%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140706194926+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140706194926+01'00') /Title (Sport and American Society: Exceptionalism, Insularity and 'Imperialism') >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3814 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sport and American Society: Exceptionalism, Insularity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [('Imperialism')] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At this year's Wimbledon Tennis Championships, Zheng Jie became the first Chinese player to reach the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(semi-finals of a grand slam tournament. Five minutes after stepping off the court, she was asked yet again to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pronounce her name for a global television audience - 'because we've heard it so many different ways this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(week', quipped the reporter. Meanwhile in Asia, ESPN Star Sports \(ESS\) employed Mandarin-speaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentators to overdub the English language feed for its Chinese audience, many of whom stayed up late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the night following Zheng's memorable run. The ESS announcers were amused by the question, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following day the network also showed Asian fans an English segment in which spectators outside Centre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Court took turns trying \(unsuccessfully\) to pronounce Zheng's name for the camera.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Modern sport is a Tower of Babel, and Wimbledon 2008 was no different. Globalisation continues to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transform the ways in which nations and communities use athletics to weave very different, often conflicting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives. Zheng's accomplishment was a source of nationalism for many Chinese, and other fans around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world probably applauded her as a symbol of tennis's growing diversity. Yet there were those who used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(682)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 August, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Dyreson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. A. Mangan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415399647)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(66.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(258pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415494939/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lane Demas)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7494 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the event to draw racial/ethnic distinctions, often by perceiving different 'styles' employed by players from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various countries \(as some commentators did when the 'speedy' Zheng eventually lost to the 'more power-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oriented' African-American star, Serena Williams\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sport and American Society: Exceptionalism, Insularity and 'Imperialism')] TJ ET BT 402.116 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, editors Mark Dyreson and J. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Mangan have assembled a strong selection of articles that explore how 'American sport contributes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historic and contemporary insularity, exceptionalism and imperialism' \(xiii\). Not surprisingly, many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays confirm that Americans since the late 19th century have had hesitant, paradoxical sentiments about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport and globalisation - the most common example explicated by scholars is the overall failure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional soccer in the US. And, as Dyreson writes in the prologue, the articles also indicate why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American sport will most likely 'continue to promote the nation rather than the global community' \(xvii\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drawn from contributors to anthropology, sociology, history, philosophy, and kinesiology, the volume was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first published as a special issue of )] TJ ET BT 203.660 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The International Journal of the History of Sport )] TJ ET BT 441.668 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and is thoroughly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interdisciplinary. It also covers an impressive range - from Linda J. Borish's look at physical activity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rural reform in ante-bellum New England, to Susan Brownell's engaging comparison of female athletes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary China and America. In 'Benevolent America: Rural Women, Physical Recreation, Sport and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Health Reform in Ante-Bellum New England', Borish reveals how rural reformers simultaneously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenged and \(more often\) reinforced traditional femininity by encouraging New England's farm women to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engage in non-competitive activities like walking, horseback riding, swimming, ice-skating, boating, fishing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and gardening. Even the more 'progressive' reforms \(which sometimes increased the likelihood of mixed-sex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gatherings, or required women to wear more revealing clothing\) were nevertheless championed by 'farm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journalists' as a reaction to the 'wealthy trappings of the city that lured farm youth and jeopardized their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral and physical health' \(p. 5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another contributor also speaks to sport and 'exceptionalist' reform in the US. In 'Reformist America: "the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oberlin experiment" - the limits of Jack Scott's "athletic revolution" in post-1960s America', Tim Elcombe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminates Scott's fascinating biography, especially his ill-fated tenure as athletic director at Oberlin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(College. According to Elcombe, the athletic department's subsequent implosion perfectly exemplified the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('splintering of the American Left' in the late 1960s and early 1970s \(p. 116\). Oberlin considered itself among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most progressive schools in the country, and led by 34-year-old President Robert Works Fuller, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrators wanted to completely reformulate 'the meaning of liberal education' \(p. 117\). Nevertheless, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28-years-old \(even younger than Fuller\) the brash, revolutionary Scott clashed with his associates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediately after his hiring in 1972. Among other things, he railed against 'racist, insensitive' coaches, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tripled funds for female athletics, hired controversial faculty \(like former 1968 Olympian Tommie Smith\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and provided students voting power over new coaching hires \(p.124\). For Elcombe, Scott represented a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burgeoning New Left that sought to work outside the system, putting him at odds with the school's 'reform-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minded liberal old guard' even though both shared the fundamental desire to drastically overhaul collegiate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(athletics \(p. 116\). Not surprisingly, while rural New England farm women continued to ramble, ride and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skate, this story of reform ends quite differently - Oberlin fired Scott within 16 months.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two other authors provide insight into America's shifting relationship with the Olympic Games. Susan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brownell offers one of the more fascinating \(if not timely\) essays in the collection. In 'Challenged America: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China and America - women and sport, past, present and future', she argues that 'China's 100-year pursuit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hosting an Olympics is due to the fact that its national self-image was dictated to it by the West ...'. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the US was able to control the 'making of its own identity', hosting the Beijing games 'involves a great deal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of accommodation to Western standards and expectations', with limited opportunities for the Chinese to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually 'disseminate local culture' \(p. 229\). Brownell reveals how the complex history of modern athletics in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China helps us understand sport's unique place in American society - particularly how the US continues to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propagate the 'peculiarly Western logic' that 'sporting prowess symbolizes national power' \(xiv\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dyreson himself provides an interesting examination of an earlier Olympic controversy. In 'Aggressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America: media nationalism and the "war" over Olympic pictures in sport's "golden age"', he writes of a time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the US ironically sought to ban the merchandising of Olympic visual material - particularly motion )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 4776 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pictures. At the 1924 Paris Olympics, and again at the 1928 Amsterdam Games, American firms 'vigorously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protested' and 'threatened boycotts' over having to bid for what they considered 'public properties' \(p. 31\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Dyreson, these fundamental debates over media ownership 'began a process that eventually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made radical changes in the nature of the modern games' \(p. 40\). A cursory glance at today's numbers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly affirms that - NBC profited $75 million from telecasts of the 2002 Salt Lake Games, and bid $2.2 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(billion)] TJ ET BT 65.360 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for the rights to the 2010 and 2012 Olympics before even knowing \(caring?\) where the games would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take place. Adding significant insight to the recently published )] TJ ET BT 337.988 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Selling the Five Rings: The International )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Olympic Committee and the Rise of Olympic Commercialism)] TJ ET BT 326.984 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Dyreson's excellent study reveals how debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over media rights during the 1920s - conflicts America lost - actually hatched 'the goose that laid the golden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(egg of Olympic riches'. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 149.156 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 149.156 666.771 m 163.148 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other contributors offer insights that expand the notion of 'insularity' in American sport. In 'Insular America: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the NBA began in Akron? The Midwest Conference in the 1930s', Murry R. Nelson argues that fans in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heartland popularised basketball because it reinforced the notion that opportunity made America 'more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptional, more equitable' \(p. 48\). Even during the height of the Great Depression, working-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectators in Indianapolis, Dayton, Fort Wayne, Akron, Detroit, and Chicago embraced the Midwest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conference, spending scarce discretionary income to watch predominately local players - including Indiana's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own John Wooden, future coach at the University of California, Los Angeles \(UCLA\). According to Nelson, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Depression's 'peculiar circumstances' forced conference organisers to design a league model that 'laid the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundation for later prosperity by relying on community-oriented appeal to sell the game of professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basketball' \(p. 62\). This also meant changing fundamental basketball rules in order to offer a more engaging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show - creating the modern, fast-paced game that the National Basketball Association \(NBA\) would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popularise after the Second World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Likewise, in 'Community America: who owns Wrigley Field?' anthropologist Holly Swyers notes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(midwestern baseball fans forge unique social connections and community ties at Chicago's Wrigley Field - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in the famous outfield 'bleachers', where spectators have exerted communal ownership over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general admission \(non-reserved\) seating since 1937. This includes the establishment of social hierarchies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on knowledge of the stadium's physical history and communal memory \(do you know where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bathrooms )] TJ ET BT 87.680 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(used)] TJ ET BT 109.676 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to be?\), and even efforts to keep 'non-regulars' out of certain seats. Swyers convincingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proves that Wrigley's bleachers offer a unique social map that scholars can use to understand the sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contentious relationships between Chicago's diverse communities.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 149.1557 667.0855 163.1477 678.9655 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7800 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The collection also turns some attention to race in American sport - although it could have used more, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly coverage of African-American athletes. The collection does include two linked essays that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore the narrative of Jackie Robinson and the desegregation of Major League Baseball. \(MLB\) In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Integrating America: Jackie Robinson, critical events and baseball black and white', Jack Kelly argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robinson 'was called to the role of the lonely man, but as a martyr not for God but for an integrating nation' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 95\). Along with scholars like Henry Yu, Kelly follows the work of Jules Tygiel's definitive Robinson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography in exploring the episode as a 'critical event' - that is, a religious or sociological 'experiment' that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided Americans a simplified narrative of racial integration, complete with a formulaic black-white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(binary, a clearly-defined 'color line', and a memorable, instantaneous moment of transformation. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 499.580 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 499.580 669.027 m 513.572 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 513.572 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kelly points out, this is certainly why millions of Americans and MLB are so invested in celebrating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robinson today. Yet his most interesting analysis comes in 'Exclusionary America: Jackie Robinson, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Decolonization and Baseball not Black and White', where he presses beyond Tygiel and Yu by placing this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unique story of American integration within baseball's global context. According to Kelly, the 'Jackie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robinsonization' of baseball history forced an unsuccessful search for the 'Japanese' and 'Latin American' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robinson. More importantly, by considering why Robinson's story cannot be extended to a 'new, global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level of integration', Kelly shows how a celebrated, insular narrative of American desegregation helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eliminate the possibility for an alternative, more equitable history of world baseball. This would presumably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be one in which MLB did not hinder or destroy foreign organisations by pilfering select Asian and Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American players, much like it did the Negro Leagues before. \(Perhaps, then, the problem is not too much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on the Robinson story, but rather not telling it in its entirety.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Also writing on baseball's internationalisation, Benjamin Eastman provides a wonderful essay on Adolfo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luque, perhaps the most interesting Cuban ever to play in the Major Leagues. In 'Rejected America: Adolfo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luque, American interventionism and )] TJ ET BT 219.656 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cubanidad)] TJ ET BT 272.996 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(', Eastman focuses on Luque's heroic return to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically-fractured island in 1923, where promotional appearances \(including re-enactments of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notorious attack on New York Giant Casey Stengel during a game\) became battlefields for political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservatives and reformers. According to Eastman, because Luque embodied the emergent tenets of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cubanidad)] TJ ET BT 87.356 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( - including a 'notion of racial, cultural and religious mixing recognizable ... as obviously Cuban' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a 'brashness and confidence particularly important in Cuban understandings of machismo' - celebrations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon his return reflected Cuba's larger political crisis \(p. 204\). Here - perhaps better than any other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributor - Eastman provides this larger context, devoting considerable space to a well-written snapshot of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(US-Cuban relations coinciding with Luque's memorable 1923 season.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With such clear, well-organised essays from an accomplished set of scholars, there are few points of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contention. Perhaps the largest one is the intriguing argument in Sean Frederick Brown's 'Exceptionalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America: American sports fans' reaction to internationalization'. According to Dyreson's prologue, Brown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('suggests that American spectators are perhaps more interested in watching American players than they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in patronising sports with venerable American lineages such as baseball and basketball that have recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been globalised by an influx of foreign players' \(xiii\). This is accomplished by comparing television ratings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the number of foreign-born players in Major League Baseball and the National Basketball Association )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since 1970. Clearly, television viewership has declined while the number of foreign players has increased. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, the definition of 'foreign' is quite slippery. Do we include players born abroad but raised in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(US? There are also 'pseudo-foreigners,' like Canadian Steve Nash - born in South Africa, the star point guard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is among the league's most popular players.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meanwhile, two professional sports that have maintained a consistently high percentage of 'American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(players' - the National Football League \(NFL\) and North American Stock Car Racing \(NASCAR\) - continue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to draw more viewers. Brown is careful to insist that his study is not a 'causal model', and that the numbers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are only meant to challenge the notion of 'path-dependence' and American sport exceptionalism introduced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Andrei S. Markovits and Steven L. Hellerman in )] TJ ET BT 285.656 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Offside: Soccer and American Exceptionalism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton University Press, 2001\). Nevertheless, the analysis of the data - which is certainly useful stuff, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively organised and presented by the author - seems to be making this argument precisely, and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(echoed again in Mangan's conclusion when he writes that, 'there is every chance ... in the future [American )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 499.5797 669.3415 513.5717 681.2215 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7236 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sport] will turn its face against sports once but no longer seen as unquestioningly "American"' \(p. 249\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand, one could argue that the arrival of foreign players has actually kept the popularity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basketball and baseball from plummeting )] TJ ET BT 235.664 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(even faster)] TJ ET BT 287.984 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. For some MLB and NBA teams, foreign players are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now the face of the franchise - the Seattle Mariner's Ichiro Suzuki \(Japan\), the Dallas Maverick's Dirk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nowitzki \(Germany\), and the Houston Rockets's Yao Ming \(China\) are just three examples. Moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign players have proven their marketability, often garnering more endorsements than their native-born )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(team-mates - particularly deals that reach beyond the fast food, shoes, or energy drinks many African-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American players seem limited to hawking. Ming, for example, has already appeared in television )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercials for Visa credit cards and Apple computers, and he even participated in the National Milk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Processor Board's 'Got Milk?' advertising campaign. It is hard to imagine what could be more 'All-American' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than helping dairy farmers encourage the heartland to renew its exceptional infatuation with cow's milk. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meanwhile, Ming's fellow NBA superstar, Lebron James, was recently embroiled in controversy over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accusations that a magazine cover with a white, female model played into decades-old stereotypes linking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black male sexuality to primitivism. Clearly, foreign athletes have been largely immune to the kinds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism some fans continue to level against African-American players, which are deeply influenced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America's history of racial tension. These range from critiques of 'selfish play' and the red-hot debate over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the use of performance-enhancing drugs \(which so far has had minimal impact on foreign players\), to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemnations of sexual indiscretion targeted at black athletes since Jack Johnson. In essence, only through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a deeper analysis of fan reaction and popular discourse can the case be made that the influx of foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(players is limiting the popularity of some previously 'American' sports like basketball and baseball - not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantitative comparison of foreign players and Nielsen ratings, and certainly not a case that does not account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the historical treatment and perception of African-Americans in those particular sports.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, most of the articles in )] TJ ET BT 177.992 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sport and American Society )] TJ ET BT 315.308 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer the important reminder that processes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insularity, imperialism, and exceptionalism transcend the notion that US citizens have historically embraced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific, 'American' sports. Even if only one game existed, played throughout the world - yes, if the US )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would just embrace soccer already - there are still a myriad of factors that shape concepts like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('exceptionalism' - including differences in media coverage, the cultural meanings of spectatorship, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception of various ethnic-nationalist aesthetics or styles. Just as Zheng Jie must pronounce her name )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again and again for English audiences, the world will continue to listen, observe, and react to a single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(athletic competition in 'so many different ways' - including the upcoming Beijing Olympics. Along these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lines, )] TJ ET BT 62.684 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sport and American Society)] TJ ET BT 197.000 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a fine collection that helps us better understand some of the particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways in which Americans have responded.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 295.635 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Barney, S. Wenn and S. Martyn, )] TJ ET BT 237.332 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Selling the Five Rings: The International Olympic Committee and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Rise of Olympic Commercialism )] TJ ET BT 240.332 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Salt Lake City, UT: 2002\) p. 31. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 402.992 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 402.992 249.363 m 456.980 249.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Tygiel, )] TJ ET BT 112.016 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Baseball's Great Experiment: Jackie Robinson and His Legacy )] TJ ET BT 417.872 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford: 1997\); H. Yu, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Tiger Woods at the centre of history: looking back at the 20th century through the lenses of race, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sports, and mass consumption,' in )] TJ ET BT 228.512 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sports Matters: Race, Recreation, and Culture)] TJ ET BT 452.828 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. Bloom and M. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Willard \(New York: 2002\), 320-55. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 238.316 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 238.316 192.339 m 292.304 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 167.477 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 148.495 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 130.715 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 130.715 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/682)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 129.321 m 322.316 129.321 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 104.344 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.944 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3657)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.544 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 402.9917 249.6775 456.9797 261.5575 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 238.3157 192.6535 292.3037 204.5335 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 129.6355 322.3157 141.5155 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/682) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000582 00000 n 0000000664 00000 n 0000004530 00000 n 0000004639 00000 n 0000004749 00000 n 0000004858 00000 n 0000008419 00000 n 0000008547 00000 n 0000008631 00000 n 0000008696 00000 n 0000016243 00000 n 0000016327 00000 n 0000021156 00000 n 0000021186 00000 n 0000021314 00000 n 0000021350 00000 n 0000021434 00000 n 0000029287 00000 n 0000029317 00000 n 0000029445 00000 n 0000029481 00000 n 0000029579 00000 n 0000036868 00000 n 0000036996 00000 n 0000037051 00000 n 0000037179 00000 n 0000037234 00000 n 0000037362 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37457 %%EOF