%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818105356+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818105356+01'00') /Title (War, State and Society in England and the Netherlands, 1477-1559) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4026 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(War, State and Society in England and the Netherlands, 1477-1559)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is the result of a bold and innovative research project funded between 1999 and 2002 by the then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arts and Humanities Research Board, with further funds provided subsequently by a number of scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions. The preface further acknowledges the support of a glittering array of scholars, not least Geoffrey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parker who read through the entire draft. It is not hard to imagine the attraction of this project for scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and funding bodies. The authors set out to do a comparative study of war and society in two different, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparable polities, England and the Netherlands, helping to undermine the unnatural, if traditional, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division between early modern English and 'European' historians. Some of the difficulties inherent in all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative work were eased by the choice of active co-operation between three experts. It is a tribute to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors that the end result is a clearly-structured, clearly-written and coherent book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study covers the period from the late 15th century, when both England and the Netherlands experienced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil and foreign wars and major dynastic change, to 1559, when a major European war in which they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(active players ended. By then both were in the early stages of new regimes. It begins with an introductory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter in which the authors explain that they intend to address the question: did war make the state? They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(express dissatisfaction with most studies of war because of their limited perspective, and express their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(674)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 30 June, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven Gunn)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Grummitt)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hans Cools)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199207503)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(395pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. J. Rodrguez-Salgado)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7937 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intention to integrate military institutions to the rest of society, and to examine how relationships of power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout society were shaped by war. In so far as they had a model in mind it was David Potter's study on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Picardy \(pp. 3-4\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 121.664 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 121.664 766.563 m 135.656 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 135.656 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The lesson they took particularly to heart from this was that war was a two-way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process, both helping to integrate the province to the French state and causing tensions that nurtured civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war. Gunn, Grummitt and Cools set out to produce a work which explored 'as subtly as possible' how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and the Netherlands 'were mobilised for war and how that process affected them', weighing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relative importance of war and of other factors in the development of each state \(p. 4\). It is evident from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(start that their conclusion will be that its impact was both positive and negative in terms of 'the state'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While declaring themselves contrary to adopting a 'sweeping overview' approach - as well as a limited one - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they do not inform the reader at the outset what their approach is or why it is superior. It is not until pp. 47-8 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that we learn that the authors have undertaken substantive primary research on five towns in England and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eight in the Netherlands. The reader is left to work out from the details offered on each of them why these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than others were chosen. On p. 132 we are informed that they selected two noble houses in England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and two in the Netherlands on the same basis as the towns, that is, 'to represent a range of geographical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political experience'. In this they succeed. The book is rich in variety, demonstrating the wisdom of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choices. The inclusion of an explanation-cum-justification at the start of the book explaining all this and how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they selected the mix of primary and secondary materials, indeed of their methodology, would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both informative and useful. Details of the problems relating to the data handled might account for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unevenness of certain sections. Although it might be thought that with two authors working on England and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one on the Netherlands there would be a general imbalance, this is not the case. For whatever reason, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many sections the wealth of detail is more marked on the Netherlands side.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introductory chapter includes a highly condensed description of the two polities, ranging from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population to political structures, and a terse, factual narrative of the multiple wars that they engaged in, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without much detail on motivation. Inevitably, perhaps, their conclusions here are broad - 'Wars came in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many shapes and sizes' \(p. 11\) - and one wonders if this was entirely necessary. They do include some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensible caveats, however, warning us that 'to equate successful war with successful government is ... to over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplify' \(p. 6\) and that successful rulers were often good on all aspects of government, but then state that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsuccessful ones found that 'failure abroad brought breakdown at home' \(p. 7\). The introductory section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ends with a description of the military institutions and fiscal developments in both polities, concluding that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while war forged stronger military and fiscal systems in both, these changes did not lead to a permanent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increase in the power of the state. There is no simple correlation between the two.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The heart of the book lies in three parts which draw on their primary research: the first is devoted to the topic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of towns at war; the second to the nobles at war; and the third to subjects at war. All have the same, clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure: an introduction, several chapters, each divided into labelled sub-sections, which explore different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics, and a conclusion. Each, invariably brief section, has two parts: one dealing with the English state, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other with the Netherlands. This makes the book relatively easy to consult when searching for specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics, but makes it somewhat disparate and data-driven. It recalls the warning of J. H. Elliott that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative works can resemble a historical Wimbledon and leave the reader with a crick in the neck. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 527.888 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 527.888 231.603 m 541.880 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gunn, Grummitt and Cools ensure that the reader is not overwhelmed by the data or lost in the detail by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constant recourse to conclusions at the end of sections and a final conclusion at the end of each part which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summarises the main points thus far. Nevertheless, the book remains more for consultation than sustained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading. Inevitably, there are sections that yield greater findings than others and the questions they ask are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse and interesting enough to provide something of value for a wide public. There are myriad details for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone interested in early modern society and not just in war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the section on towns at war they review urban military resources, life during wartime, war and urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments, and towns in the polity. They illustrate how the towns they studied were variously affected by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preparations and participation in war, and in particular how different its impact was, depending on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(location and duration of the conflict as well as the economy of the town. In some instances war led to greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state interference, whether to fund or organise fortifications, provide artillery or commandeer financial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other resources, but frequently it also reinforced the authority of urban elites as the crown was forced to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 121.6637 766.8775 135.6557 778.7575 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 527.8877 231.9175 541.8797 243.7975 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7587 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devolve powers over tax or for gathering resources to the urban authorities. It is evident from these data that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war frequently divided urban areas, as different sectors were diversely affected by tax and other demands. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But it also often nurtured urban solidarity, which could turn against the crown and lead to rebellion or civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war. The picture that emerges in many instances is of the monarch attempting to secure the necessary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources without having to relinquish too much power, particularly in the Netherlands. In both states the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach was consensual rather than conflictive. The authors are to be praised for not shying away from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(honest reporting of their findings. They assert that war might benefit but might also undermine the power of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both monarchs and the local elites. A host of factors affected the outcome. Moreover, they admit \(p. 87\) that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is 'hard to say' how seriously war affected urban economies, but propose that it did not have as great an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on the development of urban areas as other, economic factors. This is as true of Netherlands towns, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where war played a much greater role, being more frequent and immediate than in England. One major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference they detect is that whereas in the former urban elites were able to divert the burden of taxation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, in England they suffered most from higher taxes prompted by war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In their third section, which is devoted to the nobles, they explore the military resources of the nobility, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role as commanders, the costs and reward it brought them both in financial terms and by way of power and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority. There are chapters on the way it affected their identity and their relations with the state. Again, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture they paint is very complex and varied, but overall their conclusions confirm the received view of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interdependence of sovereign and noble \(e.g. pp. 128, 132 and 234\). They argue that war played 'a part in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defining the social and political position of many leading noblemen'\(p. 233\). In fact, it retained its 'central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance in noble identity' \(p. 234\) as can be seen in all aspects of noble culture and their willingness to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adapt to the growing technological challenges of war in order to maintain their central role. The authors note )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the decline of the 'quasi-feudal' system and trace the greater reliance on 'national' recruitment, especially in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, which was often mediated through urban authorities but sometimes also through nobles. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was extensive use of foreign mercenaries in the Netherlands, the role of local nobles in all aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war remained crucial because much of the war was taking place on their own soil. From organising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provisions to the command of provinces, fortifications and armies, the crown relied on them and this in turn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped 'to preserve and develop noble power' \(p. 234\). The Percies offer a perfect and fascinating case study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the dangers - for nobles and crown - of individuals who failed to fulfil their traditional role as military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As in the case of towns, the authors accept that it is not possible to distinguish in most cases the precise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of war on nobles, since, 'at every turn war service blended into other aspects of service to the prince' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 188\). They admit that most grants of offices and lands as well as gifts were prompted by many factors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other than, or in conjunction with, military service. Their conclusion that military success was more likely to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result in political favour in England \(under Henry VIII at least\) rather misses the point that it had a similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on Charles V, but he drew on areas outside the Netherlands for his commanders.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction to the fourth and final section on subjects, specifically invokes its determination to shed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(light on 'state formation' \(p. 239\). It has interesting material on the representation and justification of war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although they do not often account for who was responsible for this production, they make a brave attempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to gauge its reception. Some of their findings may surprise us: the English apparently celebrated war more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than peace but royal births most of all, while the Netherlands privileged peace in their celebrations \(pp. 269-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70\) which is ascribed to the dependence of the Netherlands on long-distance trade \(p. 332\). They argue that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while England was more interested in debating taxation than war, the contrary was true of the Netherlands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 282\). This section shows more clearly than most the comparative perspective yielding striking results. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither state was it found that commercial interest groups formed to promote war, nor did they have a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(singular attitude towards soldiers, now seeing them as defenders, now as mortal enemies. English attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became more negative in the 1540s as the numbers of soldiers on their soil increased. The received wisdom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that military traditions in the Netherlands withered under the Habsburgs is challenged \(p. 295\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is argued here that the impact of war on religion and vice versa was 'very different' in both states. Peace, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not war, brought religious crisis in the Netherlands, while in England religious change was used to justify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war \(p. 307\). These arguments needed deeper and more detailed development to be convincing. To make just )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7833 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one point, Charles V was as affected by religious change and used religious validation every bit as much as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry VIII. What chiefly differed was the faith they chose to promote, not the use they made of religion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Research on both polities \(312ff\) confirms that war strengthened both local and regional identities, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('national' identity, yet in the Netherlands the former predominated \(p. 314\) while in England it was the latter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as longstanding traditions of nationhood were strengthened \(pp. 317-9\). They link this to the continuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reliance of the English crown on 'national' recruitment as opposed to foreign and non-subject troops. Less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affected by war, the English ostensibly 'needed less persuading of the benefits of having a warrior prince' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(323\). But on both sides of the Channel, unsuccessful war could lead to a diminution of the sovereign's power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter offers a general conclusion in a very few pages of admirable clarity and concision, if no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater depth \(pp. 329-34\). It reiterates the main findings of the book and reasserts that 'the ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war shaped the state were complicated and often contradictory.' Nonetheless they insist that 'war did shape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state and did so to considerable effect' \(p. 329\). Overall, they conclude that war played a larger part in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Netherlands as a result of geopolitics and tradition and come to the conclusion that the 'model of state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation' they have provided resembles most closely what M. J. Braddick described for England in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second half of the 16th and in the 17th centuries. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 270.980 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 270.980 583.491 m 284.972 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 284.972 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( They endorse his identification of four primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements making up the state: fiscal-military, patriarchal, confessional and dynastic, and restate his belief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that state power develops in each area at different speeds and for different reasons \(p. 333\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Curiously, although the project was looking at war and the state, that most vital of all elements linking them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is missing: the sovereign. Once past the narrative of the wars at the outset, monarchs and the court appear, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often in passing, in connexion to the urban areas and nobles rather than as the central figures they were in all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wars. Much the same can be said of the church. Ironically, there is more on both of these under the section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on 'subjects' than in others. There is no adequate discussion of the impact of female rulers and regents even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although this certainly affected relations, particularly with the nobility. There are brief comments \(p. 245, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(252\) on the coming to power of Mary and Elizabeth, mostly on how it affected the image of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarch. In the Netherlands, two female regents held power for most of the emperor's reign, but there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only brief, passing references \(as at p. 190\) of the tensions this caused, although Margaret and Mary were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved in all aspects of war and wrote at length of the problems they faced. Perhaps it was the need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrate on a limited range of more easily comparable elements that led the authors to underplay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(although they are not altogether ignored\) some of the differences between the two states, including the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reliance of Netherlands rulers on foreign loans often repaid in other states, and the impact of the seizure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church property in England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Granted that the primary material gathered here has made a valuable contribution to the field, it is still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pertinent to consider whether the comparative approach yielded better results than two separate monographs. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elliott is surely right that 'even imperfect comparisons can help to shake historians out of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provincialism', and that this approach can result in provoking new questions and perspectives. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 487.784 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 487.784 274.371 m 501.776 274.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 501.776 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions here are frequently very good, but the responses usually consist of extremely varied examples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the two polities, some more, some less relevant or interesting, often unevenly distributed. There was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such extraordinary variety produced by the primary material in each, that to compare it to the equally varied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set of examples of the other polity added to the complexity but did little to deepen our understanding. At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time, it was impossible to determine from the limited range of examples how far they constituted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exception or the norm. Much of the book is dedicated to the transmission of data, with examples aligned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around a given topic, and in-depth analysis is a casualty which no amount of clear, concluding commentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can entirely rescue. All the states of early modern Europe - and this includes England - were extraordinarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse, and given the level of knowledge we have, further monographs, be they regional or state-wide, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary before comparative works can be effective. In any case, it could be argued that the 'overview' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach discarded here is more suited to comparative works than the partially monographic approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted, since a higher level of abstraction suits the methodology better. Ultimately, while this study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides us with a lot of useful data, it lacks both the depth of the monograph and the breadth of the synthesis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book highlights the shortcomings of the current obsession with studying war in the context of 'state )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 270.9797 583.8055 284.9717 595.6855 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 487.7837 274.6855 501.7757 286.5655 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 3969 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building' or 'state formation'. Exposing an underlying and perhaps unresolved tension within this work, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors assert that they have provided us with a 'model' of state formation \(p. 333\), but conclude the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a plea for a study of war 'as a process with deep social and political ramifications', that discards 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teleology of national state formation' \(p. 334\). What emerges here is not a model but an abundance of often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictory data. That is one of the book's strengths. Their findings challenge the current tendency to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limit - and justify - the study of war in terms of 'state formation' by clearly demonstrating the complex and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multi-faceted impact of war on all areas of the early modern state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 676.035 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. L. Potter, )] TJ ET BT 126.680 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War and Government in the French Provinces: Picardy 1470-1560)] TJ ET BT 449.288 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1993\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 629.763 m 118.004 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. H. Elliott, )] TJ ET BT 125.360 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Richelieu and Olivares)] TJ ET BT 236.012 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1984\) p.6. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.332 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.332 615.507 m 408.320 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. J. Braddick, )] TJ ET BT 141.344 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State Formation in Early Modern England c.1550-1700)] TJ ET BT 409.664 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2000\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 509.984 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 509.984 601.251 m 549.980 601.251 l S BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 586.995 m 78.008 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. H. Elliott, )] TJ ET BT 125.360 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empires of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in America 1492-1830)] TJ ET BT 472.688 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Newhaven and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, 2006\), p.xvii. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 175.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 175.016 558.483 m 229.004 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 533.621 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net-review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showpdf.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 503.715 m 241.664 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 244.664 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 500.383 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 482.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 482.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/674)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 481.209 m 322.316 481.209 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 456.232 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3648)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showpdf.php?id=24423)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 630.0775 118.0037 641.9575 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 354.3317 615.8215 408.3197 627.7015 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 509.9837 601.5655 549.9797 613.4455 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 587.3095 78.0077 599.1895 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 175.0157 558.7975 229.0037 570.6775 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 504.0295 241.6637 515.9095 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showpdf.php?id=24423) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 481.5235 322.3157 493.4035 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/674) >> endobj xref 0 48 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000574 00000 n 0000000656 00000 n 0000004734 00000 n 0000004843 00000 n 0000004953 00000 n 0000005062 00000 n 0000008623 00000 n 0000008751 00000 n 0000008835 00000 n 0000008926 00000 n 0000016916 00000 n 0000016946 00000 n 0000017074 00000 n 0000017110 00000 n 0000017140 00000 n 0000017268 00000 n 0000017304 00000 n 0000017369 00000 n 0000025009 00000 n 0000025100 00000 n 0000032986 00000 n 0000033016 00000 n 0000033144 00000 n 0000033180 00000 n 0000033210 00000 n 0000033338 00000 n 0000033374 00000 n 0000033500 00000 n 0000037522 00000 n 0000037649 00000 n 0000037704 00000 n 0000037832 00000 n 0000037887 00000 n 0000038015 00000 n 0000038070 00000 n 0000038196 00000 n 0000038251 00000 n 0000038379 00000 n 0000038434 00000 n 0000038561 00000 n 0000038662 00000 n 0000038790 00000 n trailer << /Size 48 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38885 %%EOF