%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140917194852+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140917194852+01'00') /Title (The 1940 Tokyo Games: The Missing Olympics: Japan, the Asian Olympics and the Olympic Movement) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4124 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The 1940 Tokyo Games: The Missing Olympics: Japan, the Asian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Olympics and the Olympic Movement)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1940 Tokyo Summer Olympic Games are a non-event, because they never happened. Promoted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese organisations since the early 1930s, decided on by the IOC \(International Olympic Committee\) in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1936, and given up by the Japanese in 1938, they were soon forgotten, overshadowed by the war with China )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Second World War. When the Tokyo Olympics, the first ones in Asia, finally took place in 1964, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few remembered and few cared to mention the unpleasant circumstances under which the previous attempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to hold the games there was conceived and abandoned. Sandra Collins exhumes this fascinating story and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brings it back to life. Using a variety of sources, she describes the day-to-day developments which led to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selection of Tokyo for the 1940 Olympic Games, and later to Japan's decision to relinquish them. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reader knows how the story will end, the author manages to maintain suspense throughout the book. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main contribution of this monograph is the presentation of the various backgrounds against which this affair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolved. The rise and fall of the 1940 Olympiad project is described in the contexts of the Olympic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement, the political developments in Japan at that time, the international relations in East Asia, the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with China, the press and public opinion in Japan and abroad, and the Japanese and Western personalities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that played a role in this episode. There are no villains or heroes in this narration. As the story develops, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(680)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 August, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sandra Collins)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415373173)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(212pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415495615/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ben-Ami Shillony)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7206 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see how great ideals, as often happens, become entangled in the web of national, organisational, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal interests, and how important decisions are made without adequate understanding and with no way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of predicting their results.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Collins shows, the Japanese were eager to host the 1940 Olympic Games for both external and internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons. They hoped that staging these games would establish Japan's status as a first-rate modern power, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asian empire, and leader of the non-Western world. Against growing international criticism of Japan's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aggression on the continent, the Olympic Games were considered to be a form of 'people's diplomacy' that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would generate foreign good will. The Tokyo Olympiad was to coincide with the 2,600th anniversary of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legendary establishment of the Japanese empire by Emperor Jimmu \()] TJ ET BT 365.624 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kigen)] TJ ET BT 391.616 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) in 660 BC, planned for 1940. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The combination of these two splendid celebrations was expected to boost nationalism, enhance the prestige )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the emperor, and mobilise the Japanese masses for national causes. Thus, from the beginning, the Tokyo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olympics carried a double message: They were to advance modernisation and internationalisation on the one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, but also to foster tradition and national pride on the other.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Olympic Games were, since their inception in 1894, a symbol of universal peace, fair play and global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding through sport, but in fact they were seen as a white man's affair that was held only in Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the United States. The argument that the Japanese used, to promote Tokyo for the 1940 Olympics, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that only by staging the games in Japan, the most modern country of the non-Western world, would the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olympic movement become international. This was a powerful argument that appealed to many members of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Olympic organisation. Therefore, when the IOC voted, in July 1936, on the venue of the 1940 Olympiad, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tokyo's candidacy was supported not only by such Western countries as the United States, Canada, Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, France, Germany, and Italy, but also by China, India, Egypt, and Iran \(pp. 74-5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan earned the 1940 games also by the achievements of its athletes. In the 1932 Olympic Games in Los )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Angeles, the Japanese won 35 medals, including seven gold medals, and Japan was ranked fifth, after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States, Italy, France, and Sweden, ahead of Great Britain, Germany, and Australia. In the 1936 Berlin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olympiad, which took place shortly after Tokyo had been chosen for the 1940 games, Japanese athletes won )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(44 medals, including six gold medals \(p. 10\). These victories and world records won Japan the praise of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole world. Collins makes the illuminating remark that 32 years after the Japanese novelist Natsume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S?seki referred to himself in London as 'small, ugly and yellow', a Japanese athlete in the 1932 Olympic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Games in Los Angeles described himself as 'tall, powerful and seemingly white' \(p. 37\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In their efforts to promote Tokyo, the Japanese resorted to unprecedented tactics. Japanese diplomats lobbied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign governments, especially those of Italy and Great Britain, to persuade their Olympic committees to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(withdraw the candidacies of their cities from the race. In January 1935, the Japanese ambassador to Rome, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sugimura Y?tar?, who was also Japan's IOC member, met with Mussolini and convinced him to drop the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(candidacy of Rome for the 1940 Olympics, in exchange for Japan's support of Rome's candidacy for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1944 games. This enraged the Italian National Olympic Committee, which possessed the right to make such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions, but the committee had to abide by the will of the )] TJ ET BT 320.996 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Duce)] TJ ET BT 346.316 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(pp. 60-7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan also used monetary incentives to promote its case. In December 1934, the Tokyo City Assembly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allocated one million yen \(half a million US dollars\) to subsidise the travel of athletes and officials to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tokyo Olympiad \(p. 56\). The president of the IOC, the Belgian Count Henry Baillet-Latour, was invited to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tokyo, on an all-expense paid trip, to inspect the city's sports facilities. He arrived in March 1936, shortly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the suppression of the attempted coup d'tat of February 1936, but despite the troubled times he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wined and dined during the two and a half weeks that he spent in Japan, and was even received by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperor. Baillet-Latour was greatly impressed by what he saw and heard and returned home as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enthusiastic supporter of the Tokyo games \(pp. 67-70\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The IOC claimed that its decisions were based purely on sport considerations and had nothing to do with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, but the selection of Berlin and Tokyo as the venues of the Olympic Games in 1936 and 1940 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enabled Nazi Germany, and almost enabled militarist Japan, to use these games as a propaganda tool of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritarian and militaristic regimes. Avery Brundage, the president of the American Olympic Committee )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7321 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1936, rejected the demands of Jewish groups in his country to boycott Hitler's Olympiad, on the grounds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that 'sports is above politics' \(pp. 147, 149\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The choice of Tokyo, in July 1936, as the venue of the 1940 games caused a great sensation in Japan. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(streets were decorated with Japanese and Olympic flags, fireworks were lit, congratulatory slogans were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displayed, and commemorative stamps were issued to celebrate the occasion \(p. 76\). But it soon turned out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the Japanese could not make up their minds on important issues concerning the games. The first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem was the location of the Olympic Stadium. When Tokyo submitted its bid, it notified the IOC that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the central stadium would be located in the Outer Gardens of the Meiji Shrine. When Baillet-Latour visited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tokyo, he was deeply impressed by the serene beauty of that site. But after Tokyo had been chosen, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Home Ministry and the Shrine Bureau objected to that plan, claiming that the boisterous stadium would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disturb the sanctity of the gardens dedicated to the spirits of the Meiji Emperor and his wife. After a long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate, which dragged on for two years, the government decided, contrary to the wishes of the IOC )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(president, to construct the central stadium in the Komazawa district of the capital \(pp. 112-123\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another controversy surrounded the route of the Olympic flame. The custom of bringing the fire from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olympia in Greece to the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games by relay, was started with the Berlin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olympics, at that time to symbolise that Nazi Germany was the successor of ancient Greece. This new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition struck roots and has continued until today. The planners of the 1936 relay recommended that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1940 relay, which would span 10,000 km, should be conducted by horse riders and runners and should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow the ancient Silk Road. But the Japanese did not like the idea of the Central Asian route which would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cross China, and suggested instead that one of their warships carry the torch from Greece to Japan. Later, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese proposed that the Olympic flame be carried by an airplane \(called 'kamikaze'\) along a South Asian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(route. Within Japan the fire would be carried by relay from Mount Hy?ga in Kyushu \(where the legendary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ninigi-no-mikoto descended from heaven to rule Japan\), through the Ise Shrines to Tokyo \(pp. 124-132\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another problem was the emperor's role in the opening ceremony. According to the Olympic rules, the head )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the host state officially opens the games. But the Japanese emperor at that time was considered to be too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacred to have his voice transmitted electronically by microphone, loudspeaker or radio \(pp. 132-5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collins shows how difficult it was to transplant the Western traditions and practices of the Olympic Games )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the political and cultural context of pre-war Japan, and how difficult it was for the Japanese to decide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how to present their 'Asian' traditions and values to the Western world through the Olympic Games. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Obtaining consensus on these issues in pre-war Japan was almost an impossible goal, with the military, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucracy, the Olympic Committee, and the public pulling in different directions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Under these circumstances it became questionable whether the 1940 Tokyo Olympic Games would ever take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(off. But what finally sealed their fate was the expanding war in China, which had broken out in July 1937. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At first, the Japanese hoped that the hostilities would end in a short time and they would be able to stage the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olympic Games as scheduled. But as the war situation intensified and required more and more lives and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materiel, the prospects of the games started to look dim. The financial allocations for the Olympiad were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gradually curtailed, and voices were heard that it was inappropriate to host such a festive event at a time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when Japanese young men were dying on the battlefields. In March 1938, Army Minister Sugiyama Hajime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declared that the Olympic Games interfered with the 'successful conclusion of the China Incident'. Two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(months later, Welfare Minister Kido K?ichi, the cabinet minister responsible for the games, informed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diet that the government had decided to cancel the Tokyo Olympiad \(pp. 151, 161-162\). Although there had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been earlier calls in the United States and Britain to boycott the Tokyo Olympics, in protest of Japan's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aggression in China, the cancellation of the games was made by the Japanese themselves. The IOC president )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baillet-Latour insisted until the last moment that the games should be held as scheduled, explaining that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed the boycott of Tokyo 'with the same arguments I used to fight the Jewish campaign in 1936' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(157\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The cancellation of the Tokyo Olympics did not bring about the cancellation of the 2,600th anniversary of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the foundation of the empire. On the contrary, relieved from the need to host a multitude of Western athletes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to perform problematic Western ceremonies, the Japanese celebrated the )] TJ ET BT 405.572 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kigen)] TJ ET BT 431.564 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of 1940 on a grand scale )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7462 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a solemn and traditional way. As part of the celebrations, Tokyo hosted the East Asian Games, in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(700 athletes from Japan, Manchukuo, occupied China, Thailand, the Philippines, and Hawaii participated. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('sacred fire', brought by relay from Kashihara Shrine \(dedicated to Emperor Jimmu\) in Nara Prefecture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignited the flame at the Meiji Shrine Outer Gardens, where the central ceremony took place \(pp. 179-180\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meanwhile, the IOC had chosen Helsinki to host the 1940 Olympic Games, but the Second World War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which broke out in September 1939, led to the cancellation of both the 1940 and 1944 Olympiads.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After the war, the Olympic Games were resumed, with London hosting them in 1948, Helsinki in 1952, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Melbourne in 1956. In May 1952, shortly after the end of the Allied Occupation of Japan, the governor of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tokyo submitted the candidacy of his city for the 1960 summer games. But Rome, which had competed with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tokyo for the 1940 Olympics in the past, won. In 1958 Tokyo hosted, with remarkable success, the third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asian Games, proving how well it was prepared to host international sporting events. In 1959, Tokyo's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(candidacy was submitted again for the 1964 Olympics and this time it won. The bid was supported by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(IOC president, Avery Brundage, who had succeeded Baillet-Latour and who had been, like him, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enthusiastic supporter of the 1940 Tokyo games \(p. 182\). The 1964 Tokyo Olympiad was an astonishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success, showing the whole world how successfully Japan had modernised and democratised. The Olympic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flame was carried from Athens to Kagoshima by a Japan Airlines \(JAL\) plane, which stopped on its way in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Istanbul, Beirut, Tehran, Lahore, New Delhi, Calcutta, Rangoon, Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Hong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kong, and Taipei. In Kagoshima, the flame was separated into four flames which advanced to Tokyo by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relay along four routes, passing the capitals of all prefectures. The flames were reunited in front of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial palace into one torch, which was carried from there, to light the Olympic Cauldron at the Olympic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stadium at the Meiji Shrine Outer Gardens, by Sakai Yoshinori, who was born in Hiroshima on the day that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the atomic bomb was dropped. The Sh?wa Emperor announced the opening of the Olympic Games into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(microphone, with no objection from the conservatives \(p. 184\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second time that the Olympic Games were held in Asia was in Seoul in 1988, and the third time will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Beijing in 2008. Collins thinks that the historical precedent for the Seoul and Beijing Olympics was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1964 Olympiad in Tokyo, but rather the aborted 1940 Tokyo Olympiad. She points out that like Japan in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1940, but unlike Japan in 1964, South Korea in 1988 and China in 2008 were authoritarian Asian countries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which wished to strengthen their regimes and improve their international standing by demonstrating their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity \(p. 186\). Collins alleges that when the mayor of Beijing, Liu Qi, announced that the 2008 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olympic Games would 'promote economic and social progress ... promote the exchange of the Great Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture with other cultures ... [and] mark a major step forward in the spread of Olympic ideals', he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mimicking the rhetoric of the campaign to promote the 1940 Tokyo games \(p. 187\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is well-written, with charts, cartoons, and black and white photographs. Yet, it is not clear why the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author, or the editor, decided to present the chapters as independent essays, with their own lists of references. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a result, there is some overlapping on the one hand and some lacunae on the other. The most important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic which I found missing was the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin. The Berlin Olympiad is remembered in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan and Korea because of the Korean athlete Sohn Kee-Chung \(Son Kitei in Japanese\), who won the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marathon race as a member of the Japanese team. Another Korean, Nam Sung-Yong, won the bronze medal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of that marathon, also representing Japan. In 1936 they were regarded as Japanese, today they are regarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Koreans. At the opening ceremony of the 1988 Seoul Olympics, Sohn Kee-Chung, at the advanced age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(76, carried the Olympic torch into the stadium, as a representative of Korean athletic achievements. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole story is not mentioned in the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another problem is the haphazard spelling of Japanese names. In transcribing Japanese names into English, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one can either ignore the long vowels, as some authors have done, and not use macrons, or one can, as many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars nowadays do, indicate the long vowels by macrons. This book follows a strange middle way, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes using macrons, sometimes attaching them partially, and sometimes avoiding them altogether. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, Kido K?ichi and K?no Ichir? appear throughout the book without the macrons, while Kan? Jigor? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears sometimes with macrons, sometimes without them, sometimes as Senator \(?\) Kano \(p. 52, caption\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sometimes as Kan? Jigar? \(p. 92\). In addition, Niniginomikoto on p. 127 becomes Nihigi-no-mikoto on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the following page, and Kido's )] TJ ET BT 184.160 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nikki )] TJ ET BT 212.492 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(diary\) becomes Nikko in the references on p. 176. A little more )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1068 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editorial attention would have avoided these mistakes and inconsistencies. But these are minor defects. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is recommended reading to anyone interested in modern Japanese history or the history of the Olympic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Games.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 722.719 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 704.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 704.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/680)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 703.545 m 322.316 703.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 678.568 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.168 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3655)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.768 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 703.8595 322.3157 715.7395 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/680) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000604 00000 n 0000000686 00000 n 0000004862 00000 n 0000004971 00000 n 0000005081 00000 n 0000005190 00000 n 0000008751 00000 n 0000008879 00000 n 0000008963 00000 n 0000009028 00000 n 0000016287 00000 n 0000016352 00000 n 0000023726 00000 n 0000023791 00000 n 0000031306 00000 n 0000031390 00000 n 0000032511 00000 n 0000032639 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32734 %%EOF