%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140830154740+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140830154740+01'00') /Title (Sport and Society in Victorian Ireland: The Case of Westmeath) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4825 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sport and Society in Victorian Ireland: The Case of Westmeath)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Until the last decade, scholarly work on the history of sport and leisure in Ireland was most noted by its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence. Historians of modern Ireland almost entirely ignored the importance of sport as a historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon, preferring to concentrate on matters of church and state. The result of this was the publication )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of highly-regarded volumes which focused on the development of modern Irish society, but almost entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignored sport. For example, J. J. Lee's brilliant )] TJ ET BT 260.156 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ireland: Politics and Society 1912-85 )] TJ ET BT 443.804 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially ignores )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 214.905 m 78.008 214.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 78.008 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And this despite the fact that Lee once wrote in a newspaper column:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For many people, sport isn't just the icing on the cake of life. It is life. Next to sex, it is what makes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world go round for a large proportion of the western world, now with plenty of time on its hands and not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion of what to do with it. That is why sport has become far too important to be left entirely to the sports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 67.340 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 67.340 145.881 m 81.332 145.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And yet, sport did not make it to the history pages. Within this vacuum, a series of caricatures prospered. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most of these focused on the relationship between sport and politics in Ireland, notably on the role of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaelic Athletic Association \(GAA\) following its foundation in November 1884. In)] TJ ET BT 431.636 92.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Paddy and Mr Punch: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Connections in Irish and English History)] TJ ET BT 231.692 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for example, Roy Foster laments the chauvinists of the GAA and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their propensity for 'deliberately embracing illogic'. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 283.964 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 283.964 62.601 m 297.956 62.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 297.956 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Foster's essays were beautifully written, but examine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only one aspect of one section of the GAA and transpose that onto the organisation as a whole, all the while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(679)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 July, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Hunt)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781859184158)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(374pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cork University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cork)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Rouse)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 215.2195 78.0077 227.0995 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 67.3397 146.1955 81.3317 158.0755 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 283.9637 62.9155 297.9557 74.7955 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 8021 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forgetting that it was primarily a sporting body.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the 1990s Alan Bairner and Mike Cronin applied methodologies of English sports historiography and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced works of considerable quality which examined the relationship between sport and political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious allegiance in Ireland. Neal Garnham further developed the study of sport in Ireland with a series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles and a book on the early years of soccer. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 264.944 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 264.944 726.051 m 278.936 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 278.936 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Sport slowly, sporadically entered mainstream )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography, most notably in Diarmaid Ferriter's best-selling 2004 survey, )] TJ ET BT 405.152 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Transformation of Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1900-2000)] TJ ET BT 86.012 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 92.012 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 92.012 697.539 m 106.004 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 106.004 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ferriter outlined the development of modern sporting organisations in Ireland and recognised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their importance in the lives of successive generations in every corner of the country. For example, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documented the importance of GAA clubs as the focal point for communities and underlined the significance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the national psyche of the success of the Irish soccer team in the 1980s and 1990s in reaching major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tournament finals for the first time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the advances made in the historiography of sport in Ireland, it remained the case that research-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driven, in-depth scholarly studies of sport in Ireland remain at a premium. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 391.964 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 391.964 600.003 m 405.956 600.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 405.956 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is in this context that Tom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hunt researched and wrote his )] TJ ET BT 182.972 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sport and Society in Victorian Ireland. )] TJ ET BT 372.632 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a context which renders the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements of this book all the more laudable. Put simply: this is the best work yet to be produced on sport )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Ireland. It is comprehensive, clear, confident and original. The book demolishes various established ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Victorian sporting world in rural Ireland and reshapes our understanding of what games people were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(playing, and why they played them. It is a measure of its achievement that almost every chapter offers a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unique insight into life in the Irish midlands - not just sporting life, but the way of life in general of almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every section of society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The research which underpins the work is formidable; the range and breadth of the sources used is without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison in writing on Irish sport. From local newspapers to personal memoirs, from account books to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minutes of national associations, the sources have been mined in a way which is only possible from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meticulous approach across thousands of hours. Importantly, however, the author has not been overwhelmed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the material and has not sought to wedge every last point of interest into the text. The book is written in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an accessible way, without frills and artifice, and is much the better for that. It is a style which lends itself to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the topic, but one which should not induce the reader to ignore the sophistication of the work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At various points, however, the book would have benefited from a little more general history woven into its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages. It is sometimes presumed that the reader has a general understanding of social, cultural and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of Ireland in the second half of the 19th century. It is doubtful if the optimism of the author is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this respect is fully justified. That is not to say that this is a work without context. Far from it. The story of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport in Victorian Westmeath is placed in a comparative context which links sport in Westmeath to the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sporting world and, most importantly, places the county within the sporting revolution of the wider Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world. This is a key point. It is impossible to understand the evolution of Irish sport without recourse to what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was happening in Britain - or, more precisely, in England. The formal organisation of sport into clubs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies was, of course, a profoundly English phenomenon. Sport may have been played in many forms in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every known society through millennia, but it was the English who shaped the modern sporting world - and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did so most emphatically during the reign of Queen Victoria. In essence, most of the major sporting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations which dominant sport in Britain today - including the Football Association and the Rugby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Football Union - were formed in the later half of the 19th century. More than that, the Victorian era saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport become a far more commercial and regularised commodity than it had ever been. The Victorians made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sporting world - and then charged people who wished to come and look at it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Irish sporting world was not a mirror image of what happened across the Irish Sea, but it carried many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identical characteristics. Geography matters to history so, inevitably, sport in Ireland carried its own unique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristics. Nonetheless, it is impossible to get away from the basic fact that all aspects of the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sporting landscape were influenced in no small measure by the development of sport in England. There can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be no surprise in this. Through the decades covered by Hunt's book, Ireland and Britain were two islands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(united in one kingdom. Further, deep ties of kin and of commerce left it impossible to imagine that Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would remain unmoved by a sporting revolution which spread throughout the British Empire and beyond. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 264.9437 726.3655 278.9357 738.2455 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 92.0117 697.8535 106.0037 709.7335 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 391.9637 600.3175 405.9557 612.1975 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 7074 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain's oldest colony was also the one which most immediately adopted the revolution in sporting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is the story which unfolded in Westmeath and is remarkably recounted in Tom Hunt's book. The sport )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of hunting is a case in point. The chapter on hunting is brilliantly researched and holds a wealth of socio-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic detail. The class composition of the hunt is expertly deconstructed, the reconstruction of the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life around the hunt is particularly good and the section on polo is fascinating. Historians of the hunt in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain will find many similarities between what transpired in Westmeath and in what transpired across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England's hunting shires. But they will also find much that is unique to hunting in Ireland and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparisons make for a more rounded understanding of that milieu. A love of horses is a characteristic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many Irish counties but the extent of organised horse racing in the county suggests that the sporting world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the horse was at a far more advanced stage than in many other midlands counties.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Probably the best chapter in the book is the one which deals with cricket and which outlines how it emerged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the most important sport in Westmeath in the later Victorian period. The analysis of who played the game )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not merely challenges perceptions on supposed elitist \(and anti-national\) sports but destroys those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions. Critically, the story which emerges here of cricket as a game played across the classes and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtually every village, is precisely the story which is told of cricket in counties such as Tipperary and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kilkenny. On this occasion, however, it is backed by extensive research through the relevant census records. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This chapter alone makes the book worth reading.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are many reasons for the subsequent collapse of cricket. The one most favoured by historians \(and by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cricket-lovers\) is a straightforward narrative which sees the game undercut by the cultural nationalists of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(GAA. By enforcing a ban on those who played and watched cricket from joining the GAA and by painting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cricket-lovers as West-Britons who were not truly Irish, sections of the GAA certainly undermined the place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of cricket in Irish sport. Those who attribute the decline of cricket to the GAA have a point, but push this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point to a stage where it becomes inaccurate. There were numerous other factors at play, not least the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failures of Irish cricket to develop a meaningful structure for the game in Ireland at almost any level. After )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all, the GAA imposed the same ban on rugby and soccer that it imposed on cricket, and it attacked rugby and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soccer in even more virulent terms than it did cricket, and yet neither of these sports imploded.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All told, every chapter in the book carries a wealth of interesting material. The origins and development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soccer and rugby, and the story of the rise and fall and rise again of the GAA are treated convincingly. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of the GAA, the book undermines the notion that the games of the GAA - principally, hurling, gaelic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(football and athletics - were essentially classless. Gaelic games in Westmeath were more the preserve of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farmers than of farm labourers and it would be extremely interesting to examine whether this was a trend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was repeated in other counties around Ireland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is clear from Hunt is that money mattered - and mattered a lot - in the playing of sport in Westmeath )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, as if to emphasise its importance, the chapter on the commercialisation of sport in Westmeath )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that the business of sport was an essential element in virtually every sport in the county. It has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been a pungent lament of numerous commentators on sport in recent decades that sport has become ruined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by excessive commercialisation. That lament focuses on the wages paid to sportsmen and women on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back of extraordinary earnings from subscription television organisations and sports goods manufacturers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What Hunt makes clear is that, more than a century ago in a county in the Irish midlands, money earned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through sport was a key aspect of the local economy - and a key driver of the sports revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In part, this money was the product of a moneyed set spending abundantly on their leisure, but it was also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the willingness of people everywhere to pay admittance fees to see sporting events. The enclosure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sports grounds is central to understanding why modern sports organisations have developed in the manner in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which they have. There is nothing Victorian about the love of sport - this is a characteristic which transcends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time and place - but the willingness of people of all classes to pay for this love was milked by Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entrepreneurs in ways which their forebears never managed to conceive. Hunt's chapter on spectator sports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Westmeath traces the development of this phenomenon at a local level. It is a genuinely innovative piece )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 6237 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of scholarship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To conclude, this is not just a brilliant )] TJ ET BT 219.020 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sports history)] TJ ET BT 284.696 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( book - it is a brilliant )] TJ ET BT 391.700 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(history )] TJ ET BT 428.036 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, plain and simple. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a book which offers a roadmap of research to historians who wish to study the development of sport in any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(county in Ireland, and possibly beyond. Like all good history books it suggests a whole raft of questions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most basic of these questions is also the most important: is the case of Westmeath an exceptional one, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is it repeated across county after county? After all, Westmeath was a small, relatively prosperous county )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where relations between landlords and tenants were generally better than in adjacent counties. A significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence of the gentry, a geography which straddled the Pale and a general sense of stability were all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hallmarks of Westmeath. The challenge for historians in Ireland is to build on Hunt's work and to apply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar research to other counties. Just as geography matters in determining that sport in Ireland developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristics which distinguish it from sport in Britain, so it is certain that the story of Westmeath is not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story of other Irish counties.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.755 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. J. Lee, )] TJ ET BT 109.340 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ireland, 1912-85: Politics and Society)] TJ ET BT 292.988 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: Cambridge, 1990\) )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.972 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.972 560.739 m 503.960 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quoted in P. Rouse, 'Why Irish historians have ignored sport: A note', )] TJ ET BT 402.644 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The History Review)] TJ ET BT 497.300 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 14 \( 2003\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 7, pp 6-12. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.012 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.012 532.227 m 185.000 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Foster, )] TJ ET BT 114.020 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Paddy and Mr Punch: Connections in Irish and English History)] TJ ET BT 421.676 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1993\), p. 25. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 503.715 m 118.004 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, A. Bairner and J. Sugden, )] TJ ET BT 277.640 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sport, Sectarianism and Society in a Divided Ireland)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Leicester, 1993\); M. Cronin, )] TJ ET BT 208.328 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sport and Nationalism in Ireland: Gaelic Games, Soccer and Irish )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Identity since 1884 )] TJ ET BT 158.336 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Portland, Oreg., 1999\); and N. Garnham, )] TJ ET BT 361.964 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Association Football and Society in Pre-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Partition Ireland)] TJ ET BT 145.688 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Belfast, 2004\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.676 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.676 446.691 m 280.664 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Ferriter, )] TJ ET BT 120.668 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Transformation of Ireland 1900-2000)] TJ ET BT 322.676 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2004\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 407.000 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 407.000 432.435 m 460.988 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An exception to this is W. Nolan, )] TJ ET BT 227.672 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gaelic Athletic Association in Dublin 1884-2000)] TJ ET BT 483.668 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 403.923 m 152.000 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 379.061 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corkuniversitypress)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://corkuniversitypress.com/Sport_and_Society_in_Victorian_Ireland:_the_Case_of_Westmeath/199/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 349.155 m 535.640 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 538.640 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 345.823 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 328.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 328.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/679)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 326.649 m 322.316 326.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 301.672 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.272 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3654)] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.872 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://corkuniversitypress.com/Sport_and_Society_in_Victorian_Ireland:_the_Case_of_Westmeath/199/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 449.9717 561.0535 503.9597 572.9335 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 131.0117 532.5415 184.9997 544.4215 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 504.0295 118.0037 515.9095 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 226.6757 447.0055 280.6637 458.8855 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 406.9997 432.7495 460.9877 444.6295 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.0117 404.2375 151.9997 416.1175 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 349.4695 535.6397 361.3495 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://corkuniversitypress.com/Sport_and_Society_in_Victorian_Ireland:_the_Case_of_Westmeath/199/) >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 326.9635 322.3157 338.8435 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/679) >> endobj xref 0 54 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000564 00000 n 0000000667 00000 n 0000005544 00000 n 0000005653 00000 n 0000005763 00000 n 0000005872 00000 n 0000009433 00000 n 0000009561 00000 n 0000009645 00000 n 0000009674 00000 n 0000009800 00000 n 0000009836 00000 n 0000009865 00000 n 0000009991 00000 n 0000010027 00000 n 0000010056 00000 n 0000010182 00000 n 0000010218 00000 n 0000010316 00000 n 0000018390 00000 n 0000018420 00000 n 0000018548 00000 n 0000018584 00000 n 0000018614 00000 n 0000018741 00000 n 0000018777 00000 n 0000018807 00000 n 0000018935 00000 n 0000018971 00000 n 0000019036 00000 n 0000026163 00000 n 0000026296 00000 n 0000032586 00000 n 0000032714 00000 n 0000032769 00000 n 0000032897 00000 n 0000032952 00000 n 0000033079 00000 n 0000033134 00000 n 0000033262 00000 n 0000033317 00000 n 0000033445 00000 n 0000033500 00000 n 0000033627 00000 n 0000033682 00000 n 0000033809 00000 n 0000033958 00000 n 0000034086 00000 n trailer << /Size 54 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34181 %%EOF