%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140709164018+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140709164018+01'00') /Title (Tyburn's Martyrs: Execution in England 1675-1775) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1781 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Tyburn's Martyrs: Execution in England 1675-1775)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(677)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 July, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrea McKenzie)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781847251718)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hambledon Continuum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Sharpe)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7783 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrea McKenzie begins her preface to )] TJ ET BT 228.608 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tyburn's Martyrs )] TJ ET BT 315.176 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by attempting to locate the 18th-century Tyburn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(execution in the broader modern cultural context. It is, she contends, the most familiar and evocative image )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from that century, synonymous with the brutality of a past age and viewed as a grotesque spectator sport to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which horror and disgust seem to be the sole appropriate responses for modern sensibilities. In one sense, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of the general reading public, she is correct. Yet, as she is fully aware, a number of historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turned their attention to the phenomenon of the early modern English public execution and have developed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of interpretations of its significance. Setting aside a piece of juvenilia by the present reviewer, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have Peter Linebaugh's massive book, which covers roughly the same period as does McKenzie's, but tells a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very different story; an essay by T. W. Laqueur, which again adopts a different emphasis, stressing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('carnivalesque' elements in the public execution; a number of incisive articles by Randall McGowen, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer a set of emphases more in line with McKenzie's; and another massive and thoughtful book by V. A. C. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gatrell which in effect picks up the story where )] TJ ET BT 265.628 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tyburn's Martyrs )] TJ ET BT 352.196 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ends. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 380.192 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 380.192 626.259 m 394.184 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 394.184 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( What is obvious, not least on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the very diversity of approaches and emphases offered by these and other historians, is that we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are still a fair distance from really getting a grip on the cultural significance \(or more accurately, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significances\) of the early modern English public execution. McKenzie's book, happily, is an important new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work which develops a fresh approach to the topic, and moves us forward significantly towards a deeper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the phenomenon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the first step towards understanding her approach is to ponder on her title. 'Tyburn's Martyrs', one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspects, appealed to the publisher, but it does place a certain onus on the author to explain in what ways the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary criminals - the murderers, rapists, thieves, burglars, robbers and forgers - executed at Tyburn can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classed as martyrs, especially as \(unlike Linebaugh\) she does not privilege the notion that these people were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims of the advance of capitalism, or conversely, of an unjust legal code. Rather she hopes to justify her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book's title by demonstrating that:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the degree to which the language of martyrology, legitimation and resistance were intertwined in this period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that traitors, martyrs, murderers and robbers alike drew from a common eschatology in which the 'good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death' was not only an ultimate goal, but a powerful political and metaphysical statement \(p. xvi\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McKenzie thus takes as her focus the religious rhetoric which has previously been noted by a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians as a defining feature of both the 'last dying speeches' made, or allegedly made, by condemned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offenders on the scaffold and of the more general accounts of the fate of offenders. At the centre of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis is the concept of the offender as 'everyman' \(or, when appropriate, 'everywoman'\). Her argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and it is difficult to explore it fully even in the context of a fairly lengthy review\) is that, given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universalist concept of guilt present in contemporary thought which implied that everyone could be a sinner, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyone in turn could, potentially at least, be a criminal. This did not obscure the basic idea that persons of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ill life had only themselves to blame if misfortune befell them, especially if they persisted in their wrong-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doing in the face of human and divine warnings. Yet even the most reprobate of offenders, on the logic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary popular theology, could save themselves from eternal torment if they made a 'full, free and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ingenuous' confession in their final moments. Hence the 'last dying speech' acquired a profound importance: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the statements made in these speeches, it was generally agreed, were unlikely to be feigned or dishonest. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Men and women about to meet their maker were not going to dissemble. And, according to McKenzie, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assurance of salvation customarily expressed in these speeches 'could all too easily shade into the forms and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventions of martyrological literature, with ordinary criminals borrowing the words and gestures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth- and seventeenth-century martyrs and political prisoners' \(p. 163\). It was through this process that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ordinary criminals could be equated, on McKenzie's reading, with martyrs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although there may be doubts with McKenzie's extension of the status of martyrdom to the execution of run-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of-the-mill murderers and thieves \(in the period this book covers well over 80 per cent of those executed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were property offenders\) her thorough and imaginative exploration of the religious dimensions of public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(execution is welcome. Moreover, on her reading, it helps justify the period covered in her book. Like any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian, McKenzie is source-bound. Although she makes skilful use of a dazzling array of contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed materials, the sources she uses most consistently, and certainly the one she discusses most, are the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 37.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Accounts )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 380.1917 626.5735 394.1837 638.4535 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8142 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the ordinary of Newgate - the clergyman whose responsibility it was to minister to those held in )] TJ ET BT 509.960 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison. The ordinary also augmented his modest stipend with the profits from publishing in the )] TJ ET BT 491.996 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Accounts)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stories of how convicted criminals went to their deaths. These )] TJ ET BT 334.304 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Accounts )] TJ ET BT 381.296 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to appear regularly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something like a standard form around 1675 - a point at which, according to McKenzie, there was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explosion in literature dealing with the lives of criminals - until the 1770s when they apparently ceased to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded as a popular medium for describing the lives and execution of criminals. By this date, again on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McKenzie's reading, some important changes were taking place in at least elite views on how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemned criminal fitted into the broader Christian scheme of things. From the early 18th century onwards, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church of England clergymen were becoming increasingly unconvinced that a 'good death' compensated for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a reprobate life, while for many the gallows confession smacked of the auricular confession which was one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the characteristics of Roman Catholicism. The first of these doubts challenged the view of the offender as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('everyman', a view which was eroded as the traditional Calvinist concept of free grace lost its hold, and with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it the concept of universal human depravity, processes possibly accelerated among the elite by the spread of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlightenment notions of individuality and subjectivity. Among the population at large, the traditional views )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to prevail and were given a massive reinforcement by the spread of Methodism with its emphasis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the ready availability of grace: from the mid-18th century Newgate ordinaries found ministering to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Methodist prisoners considerably more irksome than meeting the spiritual needs of Roman Catholic inmates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite her assertion, at least for the years up to 1750, of the pervasiveness of the theological paradigm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around the condemned which she has reconstructed, McKenzie is acutely aware of the ways in which that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradigm was contested by the conduct of at least some of those standing on the gallows. If the public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(execution was a theatre of punishment, certainly some of the )] TJ ET BT 328.292 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dramatis personae )] TJ ET BT 420.956 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were unwilling to play the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roles allotted to them. Sometimes, of course, they played them too well. There were the five Jesuit priests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(executed in the time of the Popish Plot, whose conduct on the scaffold attracted approbation both from many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of the crowd assembled to see them die and from among contemporary commentators. In some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases attempts to deviate from the script were thwarted. Sir Henry Vane, executed for treason in 1662, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempted to read a speech on the gallows which )] TJ ET BT 269.636 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inter alia)] TJ ET BT 313.976 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( questioned the legality of his sentence, only to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have the sheriff order trumpets to be blown to mask his words, and have the same official tear the paper on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which his speech was written out of his hands. This might be expected given the political nature of Vane's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offence, but McKenzie traces a number of instances in which 'gallows censorship' was exercised against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary criminals. To complicate matters further, McKenzie, like a number of earlier historians, notes how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the audiences at public executions might sometimes behave unpredictably, appropriating what was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially an exercise in state authority for their own purposes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the greatest problem for McKenzie's conceptual framework, as it is for any historian stressing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normative objectives and impact of public executions, were those criminals who rejected the religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradigm, showed little signs of contrition and died 'game' rather than repentant. It is perhaps instructive that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the term 'dying game', on McKenzie's analysis, does not appear widely in print until the late 18th century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first use of the term has been attributed to John Gay's )] TJ ET BT 314.132 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Beggar's Opera )] TJ ET BT 414.356 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1727, although McKenzie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was unable to trace it there, and her own researches reveal the first and isolated use of the term in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary's )] TJ ET BT 84.500 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Account )] TJ ET BT 126.824 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1752. Much more commonly used was the expression 'die like a man', which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(current throughout the 18th century and which, of course, carried heavily gendered overtones. 'Dying like a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man' could embody a number of different slants on masculinity, but most frequently, in the context of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public execution, it involved dying with courage and without too overt a show of penitence \(it should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noted that the overwhelming majority of the female condemned were depicted as dying penitently\). Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct drew the opprobrium of contemporary observers: Henry Fielding declared that the 'day appointed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law for the thief's shame' became his or her 'day of glory'. Perhaps the most consistent strand of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opprobrium was held for those who died bravely and who consistently showed a total lack of religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feeling. Some men did show a surprising lack of concern on the gallows: Paul Lewis, a highwayman who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(died very game indeed in 1763, appalled the ordinary by going to his death singing 'if gold from the law can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take out the sting', one of the most socially subversive airs from the )] TJ ET BT 360.812 88.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beggar's Opera)] TJ ET BT 437.036 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But we owe most of our images of the unrepentant criminal dying vainglorious, drunken and impious to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7461 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostile social critics like Mandeville or Fielding, rather than to sources like the ordinary's )] TJ ET BT 465.128 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Account)] TJ ET BT 504.452 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McKenzie shows, most of those dying game were still observing many of the conventions expected of them, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even if they were doing so on their own terms; they were coping with the pain and shame of public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(execution, but doing so in ways which suited them. Some went to their deaths drunk, although many did not. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some, if they were able to evade the 'gallows censorship' of the sheriff or other officials, delivered a critique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the legal system which had brought them to their unhappy end. Many proved 'obstinate' in that, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observing the convention of accepting that their death was a just reward for their sinful life, they proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwilling to confess the crime for which they had been convicted and professed their innocence. Most of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them made it clear that they were neither unwilling nor afraid to die. And it is here, as on other occasions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that McKenzie leads us into the world of scaffold rituals, with the condemned dressing like bridegrooms, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wearing white cockades as a symbol of their innocence. Yet here as elsewhere, McKenzie is surely correct in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguing that, frequently, the condemned man who died game was not hurling defiance at officials and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crowd, but rather entering into a recognisable cultural discourse. Where I feel that McKenzie is mistaken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and this returns us to problems with the book's title\), is her equation between dying game and martyrdom. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus when she suggests that 'both in his cheerful demeanour and his refusal to succumb to tears - the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional signs not just of penitence, but of an acknowledgement of guilt - the game criminal resembled not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so much the penitent as the martyr' \(p. 194\), we are forced again to ask as the martyr to what, and to wonder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if McKenzie is not stretching her conceptual framework just a little too far here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To maintain a critical mode for a little longer, I hope I will be excused for making some observations on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related issues \(and I accept you can only get so much into one book\) which perhaps might have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explored more fully in )] TJ ET BT 144.668 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tyburn's Martyrs)] TJ ET BT 228.236 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first of these, which McKenzie acknowledges briefly, is that, as with any work focusing on the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17th- and 18th-century public execution, there needs to be due attention to the fact that levels of execution, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above all for property offences, were running at a much higher level in the Elizabethan and early Stuart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periods than they were for the century after 1675. The explanation for the massive drop in executions after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the middle decades of the 17th century remains elusive, but perhaps the phenomenon needed more emphasis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than it is given here, not least because it very much sets the scene for the early years of the period covered by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McKenzie's study. A deeper exploration of the decades around 1600 might also have been useful on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grounds that the moral and theological universe in which the late Stuart and 18th-century condemned found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves and which is so effectively evoked in this book was essentially constructed in that earlier period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, a discussion in changes in non-capital punishments, and attitudes towards them, would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome. This is a less well-explored theme than the public execution, but historians of crime and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punishment are beginning to interest themselves in shifts in secondary punishments. Many of these \(notably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pillory, whipping, and church-court penance\) were public, and it would be interesting to see if the type of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes to punishment encapsulated in McKenzie's interpretation of public execution might also be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operating in the field of public secondary punishments. Clearly, public execution was exceptional in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolic and practical importance: for the state to kill one of its citizens has greater impact on a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels than putting them in a pillory or making them confess their faults in their parish church on a Sunday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morning. Yet surely our future researches into the history of capital punishment must be informed by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of these lesser punishments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lastly, there is the worrying concentration on punishment in the capital, which will become more marked as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fruits of research facilitated by having the Old Bailey Sessions Papers online are published. Again, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McKenzie is aware of the problem, and does include some materials from outside London - it is especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gratifying to see Dick Turpin's execution at York being referred to occasionally. Of course one has to accept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there simply may not be the depth or density of sources available to make a full-scale regional study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital punishment in 18th-century England possible. Yet as we consider future researches into the subject, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is obvious that such provincial materials as there are must be brought in to correct or confirm models which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are founded primarily on metropolitan sources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But this is for the future. For the present, McKenzie has provided us with an extremely original, very well-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 3081 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documented, and consistently incisive book which adds deeply to our understanding of the early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public execution and which will be essential reading for to any historian wishing to pursue the subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further. As such, it is an extremely welcome addition to publications on the history of punishment and will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely also be required reading for historians of religion in 18th-century England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.803 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. A. Sharpe, 'Last dying speeches: religion, ideology and public execution in 17th-century England', )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 146.012 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 107 \(1984\), 144-67; P. Linebaugh, )] TJ ET BT 321.332 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The London Hanged: Crime and Civil Society in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the 18th Century)] TJ ET BT 144.680 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2003\); T. W. Laqueur, 'Crowds, carnival and the state in English )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(executions, 1604-1868', in )] TJ ET BT 193.832 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The First Modern Society: Essays in English History in Honour of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence Stone)] TJ ET BT 141.008 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. L. Beier, D. Cannadine and J. M. Rosenheim \(Cambridge, 1989\), pp. 305-56; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(e.g. R. McGowen, 'He beareth not the sword in vain: religion and the criminal law in 18th-century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England', )] TJ ET BT 112.172 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(18th-Century Studies)] TJ ET BT 213.836 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 21 \(1987-8\), 192 - 211; V. A. C. Gatrell, )] TJ ET BT 417.812 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hanging Tree: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Execution and the English People, 1770-1868)] TJ ET BT 284.660 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1994\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 366.308 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 366.308 586.995 m 420.296 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 562.133 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 543.151 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 525.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 525.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/677)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 523.977 m 322.316 523.977 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 499.000 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3652)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 366.3077 587.3095 420.2957 599.1895 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 524.2915 322.3157 536.1715 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/677) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000558 00000 n 0000000640 00000 n 0000002473 00000 n 0000002582 00000 n 0000002692 00000 n 0000002801 00000 n 0000006362 00000 n 0000006490 00000 n 0000006574 00000 n 0000006658 00000 n 0000014494 00000 n 0000014524 00000 n 0000014652 00000 n 0000014688 00000 n 0000014753 00000 n 0000022948 00000 n 0000023013 00000 n 0000030527 00000 n 0000030618 00000 n 0000033752 00000 n 0000033880 00000 n 0000033935 00000 n 0000034063 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34158 %%EOF