%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930020756+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930020756+01'00') /Title (Wealth and Poverty of Nations : Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4386 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Wealth and Poverty of Nations : Why Some Are So Rich and Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(So Poor)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1992, the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., sponsored a special exhibition to mark 1492, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(five hundredth anniversary of the Discovery of America. Reflecting the times in the 1990s, the exhibition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tried to show the essential equality of all cultures around the globe at the end of the fifteenth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although critics gleefully protested the exaggerations and the tendentious claims in the exhibition? Korean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maps that certainly did )] TJ ET BT 146.672 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 162.008 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( show the Red Sea, contrary to what the exhibition guide claimed; Aztec knives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(axes, daggers, stilettos, skull masks, morbid art work, and so on, that were described merely as "religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objects"? the fact is that a century after Columbus?s discovery, European pre-eminence around the world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was incontestable. Europeans had taken over the major trading routes within Asia. Europeans transported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vast amounts of silver from the mines of Peru across the Pacific to Manila and into China, or else across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic to the exchanges of Antwerp and London. Europeans were conquering vast tracts in north and south )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America, while enslaving millions of natives and Africans, as well as fighting mercilessly among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves. Nor was European distinctiveness simply a matter of guns, ships, and commerce, important as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these things were. Two centuries after Columbus, European intellectuals were laying the groundwork for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completely different set of conceptions about how the physical world worked, and somewhat later, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophers and journalists attempted to apply their new physics to the human world. Three centuries after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Columbus, Europeans and their off shoots in America, were experimenting with ideas of liberty and were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(68)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 April, 1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Landes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780393040173)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(650pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W.W. Norton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://books.wwnorton.com/books/detail.aspx?ID=6512)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Sutherland)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7934 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just beginning to transform the nature of industrial production and agriculture. By the middle of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century, if not sooner in some countries, Europeans? and Americans? had conquered want, and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore, to some extent, death.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is Professor Landes?s theme, what made the West so different. He has little or no patience with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foggy multiculturalism that sees the West as ubiquitously oppressive, exceptionally cruel, responsible for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enslavement of millions around the world, and the premature deaths from poverty and starvation of millions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of others. Indeed, to cope with his question at all, Professor Landes must take on the multiculturalists and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book seldom misses a chance to show his scorn for those who make excuses for the rest of the world, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who scapegoat the West for their own, or their rulers? failures.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Landes also brings a truly formidable scholarly apparatus to his task. The bibliography comprises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some 70 pages and his discussion encompasses a comparison of the West to the rest of the world from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late Roman Empire, if not before, down to the present. While some might feel that their corner of the globe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gets short shrift, there is no denying the scope of this book. This is a big book with a big question, perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the biggest and most important historians can ask and, if we ever come up with an answer, one that will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propel public policy. No wonder the book has quite rightly been showered with praise from a great variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For all that this book takes a global perspective, it must be said that it represents a certain broad current in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the American intellectual scene as our century ends. Thirty years ago, for instance, it used to be thought that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rest of the world could catch up with the West and that this could be done through a heavy dose of state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention. This could take the form of Communist autarchy or, say, "African socialism" which required an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activist state that would mitigate the deleterious effects of early industrial capitalism. The balm would be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generous foreign aid. Or in its western form, common on much of the continent in the post-war era, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain until the advent of Mrs. Thatcher, and in Canada now, it is called an "industrial policy" where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government took on the responsibility to stimulate the "white heat of technology." None of these models has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been an overwhelming success, far from it, perhaps because they got their history of western economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development wrong. That is, the West did not develop through generating capital in agriculture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transferring it to industry. Yet this misunderstanding of history seemed to prescribe the manipulation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural sector to serve industry. The result has been truly tragic in Russia, and in much of Africa.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Landes has another schema altogether. The title of the book, which so obviously recalls another, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gives it away: )] TJ ET BT 103.676 335.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wealth and Poverty of Nations)] TJ ET BT 272.672 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a neo-liberal, neo-classical interpretation of economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth: the state gets out of the way, but does guarantee property rights and the rule of law, and does use its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military resources to promote commercial interests; taxes are not oppressive and public finance is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transparent. Above all, there is freedom of conscience, and a strong value is put on disinterested research and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invention, and on public education. Countries that did not do this, or that turned toward the rule of the friars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to religious persecution, after a promising start, like Spain and Portugal, suffered. Professor Landes says )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in an arresting phrase, that they were cursed with a kind of "original sin" that still plagued them three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hundred years later, in terms of parasitic social values, xenophobia, public fecklessness, poverty, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginalization. The Iberian countries brought these values to their colonies in the New World and they too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffered generations of poverty, oppression, political instability, exploitative institutions and attitudes, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all the rest. Thus, with his emphasis on the limited state, the rule of law, property rights, transparency, hard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work, accountability, and all the rest, one is tempted to say, at first glance, that Professor Landes has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historicized a broad current of thought that one finds in the downtown Washington think tanks, the editorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages of )] TJ ET BT 77.336 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wall Street Journal,)] TJ ET BT 195.332 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and even in the liberal press; and finally, in academic economic history in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books like Mokyr?s )] TJ ET BT 132.344 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lever of Riches )] TJ ET BT 209.996 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with its theme of the weak, competitive European state system and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect for property rights; or in Philip Hoffman?s very fine )] TJ ET BT 324.632 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Growth in a Traditional Society)] TJ ET BT 477.980 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that shows the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negative effects of religious and civil war and a stultifying fiscal policy on French agricultural productivity; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or finally in Jean-Laurent Rosenthal?s, provocative )] TJ ET BT 282.968 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fruits of Revolution)] TJ ET BT 379.640 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which argues that the absence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finality in French property law before the Revolution deprived improvers of the certainty that they would get )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to keep the gains of their investment. Improvement, and therefore growth, was only possible with the Civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Code. No doubt Professor Landes would find these arguments interesting. They would certainly support his )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7338 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet if only to swim against this broad current, I would like to suggest the picture might be more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicated. Professor Landes gives us a picture of a triumphalist Europe, a picture of anonymous craftsmen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who gave us water-wheels, eye-glasses, gunpowder, heavy-wheeled plows, windmills, paper, printing, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on and on. A picture of men and women who were hard-working, responsible, industrious, sensible, rational, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who knew what their interests were and who knew how to pursue them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is where someone steeped in the social history of the 1960s, 70s, and 80s has to cry out that there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something wrong here, that, to put it in economic terms, this is a labor force that is far from rational, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensible, or whatever. For what is worth, it goes without saying that those who do comparative history are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onto something, that Europe really was special in some way, but that we ought to focus on what this was. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The simple appearance of difference alone was not in itself an explanation of that difference.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let us examine the social history of the past thirty years and ask ourselves whether this would be the labor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force any greedy, comic book, capitalist might want. Or put it another way, if anyone were to thrust a \(non )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existent, obviously\) microphone under the chin of an average western European of the seventeenth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the chin of any identikit Protestant European, any British European, or even any Calvinist European, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and asked them what he or she really cared about, is there anyone in the profession who thinks they wished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for anything other than to save their souls? To what extent did European culture at the popular level reflect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the acquisitive, Weberian values Professor Landes endorses? Did anyone feel a sense of gratification in a job )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well done, or, since this is difficult to know, to what extent did ordinary people feel rewarded for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts, and what did they think about it? We ought to push this as far as we can because the question is vital: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to what extent do we have a labor force in Europe that responded to market stimuli?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And when we get to this level, things get very messy. Consider the )] TJ ET BT 357.656 449.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anthropologie du conscrit franais, )] TJ ET BT 531.992 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Le Roy Ladurie published twenty years ago. He never asked about the labor force as a factor of production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as such, but if we think about it, many of the French ? and no doubt everyone else? were a disaster from our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identikit capitalist?s point of view: sick, teeth falling out, myopic, bones that never healed because no one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knew how to fix them; self multilators because they cared so little about their country that they would rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take an axe to their trigger finger, or to their toe, so they could no longer march; and no matter what, induce, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cajole, bribe, or intimidate a military doctor to exempt them from military service. As late as 1820, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depending upon region, somewhere between one in ten and one in four young men were rejected from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military service because they were too short. As Roderick Floud has argued for Britain where the figures for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(height are similar, this means that a significant proportion of the population suffered from near permanent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undernourishment during their growing years and were so lacking in stamina as adults that they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incapable of sustained work. Here then is our early modern European person: a youth in near constant pain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of aching teeth, broken bones, failing eyesight, gasping lungs, permanent headaches, hobbling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limbs, and all the rest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, if the body is such a wreck, consider what historians of popular culture have told us about what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was in people?s heads: they carried a religion that was instrumental, designed to ward off any genuine or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaginary disaster because the means of controlling the real world scarcely existed: thus amulets filled with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cemetery dirt to ward off evil, baptized cows to make them live longer, statues of saints pulverized or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drowned when they could not deliver the goods, scary tales they all told each other of spirits re-appearing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Hell, or of disembodied heads floating around cross-roads at midnight, and so on. There is a school of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought that argues that all this was functional, that it was a way of making the world intelligible, but fairly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recently Judith Devlin, in a much underappreciated book, has argued that popular culture before and during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nineteenth century was dysfunctional, that it was logically incoherent, even within its own terms, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of this, it generated a culture of fear and distrust, of base and petty nastiness, directed not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards strangers, but also towards members of one?s own family and community. Although she might not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agree, Lyndal Roper?s German witches can be understood also in such dysfunctional terms, whereby women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used the culture of fear, and the horror of unusual bodily excretions, to reassert control within their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families after giving birth, at the expense of other women, in this case mid-wives and wet-nurses. Here then )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7446 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the archetype European, the appalling individual who is responsible for all the disasters of the twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century in the multicultural world, the European who inflicted a major catastrophe on the present day Third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World, but he did it ill, nauseous, nasty, mean, violent, ignorant, and practically deranged.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an exaggeration, of course, but the historians of popular culture have shown that culture among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary working people on the farm and in the towns was obsessed with avoiding damnation and little else, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that popular culture had absolutely nothing to do with inventiveness, with playing around with machinery, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that getting on was an enormous labor with too little time to experiment, that ordinary people may or may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not have been sensible, rational economic actors but that this has to be demonstrated, not assumed. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one authority? Bill Reddy? who argues that what he calls "market culture" had to be invented. Still, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Landes is right and culture is all, then we have to ask, "whose culture"? Who were the people who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differed enough from the norm, who were sufficiently off center, to become the explorers, the merchants, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ship designers, the map makers, the adventurers who are the subjects of Professor Landes?s Europe? Who, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other words, were these intellectually and culturally curious folks who gave us the European moment? We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(don?t know but certainly, we should.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is another sense in which an historian who works on the wrong side of the Channel is puzzled. Surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we have to wonder what has happened to the )] TJ ET BT 252.296 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annales)] TJ ET BT 290.960 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( style history of the past twenty-five years. Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Landes appears to see European history on a rather straight trajectory running from some time in the Middles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ages with its famous burst of invention, to the voyages of discovery, to the extension of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commerce to the rest of the world, to the Industrial Revolution, and on to the present. Along the way some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European nations advance and then decline, until we get to the British who then set a pace everyone must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow. This is, of course, a caricature of the very complex picture Professor Landes outlines, but it is one in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which what might be called the demography-subsistence interpretation has no place. This is the view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advanced by Morineau and Le Roy Ladurie, that says that between the Black Death and sometime well into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nineteenth century, French agricultural production stagnated within fixed limits, that existing technology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposed an upper bound on the extent to which production could grow, that in a Malthusian way, the rising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population sooner or later pressed up against this ceiling, and the result was a series of violent contractions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and shudders? growing impoverishment in the eighteenth century, tragic mortalities in the previous century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is what Goubert called "the deep breathing of history," the slow recovery after the Black Death, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapid rise thereafter until the ceiling was eventually breached, somehow--this is never explained? after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid-nineteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In other words, Professor Landes has left out not only peasants and agriculture, as the McNeil review )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointed out, but he has also left out a vital set of agents of historical change. Further, the polarity of culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versus structure is clearly too simple to be convincing. Still, structures and contingencies matter. At one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level, for instance, the Le Roy Ladurie-Morineau formulation is profoundly pessimistic. Given a stagnant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technological level, there is no reason to believe that the inhaling and exhaling of the breath of history could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not have repeated itself many times? as no doubt it has in the European experience, and no doubt so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tragically has it elsewhere in the world too.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After all, what is the benchmark of poverty everywhere, why )] TJ ET BT 329.936 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(are)] TJ ET BT 345.932 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( some nations rich and others poor? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because one group has enough to eat and the other doesn?t. Surely, when we are assigning weights to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equation on what constitutes poverty, access to food has to be the biggest single defining characteristic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poverty. And why is it that Europeans are rich? Because European countries, not just Britain, broke out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Malthusian trap and they broke out of it early, sooner, than Le Roy Ladurie and Morineau realize. Surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Landes needs to tell us more than he has about this. Yet, "enclosure" gets just a page in the index, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("agriculture" several more than that, but not in any sustained or comparative way anywhere in the book, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems of demography and population hardly get discussed at all. Instead, we are whisked straight into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial revolution in England, and very deftly too. One of Professor Landes?s great qualities in this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is his ability to explain very difficult technical and industrial processes with ease and grace, but we needed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have more on the food productivity problem than we are presented with. After all, industrialization has never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken place anywhere without a highly productive agriculture nearby and for good reason.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7267 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final point has to do with Professor Landes?s treatment of religion. He clearly thinks religious toleration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a good thing. One of his favorite examples of the catastrophic economic effects of intolerance was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expulsion from the Iberian kingdoms of the Jews and the forced conversions of both Jews and Moors. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caving in to the friars, he says, cost these kingdoms centuries of growth and prosperity. Yet surely, there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter-examples that make the picture more complicated. He says nothing about the numerous expulsions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Jews from France or from England in the late Middle Ages, perhaps because there is no historiography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that claims that these expulsions had much harmful economic effect on their respective kingdoms. He does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cite the expulsion of Huguenots from France after 1685, but perhaps mindful of Scoville?s old book on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprisingly innocuous effects of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes on the economy, he makes no claims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for this act of intolerance. Indeed, the many forced expulsions throughout European history are surely more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicated than simple acts of religious intolerance and were often motivated by political and diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerations, while their success or failure had a lot to do with economic contexts and imperatives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More broadly, Landes tends to treat religious beliefs and practices as an unchanging block. There appears to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be one kind of Islam, one kind of Catholicism, one kind of Protestantism. Islam, for instance, is never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined except as a religion that put exceptional debilitations on women and that was hostile to technical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovation, particularly printing. Why this should be so, whether such phenomena are intrinsic or extrinsic to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the religion, that there is a history to these developments, and that the early years of the spread of Islam )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibit no particular hostility to women or to technology? all this is only alluded to, if at all, and never really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explained.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity is also given a rather cavalier treatment. Surely Professor Landes has to do more than endorse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Max Weber if he is to explore the relationship between religion and economic development. A century after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the publication of )] TJ ET BT 121.676 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Protestant Ethic)] TJ ET BT 221.012 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has produced bookshelves of exploitable material. Catholics after all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are hardly the economic nincompoops that are presented here. It is possible to show that both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation and the Counter-Reformation were part of a broader elite sponsored project that aimed at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inducing a sense of self discipline, restraint, hard work and civilized behaviour among their adepts. By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century, Vovelle, Chaunu, and others have shown that the extravagant and exuberant Catholicism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries gave way to a more interiorized, more reflective, more restrained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sort of religious outlook. These developments must have affected attitudes to work, consumption and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management that might have been usefully explored. One example would be the advice that spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directors gave to journeymen?s confraternities in the early nineteenth century that counseled pride and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persistence in a job well done.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The European moment has had a long run, lasting \(so far\) five or six hundred years. Yet a century before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Columbus, Europeans were devastated with a crushing series of famines and visitations of the plague, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have killed off over a third of the population; with endless warfare; and with religious schism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heresy. Furthermore, Europe does not seem to have been all that special. Until the very end of the period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starvation, plague, religious persecution and coercion, oppression, and all the rest, were either a common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience, or a very real risk. There is nowhere in the world to-day a single country where life expectancy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is as low as it used to be for most Europeans before the nineteenth century. Finally, the common culture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans was certainly not either very innovative, or very technological. Throughout our period, Europeans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were obsessed with their salvation; "superstition" was the lens through which people interpreted the world; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only a minority of people could read, and an even smaller minority could write. How so much was achieved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of such unpromising material is obviously an important question. David Landes deserves our thanks for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking on the big question when he knows there are plenty of critics on the wrong side of the Channel.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Bradford DeLong)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.j-bradford-delong.net/Econ_Articles/Reviews/landes.html)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 93.555 m 370.316 93.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 373.316 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 90.223 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 72.443 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 72.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/68)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 71.049 m 316.316 71.049 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 46.072 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 93.8695 370.3157 105.7495 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.j-bradford-delong.net/Econ_Articles/Reviews/landes.html) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 71.3635 316.3157 83.2435 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/68) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 267 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/694)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.j-bradford-delong.net/Econ_Articles/Reviews/landes.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000586 00000 n 0000000668 00000 n 0000005106 00000 n 0000005215 00000 n 0000005325 00000 n 0000005434 00000 n 0000008995 00000 n 0000009123 00000 n 0000009207 00000 n 0000009272 00000 n 0000017259 00000 n 0000017324 00000 n 0000024715 00000 n 0000024780 00000 n 0000032279 00000 n 0000032370 00000 n 0000039690 00000 n 0000039816 00000 n 0000039934 00000 n 0000040060 00000 n 0000040154 00000 n 0000040219 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40538 %%EOF