%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141028183357+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141028183357+00'00') /Title (Amateurism in British Sport: It Matters Not Who Won or Lost?) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4130 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Amateurism in British Sport: It Matters Not Who Won or Lost?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are very few books about amateurism. But it is also true that most books about sport in the century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before 1960 are about amateurism because it was the idea dominant in the politics and administration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport. One can no more ignore amateurism in the development of modern sport than one could ignore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion in medieval politics. That the idea itself should be so little studied is partly because \(to repeat a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar complaint\) sport itself had so little academic attention for so long and partly because it was so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central to the idea of sport that it was taken for granted and not distinguished from the idea of sport itself. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But it was also because, as Richard Holt - one of the contributors to this volume - has put it, it has usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been treated as if it were 'really' something else, usually an expression of elitism or some other form of class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prejudice. Yet I would argue that amateurism is a complex and important idea quite apart from the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts in which it existed and the social purposes it served. So it is good to see an edited collection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious studies of the interpretation of amateurism written by established social historians. It is necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an edited volume: no single historian could have come close to covering this ground. Five of the ten essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(not counting the introduction\) are about particular sports: these are by Wray Vamplew and Joyce Kay on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racing, Tony Collins on rugby, Dilwyn Porter on football, Jack Williams on cricket and Stephen Wagg on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(678)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 August, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dorothy Porter)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Wagg)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415380447)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(80.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(201pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415380447/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lincoln Allison)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7864 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rowing. The remaining five are on aspects of the amateur idea: Richard Holt writes on the urban middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class cult of health and fitness, Martin Polley on the diplomatic use of British amateur values, James Riordan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on leftist interpretations of amateurism, John Bale on amateurism as exemplified and interpreted in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career of Sir Roger Bannister and Jeffrey Hill on the fictional character Alf Tupper.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the whole there is relatively little evidence here to support Sir Keith Thomas's allegation that most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary historians are the slaves of defunct social theorists. The major exception is John Bale's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of Bannister's career which uses Pierre Bourdieu's notion of 'capital' to demonstrate what Bannister )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gained from being an athlete. Frankly, this seems like an attempt to create a theoretical mountain out of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptual molehill. Is anybody denying that generations of \(mainly\) boys made substantial personal gains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from their prowess at sport?: they were better treated at school, more likely to be accepted by the varsity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more likely, too, to get a start in the City. To dress all this up as the acquisition of 'capital' seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unnecessary and confusing. Status is not capital just as prestige is not power: we need more concepts rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than fewer. In any case, since 'cultural capital' and 'social capital' must exist in every form of society, 'capital' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becomes an extremely blurred concept and 'capitalism' ubiquitous.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In contrast to this account of the gains made by a middle-class athlete from amateur sport there are two very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting essays on working-class amateurism. One is James Riordan's 'Amateurism, Sport and the Left: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amateurism for All Versus Amateur Elitism' which covers a range of working-class and socialist sports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations. The other is Jeffrey Hill's '"I'll Run Him": Alf Tupper, Social Class and British Amateurism'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tupper, the 'Tough of the Track', appeared in various comics aimed at a predominantly working-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market between 1949 and 1991. He often had to weld all night before taking on the 'toffs' from the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(college who were in full-time training and on specialist diets \(Alf ate only fish and chips\). A caricature, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, but the point is well taken that, for all the insistence by public school amateurs that the only true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amateur is a 'gentleman', it is also true, in a clear and important sense, that working-class amateurism was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purer form than that of those for whom sport was an enhancer of )] TJ ET BT 346.940 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(curricula vitae)] TJ ET BT 417.932 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a concept so central to the organisation of sport for so long, amateurism was subject to a wide variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitions and interpretations. In cricket, for example, all players in the 'first class' game were known as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professionals or amateurs, but there was no definition of the distinction. W. G. Grace, with his massive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expenses, and C. B. Fry with his coaching columns in )] TJ ET BT 295.004 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Captain )] TJ ET BT 357.680 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(et al., would have wholly failed the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precise tests of 'no material gain' set up by the Rugby Union \(and, later, the International Olympic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Committee or the National Colleges Athletic Administration in the USA\). It was not just definition, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice, which differed. Though distinguished from each other in a number of ritualistic ways, amateurs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professionals played with each other on the cricket field, as did the very limited number of amateurs who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were capable of doing so \(including C. B. Fry\) in Association Football, and there are a plethora of quotations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the amateurs in both games about what splendid chaps the professionals are \(albeit a little bit )] TJ ET BT 508.952 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(too)] TJ ET BT 524.288 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( loyal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to each other\). In National Hunt racing before 1914, according to Vamplew and Kay, professionals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amateurs competed on equal terms with more or less equal success, though this was never true of flat racing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ceased to be true in any form of racing after 1918. The equestrian traditions of the squirearchy and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military were factors in this and it is also important that hurdles and steeplechases require a good deal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courage as well as technique, whereas the weight requirements are much less stringent than in 'flat' racing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By contrast, the Rugby Union notoriously outlawed anybody who had ever played any sport for money )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the Amateur Rowing Association insisted on 'gentlemanly' status, a necessary condition of which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that a competitor must never have worked manually. This led to the banning of the American J. H. B. Kelly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the father of Grace Kelly the actress and princess\) and the Australian Henry Pearce, both of whom were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olympic champions, from the Royal Regatta at Henley. In Pearce's case police work was declared to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manual! The five sports divided along the same lines on the question of changing status. Nobody worried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about a cricketer, footballer or rider who had competed professionally choosing to compete as an amateur at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a later date, but this was absolutely forbidden in rugby and rowing. It is worth noting that the one sport in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the amateurs were largely on the losing side of the contest with professionalism, Association Football, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the one which, in the post-amateur 21st century, still retains its distinction, albeit in a tiny, ring-fenced, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enclave. I refer to the continuing existence of such institutions as the Amateur Football Alliance, the Arthur )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5846 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dunn Cup and the Arthurian League.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With all academic collections it is possible to conceive of a more perfectly complete set of essays, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual 'dream team'. This book would be better if it had chapters on racket games and boxing, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, and a general account of the working of track and field athletics. But this is the counsel of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perfection: I know from bitter experience that you are doing well if you can find scholars to cover 70 per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cent of what you want in an edited book, and even then, you are pleased if all of them produce as promised. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a reasonably comprehensive book and an important text for anyone with a serious interest in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of British sport. It is also very well written, certainly for a reader who has to read a good deal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociology and political science. Actually, I think there would be a market among intellectually curious sports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fans for it if the presentation and distribution of academic books were done differently. And there ought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be a market among sports journalists, many of whom often demonstrate a sad ignorance of the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background of the events they are covering.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have two quibbles, though, and they may be connected. The first concerns the subtitle. 'It matters not who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(won or lost' is, so far as I know, a common misquotation of:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 548.770 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For when that One Great Scorer comes to mark against your name,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 534.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He writes - not that you won or lost - but how you played the game.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The quotation is from a poem called 'Alumnus Football' by Grantland Rice, an American writer, and is thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 481.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a dubious phrase to use to define British amateurism. The couplet was quoted by Jonathan Miller in )] TJ ET BT 515.300 481.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Fringe)] TJ ET BT 84.344 467.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and attributed to the English poet W. E. Henley. I don't think this is mere pedantry: American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defences of amateurism were always edgier and more extreme than those in England - as witnessed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenure as President of the International Olympic Association of Avery Brundage between 1952 and 1972. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 424.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And British amateurs were never taught that, once you were on the field or the water, that it did not matter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether you won or not because victory \(in the right spirit and using legitimate methods\) was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstration of character.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The larger quibble is with certain assumptions that historians make about ideas and their context - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 355.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially, that the former must always be understood in terms of the latter. Thus it is entirely natural to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand amateurism in terms of social class and I would not wish to deny that this is a necessary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important dimension of any understanding of amateurism as a phenomenon. But there is another dimension, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is that amateurism appealed to people precisely because it did not arise from and was not a fit to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 298.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society around it. Pierre de Coubertin was so excited by his discovery of Rugby School because what he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought he saw there was a revival of ancient aristocratic values and in a surprising place, the most 'modern' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and commercial and technologically advanced society in Europe. Millions of players since have loved their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rugby club or cricket club or golf club because it was in an important way a cultural oasis, ring-fenced from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 241.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'normal' world of the market and the state. Amateurism was as much about values and institutions which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspired to be above or outside their social context as it was about social reality. I am not convinced that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians ever fully appreciate that sort of factor.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.109 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 168.127 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 150.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 150.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/678)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 148.953 m 322.316 148.953 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 123.976 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.576 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3653)] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.176 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 149.2675 322.3157 161.1475 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/678) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000556 00000 n 0000000638 00000 n 0000004820 00000 n 0000004929 00000 n 0000005039 00000 n 0000005148 00000 n 0000008709 00000 n 0000008837 00000 n 0000008921 00000 n 0000008986 00000 n 0000016903 00000 n 0000016987 00000 n 0000022886 00000 n 0000023014 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 23109 %%EOF