admittance of exceptional evidence, the suspect treatment of the conspirators, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inordinate use of torture and the misleading or forged justifications. Political opinion aside, what this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential comparison does is to render this edition of the )] TJ ET BT 307.328 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET BT 345.992 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the essay which introduces it useful as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a teaching aid. In many ways the essay offers a concise supplement to Norman Cohn's )] TJ ET BT 450.764 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Millennium)] TJ ET BT 89.348 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1957\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 130.340 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 130.340 569.235 m 144.332 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 144.332 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is also much more pertinent to the work which follows it than the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background sketched in Montague Summers's introduction to his 1948 edition. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.160 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.160 554.979 m 429.152 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 429.152 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Maxwell-Stuart's is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grounded firmly in the 15th-century context rather than digressing into various witchcraft cases which seem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have little relevance to the creation of the )] TJ ET BT 248.300 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET BT 286.964 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Consequently, it allows one to locate the text in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediate historical setting, introduce the witch persecutions as one version of a perennial feature of history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, in passing, reinforce 30 years of witchcraft historiography which has argued successfully that the trials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should not be viewed as some kind of aberration along a mythical progress towards enlightened civilization.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In recreating the intellectual 'ambience' of the )] TJ ET BT 255.944 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET BT 294.608 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Maxwell-Stuart takes the reader on an interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excursion into medieval understandings of the Devil, fides and the nature of women, all of which help to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make sense of the following selections for the reader. His focus, however, is primarily on the 15th century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As he observes, 'To a fair number of those living in the last half of the 15th century, it must have seemed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, as far back as memory would stretch, the Church stood embattled against forces threatening to destroy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it ...' \(p. 4\). Memory here seems to stretch back only as far as Wycliffe and one is left with the impression )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the )] TJ ET BT 72.680 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET BT 111.344 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was the culmination of a moment rather than an endemic anxiety about heresy in mid-late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval Catholicism. I am not certain whether this emphasis is the product of brevity \(and a consequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to distil the discussion\) or a genuine argument for placing the text more firmly than before in its late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15th-century setting. In this respect, the essay needs to be read alongside other works, not least Cohn's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe's Inner Demons)] TJ ET BT 147.896 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1975\), which offer a broader medieval context going back to the inquisitorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusades of Konrad of Marburg in the 13th century, to take just one example. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 407.276 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 407.276 300.627 m 421.268 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 421.268 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Curiously, the intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('ambience' described by Maxwell-Stuart does not seem to include the invention of printing. The )] TJ ET BT 495.944 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET BT 534.608 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly a beneficiary of this new technology. After all, as Maxwell-Stuart suggests, the )] TJ ET BT 452.600 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET BT 491.264 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attack on opponents of the author, the supporting papal bull and the forged letter of approbation was as much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a propaganda tool as a handbook \(p. 27\); rushing to complete his weighty scholastic tome and have it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed, Institoris seems to have recognised early the value of the new medium.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having set the tone, Maxwell-Stuart offers an overview of 15th-century magic drawn from the more recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars of various branches of magic, demonology and the )] TJ ET BT 322.628 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET BT 361.292 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. He reiterates the important correction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to much discourse on the gender of the witch that Institoris never meant witches to be understood as solely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female. Rather than follow Summers's example in translating maleficus/malefica and malefici/maleficae )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indiscriminately as 'witch' and 'witches,' Maxwell-Stuart preserves the original distinctions in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translations: 'worker of harmful magic' for the male maleficus and 'witch' for the female malefica. To anyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who has been studying witch persecutions for a long time, these distinctions initially appear cumbersome. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interest in male witches is burgeoning and many historians are comfortable using 'witch' to mean either a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man or a woman, relying on statement or context to supply the gender. While I would not want to introduce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maxwell-Stuart's wordy 'worker[s] of harmful magic' into my own writing, its repetition throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translations and the limited use of 'witch[es]' in gender-specific contexts such as the infamous trick to make )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 130.3397 569.5495 144.3317 581.4295 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 415.1597 555.2935 429.1517 567.1735 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 407.2757 300.9415 421.2677 312.8215 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 8852 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men belief they have lost their penises \(pp. 84-7\) )] TJ ET BT 271.976 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(do)] TJ ET BT 283.976 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( work. The translations highlight how infrequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Institoris actually referred to female 'witches' and consequently reinforce Christina Larner's assertion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witchcraft was sex-related rather than sex-specific. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 280.928 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 280.928 766.563 m 294.920 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The discussion which follows this correction is an excellent introduction to the complexities of the 'why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?' question which students, if not historians, still seem keen to ask. It is situated not in the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history which has come to dominate the answers to that question, but in demonological and magical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourses. As I have argued in my own work, it is these discourses, coupled with the use of leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions and the abuse of torture, which created the witch as female in Eichsttt and probably most other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts of Germany. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 123.992 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 123.992 669.027 m 137.984 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 137.984 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Social or cultural circumstances had little to do with that process or the continuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(association of 'woman' and 'witch' in the minds of most early modern individuals whether demonologists or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The middle section of the introductory essay considers the author of the )] TJ ET BT 381.296 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET BT 419.960 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. A general reader of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witchcraft histories in English is likely to be convinced that the work was jointly authored by Heinrich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Institoris and Jakob Sprenger. He or she is likely also to know that both were Dominicans with inquisitorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority active in Germany at about the time the )] TJ ET BT 272.984 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET BT 311.648 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was written; it is unlikely they will know much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(else. In this section of his essay, Maxwell-Stuart brings to light unfamiliar scholarship to flesh out the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography of Institoris and cast him as the sole author of the piece. He also emphasises a fact which, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although it has always been in circulation, is too often missed: the )] TJ ET BT 353.660 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET BT 392.324 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was written as a defence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dubious practice by a troubled Dominican who did not always enjoy influence over his colleagues \(pp. 26-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8\). It was not the authoritative work which Institoris probably wanted it to be and, as Maxwell-Stuart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminds his readers, even Sprenger took offence at the forged letter of approbation Institoris added to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work, prosecuting his inquisitorial colleague for doing this \(p. 27\). Although, in line with recent scholarship, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maxwell-Stuart dismisses the misplaced notion that Sprenger was the co-author, he does give us a short )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography of the man to complete the biographical picture \(pp. 30-1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the publication of the )] TJ ET BT 150.332 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET BT 188.996 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was not universally welcomed in about 1486, it did come to influence both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later demonology and the procedures used in the prosecution of witches in some parts of Europe, notably in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Holy Roman Empire. To state this goes against the grain of recent scholarship on demonology. Most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentators since Cohn have granted the )] TJ ET BT 243.980 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET BT 282.644 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( only a very limited influence on the early modern witch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecutions. This is not the place to engage in that particular debate, but to highlight its absence from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final section of the introductory essay. Maxwell-Stuart's later history of the )] TJ ET BT 397.460 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET BT 436.124 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides a cursory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of subsequent early modern editions alongside an unresolved question about the possible number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(copies which may or may not have been in circulation; it continues with a tantalising glimpse of some early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticisms, and a description of how Summers's translation fits the profile of his other works. It does not offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an opinion of the influence of the )] TJ ET BT 196.988 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET BT 235.652 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on subsequent events; it does not sell the text to unconvinced, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps curious, witchcraft scholars. Having gone to the trouble of translating the text, I am interested to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know where the translator thinks it fits into early modern demonology and jurisprudence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turning to the translation itself, I find myself asking a number of other questions. The first is why translate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1588 edition of the )] TJ ET BT 145.676 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET BT 184.340 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? If it is the edition referred to by Summers, it is one of the more curious as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was printed as the witch persecutions were entering their most intense phase and it was bound as part of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection which included tractates by eight other authors ranging from Jean Gerson to Bartolommeo Spina. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was also, by Summers's account, 'very poor and faulty'. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 312.788 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 312.788 176.835 m 326.780 176.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 326.780 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While Summers himself was not always a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careful or impartial scholar, his opinion on bibliographic matters is not to be dismissed lightly. I am sure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are sound scholarly reasons for using this relatively late edition and that the faults alleged by Summers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been addressed by Maxwell-Stuart. It would, however, have been reassuring to see some justification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for this choice and a brief account of the method of translation \(for example, comparing editions and modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translations\) such as is offered by the translators and editors of the recent German version. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.588 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.588 105.555 m 484.580 105.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I am also curious about the selections. While some sections have been summarised because they merely pile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up obscure authorities in the scholastic manner or simply repeat what has already been argued by Institoris, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other omissions are less clear and sometimes frustrating. One of the most widely used passages of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 37.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 280.9277 766.8775 294.9197 778.7575 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 123.9917 669.3415 137.9837 681.2215 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 312.7877 177.1495 326.7797 189.0295 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 470.5877 105.8695 484.5797 117.7495 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 7881 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the eloquent disquisition \(even in Summers's translation\) on 'why superstition is chiefly found in )] TJ ET BT 511.328 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Part I, Question 6\). In Maxwell-Stuart's translation, this lengthy passage and the corresponding references )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to and quotations from a number of biblical passages, commentaries and classical works are reduced to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summary of just one sentence \(p. 74\). What Maxwell-Stuart has left us with is the bare and rather dull gist of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the argument \(in this case, that neither a tongue nor a woman knows how to act moderately\). It is not clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how a scholar or student could make sense of this version when confronted with the numerous references to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this passage in histories of demonology or witchcraft. From the user's point of view, Maxwell-Stuart's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abridgement is not contextualised by late medieval theology or scholastic thinking \(which is where some apt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selections from the omitted passage would have proved the worth of the translation\) nor is it sensitive to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uses which have been made of the )] TJ ET BT 200.972 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET BT 239.636 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by historians, feminist polemicists or modern witches. A sensible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholar or student wanting to make sense of either Institoris's opinion of women or the historiography of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witch image, including the discussion of female witches in the introductory essay which prefaces this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation, would do well to brave the 'almost unreadable' style \(Maxwell-Stuart's description on the back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cover\) of Summers's edition \(or Mackay's if he or she can get hold of it\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The advantage of paring the selections down to the minimum is that the annotations can likewise be reduced. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To take Part I, Question 6 again, the footnotes here serve their purpose, as all good footnotes should, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clarifying elements of the text for the reader and yet, like the summaries in parentheses in the main body of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the text, they are not exhaustive. Which particular writings of the Church Fathers or Cicero refer to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immoderate tongues or women? I certainly do not want to spend time hopping from this translation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another or reading all of the possible sources simply to find an answer to this very valid question. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annotation at this point would therefore have been some recompense for the omission of the original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments. And, if Summers's translation and, indeed, the 1588 edition are full of inaccuracies which have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no doubt been incorporated unwittingly into the arguments of others, where have they been corrected in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text? Annotations would be useful in highlighting these places too.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is hard to know what to make of Maxwell-Stuart's translation. Historians and teachers of witchcraft and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonology do need an affordable up-to-date translation, and in places where the text has been left rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than summarised, this one would serve well. The introductory essay will be useful to students and I enjoyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading it. The translation, however, appears isolated from witchcraft scholarship. It is not clear why the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1588 edition has been used, why key passages have been omitted or where the translation is a correction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Summers's. This is a shame because it is certainly better written than the older version and clearer about, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, Institoris's understanding of the gender of the witch. In several respects, therefore, it does deserve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to replace it. For the time being, however, I think Summers's translation remains a rival simply because it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoys the benefits of being widely available and containing the very sections which have stimulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(June 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. G. Maxwell-Stuart agrees that the translation of a complete work is always preferable to and edited or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excerpted one, but commercial considerations and the word limits they bring with them do not always permit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a thing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 186.099 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 155.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. Kramer \(Institoris\), )] TJ ET BT 174.992 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Der Hexenhammer: Malleus Maleficarum)] TJ ET BT 377.276 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. W. Behringer, G. Jerouschek )] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and W. Tschacher \(Munich, 2000\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 235.304 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 235.304 139.827 m 289.292 139.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 126.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. Institoris and J. Sprenger, )] TJ ET BT 204.668 126.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus Maleficarum)] TJ ET BT 308.324 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. and trans. C. S. Mackay \(2 vols., Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006\) )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 111.315 m 149.000 111.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 98.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Cohn, )] TJ ET BT 110.684 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of the Millennium)] TJ ET BT 255.356 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1957\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 339.680 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 339.680 97.059 m 393.668 97.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 84.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. Kramer and J. Sprenger, )] TJ ET BT 198.644 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus Maleficarum)] TJ ET BT 302.300 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. M. Summers \(1928; repr. London, 1986\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15-24 for the introduction dated 1946. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 250.328 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 250.328 68.547 m 304.316 68.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 55.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Cohn, )] TJ ET BT 110.684 55.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe's Inner Demons: An Enquiry Inspired by the Great Witch-Hunt)] TJ ET BT 451.532 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1975\), pp. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 235.3037 140.1415 289.2917 152.0215 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 111.6295 148.9997 123.5095 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 339.6797 97.3735 393.6677 109.2535 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 250.3277 68.8615 304.3157 80.7415 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R ] /Contents 56 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Length 2696 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24-31. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 795.075 m 152.000 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Larner, )] TJ ET BT 116.000 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enemies of God: the Witch-Hunt in Scotland)] TJ ET BT 330.644 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1981\), p. 92. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 444.968 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 444.968 780.819 m 498.956 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Durrant, )] TJ ET BT 118.004 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Witchcraft, Gender and Society in Early Modern Germany)] TJ ET BT 399.956 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Leiden, 2007\), pp. 64-82. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 532.268 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 532.268 766.563 m 559.928 766.563 l S BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 752.307 m 90.344 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 'A note upon the bibliography', in )] TJ ET BT 240.992 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus)] TJ ET BT 279.656 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. 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