%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141031205453+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141031205453+00'00') /Title (Muscular Christianity in Colonial and Post-Colonial Worlds) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4313 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Muscular Christianity in Colonial and Post-Colonial Worlds)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the year of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing it is perhaps timely for us to revisit the philosophy which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspired Pierre de Coubertin to develop the Olympic Movement, and its more familiar expression through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the modern Olympic Games. Muscular Christianity, the theme of John J. MacAloon's edited volume \(2007\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is just that ethos. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 117.692 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 117.692 214.905 m 131.684 214.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 131.684 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( MacAloon's recognition of the importance of this principle, both historically and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociologically, informs the ten essays that make up this collection.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacAloon, a significant figure in the study of the modern Olympic Games, offers us a predominantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sophisticated and fascinating set of essays from a relatively global perspective \(with the notable absence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa - the continent where the colonial dimensions of the original muscular Christian projects were very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much focused\). Written by a collection of historians and anthropologists, these essays explore the status of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muscular Christianity today. While no longer an explicit philosophy, the traces of sport as moral crusade are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tracked in these papers. Each essay begins from the premise that the muscular Christian ethos emerged from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the novel )] TJ ET BT 81.344 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tom Brown's School Days)] TJ ET BT 208.244 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by the Victorian Christian socialist Thomas Hughes \(and to a lesser )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent his contemporaries Charles Kingsley and F. D. Maurice\). It is important to note here that we are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talking about the educationalist and headmaster of Rugby School, Thomas Arnold, to whom Coubertin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(683)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 August, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John MacAloon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415390743)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(216pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415494915/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jessica Robinson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 117.6917 215.2195 131.6837 227.0995 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7356 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistakenly attributed the work of Thomas Hughes and who he claimed as his inspiration for founding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Olympic Games. This is the original muscular Christianity from the Victorian Christian socialists, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom Hughes was just one. They fought for the Factory Acts, and taught working-class boys how to box, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much as they did Oxbridge hopefuls how to row. Readers would do well to keep Coubertin's error and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformative effects in mind when working through this volume, as it explores the ways in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muscular Christian ethos still gets re-read and altered as it travels through time and space. These papers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(move between explicit analysis and contextualisation of Thomas Hughes's seminal text, to more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnographic considerations of value-centred sport. The essays tack between the history and legacy \(both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicit and implicit\) of )] TJ ET BT 150.680 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tom Brown)] TJ ET BT 207.020 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Although it would have been helpful if the editor had presented a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearer direction to the reader as to why the text is organised in this way, each essay successfully speaks for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 'Introduction: muscular Christianity after 150 years', John MacAloon walks us through why muscular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity is an important concept for those who are interested in both the history of sport and in cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history more generally. Rather than simply commemorating Thomas Hughes, MacAloon seeks to re-present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ideas of the original Christian socialists as a challenge to the presumption that muscular Christianity was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a hyper-masculinist, chauvinistic and self-righteous expression of Victorian imperialism. He follows C. L. R. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James's positive take on this ethos, rather than the more conventional narrative stated above and accepted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most 20th-century scholars of sport. One must be careful, as MacAloon is, to avoid conflating muscular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity with the 'games ethic'. It was Christ's manliness, not just manliness )] TJ ET BT 417.836 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(per se)] TJ ET BT 446.828 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that inspired the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian socialists like Thomas Hughes - and Christ should not be underestimated. MacAloon seeks to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seriously not just the muscular and the socialist, but also the Christianity that underpins this philosophy. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a surprisingly radical move for a sport scholar, in a field that tends to veer towards the secular, but perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less radical for a text that was compiled in the US during the end of the G. W. Bush administration. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the most compelling examples that MacAloon provides as to the continuing significance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muscular Christian ethos is an explication of a )] TJ ET BT 259.328 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Newsweek )] TJ ET BT 312.320 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article from the 2000 Bush/Kerry presidential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign. This piece of journalism explored the influence of the politicians' prep school and Yale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educations that provided them with a 'version of the "gentleman's code of muscular Christianity"' \(p. xv\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anyone who has followed US politics over the last decade cannot fail to recognise the significance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manliness and Christian morality in the public rhetoric of that nation's leaders.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacAloon's project, however, is a deeply intellectual, rather than political, one. It argues, following the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of C. L. R. James, that we should explore:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the transformations of muscular Christianity around the world to break free of the simplistic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(binary of colonial hegemony and resistance and into new logics of hybridity and indigenous )] TJ ET BT 64.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriation \(p. xi\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an ambitious project that the essays in this collection do both more and less successfully.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Speaking of the logics of a kind of hybridity, MacAloon must be praised for his attention to the question of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender. Unfortunately, this parsing out of the distinction between muscular and manliness is not followed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through in most of the essays in this collection \(with the exception of Millikan\). In his acknowledgments we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discover that a number of women were involved in the conference that led to this volume. It would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been a great addition to this collection to have heard some of these female voices, both in authorship and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the topics analysed. The history of sport is still a field very much dominated by male scholars exploring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male experience; the opportunity to explore female dimensions of the muscular remains under-developed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this volume. Despite Millikan's valiant effort to provide us with a welcome relief to all that manliness, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems that as with almost all sports scholarship, the discipline is still at the 'add-women-and-stir' )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 500.312 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 500.312 98.067 m 514.304 98.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 514.304 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( stage. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is arguable that the fact that most sport is still marked as male/masculine adds a level of complexity to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue few have yet to work through successfully. Perhaps we should be talking about masculine Christianity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and not muscular Christianity! Despite MacAloon and Millikan's successful efforts, more work still needs to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 500.3117 98.3815 514.3037 110.2615 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7414 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be done to tackle this problem.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first contributor to this volume is the Olympian, historian and social activist Bruce Kidd. His essay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Muscular Christianity and value-centred sport: the legacy of Tom Brown in Canada' explores the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tom Brown)] TJ ET BT 90.356 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as both a novel and a pedagogical model in Canada in the 19th and early 20th centuries. He then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goes on to present us with a grounded account of the role of sport as education for citizenship and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility in contemporary Canada, further allowing him to explore the Christian dimensions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muscular Christianity, as well as the questions of morality and values that still permeates amateur sport in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that country. This allows for a consideration of the ethical context in Canada that informed responses to Ben )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johnson's Seoul Olympics doping scandal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moving to the other side of the Pacific, but staying with the transformative effects of )] TJ ET BT 443.960 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tom Brown, )] TJ ET BT 506.300 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ikuo Abe's 'Muscular Christianity in Japan: The growth of a hybrid'. While a little less cogent than some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other papers in this volume, anyone who is interested in how it is that cultures so seemingly different as, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say, Britain and Japan can compete in the Olympics with a shared commitment to the ethos of fair play and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sportsmanship should read this paper. Abe argues that it was the influence of Japanese Christians, inspired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Hughes and Kingsley, who developed a 'hybrid' form of bushido that contained a muscular Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology. Once again we see that the ethos is transformed and reformed as it travelled, carried by those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspired by a book written, seemingly, for children.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Foster's 'From Trobriand cricket to rugby nation: The mission of sport in Papua New Guinea' is one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the stronger pieces in this volume. Almost every undergraduate in socio-cultural anthropology has had the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasure of viewing Leach and Kildea's 1975 ethnographic film )] TJ ET BT 341.780 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trobriand Cricket.)] TJ ET BT 432.452 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This film shows the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people who were studied by one of the founding fathers of British social anthropology \(and the practitioner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who developed the participant observation method\), Bronislaw Malinowski, and their adaptation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(missionaries' game. Every student who views this visually stunning documentary should read Foster's essay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to truly appreciate the social and political contexts that made it possible to film. It should debunk some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conventional narratives that surround this film, notably those which MacAloon described as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('simplistic binary of colonial hegemony and resistance' \(p. xi\). Foster goes back and explores the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and economic goals of those who staged the cricket match for the film-makers, putting the final nail in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coffin for the noble savage image that the famous film suggests. But his paper goes further than this, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores the way in which rugby has come to play a significant role in the nation-building projects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary Papua New Guinea.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether Yoga is the least or most manly of sports is open to much vigorous debate. However, few would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argue that it is in any way Christian. So it may seem surprising that anthropologist Joseph Alter makes an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument surrounding the influence of muscular Christianity in India in his essay 'Yoga at the fin de siecle: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muscular Christianity with a Hindu twist'. He recognises that there is a link between the body and morality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that can be seen is something like a muscular Hinduism. To fail to see this is a colonial distortion. For those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who are interested in sport and empire, this is an important observation. Indeed, the role of sport and empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is tackled by J. A. Mangan in his paper which revisits a now classic example from his book )] TJ ET BT 475.292 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Games Ethic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Imperialism: Aspects of the Diffusion of an Ideal )] TJ ET BT 292.340 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London: Frank Cass, 1998\). This historical account is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly interesting, and helps explicate just how the muscular Christian ethos was carried out 'on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground' in Victorian imperial contexts. This is a well-worn path by Mangan, and could certainly provide a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful introduction for those not familiar with his work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In yet another Indian context we return more directly to the text of )] TJ ET BT 355.616 151.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tom Brown )] TJ ET BT 414.956 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in historian Boria )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Majumdar's 'Tom Brown goes global: The "Brown" ethic in colonial and post colonial India'. Once again we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are asked to consider the role of sport, morality and education. Majumdar argues for a 'Brown ethic', an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adaptation/appropriation of the games ethic of muscular Christianity, first in the service of challenging caste )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prejudices in sport in the 1880s, and as part of the emerging nationalist Indian identity towards the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial period. Much like Foster's analysis of Trobriand Cricket, we see that sport, often through its moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and spiritual rhetoric, can play important roles in post-colonial nationalist projects.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7663 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, MacAloon argues that it is also politically important in post-imperial Britain. He points out that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the British reaction to the takeover of cricket by South Asia, racial integration in British football, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the winning of the 2012 Olympic bid that combined classical games ethic themes such as youth moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development, urban renewal and class peace through sport, there has been a renewed significance, if not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hidden dependence, on muscular Christian ideology \(p. xiv\). Although MacAloon does not explicitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propose a project that will explore these issues, this collection would have benefited from an essay that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered some of these themes from the British perspective. He rightly observes that in the areas of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education and sport examined in British scholarship today there is some uncertainty as to how to proceed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the now maturing post-imperial condition of contemporary Britain. While his contributors point to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural, social and political significance of sport and morality, MacAloon also touches on the important role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it has in sports scholarship. A longtime advocate for more careful scholarship in the study of sport )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 507.956 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 507.956 640.515 m 521.948 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 521.948 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again implies a frustration shared with Anthony King )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 293.324 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 293.324 626.259 m 307.316 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 307.316 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that the study of British sport lacks needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical sophistication. I would concur with MacAloon here, especially given the decline of Marxism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cultural Studies in British history and sociology. A serious consideration of muscular Christianity as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under-riding ideology could be one solution to this seemingly analytic paucity. His edited collection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores the historical and anthropological iterations of this ideology around the world, but, sadly, fails to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come home and tackle the question from a British angle. An essay out of the British sport academy that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to answer MacAloon's long-standing criticism would have benefited the collection immensely.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather than turn to Britain, the volume instead moves back to the Americas with John Kelly's account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(baseball in the Caribbean, especially Cuba, in 'Baseball and decolonisation: the Caribbean, 1945-1975'. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paper explores sport organisation and the complex international relations that the dreams of professionalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can bring. Bearing in mind that amateurism was at one time a fundamental principle of moral and ethical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport \(especially within the Olympic Movement\), a consideration of the relationship between professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport and muscular Christianity is a useful addition to this volume. This solid essay provides us with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of baseball in the decolonisation era and its significance in neo-imperial US policies of race and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the US Matthew Millikan explores the role of women within the context of a muscular Christian ethos. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noted above, this paper, 'The muscular Christian ethos in post-Second World War American Liberalism: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in Outward Bound 1962-75', is an essential contribution to this volume, and it uses the example of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Outward Bound movement, an organisation with British origins, that uses rock climbing, sailing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other physical activities of outdoor adventure, to emotionally and physically challenge the participants in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order that they may realise their inner strengths. Originally posited as masculine a programme as any of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other sports thus far examined, the movement was originally about turning boys into men. However, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s this changed. Millikan argues eloquently that there is a transformation into a co-educational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme that emphasises humanistic principles and inner strength. If we want to know where muscular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity exists today, Millikan provides us with a compelling example.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Dent's 'High ropes and hard times: wilderness and the sublime in adventure-based education' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continues this theme set by Millikan in what is the most theoretically sophisticated paper in this collection. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He uses the concept of the 'sublime' to explore how adventure-based education can change the mode of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness of young people who experience it. He focuses on the 'high ropes' and 'low ropes' obstacle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course and the student's narratives following their completion of these sometimes terrifying and challenging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities. From an anthropological perspective it benefits from being the only piece in this collection based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on first hand participant observation. From 1989 to 1996 Dent volunteered as an instructor in an adventure-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based education programme that worked with disadvantaged urban youth from New York. As a result, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contains evocative ethnographic descriptions that make it a pleasure to read. This paper will be especially of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest to those who study the relationships between youth, sport and education. Thomas Hughes \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps Thomas Arnold, also\) would have been particularly enthused to see the ways in which a morally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infused 'sport' \(or perhaps more properly speaking, physical activity\) attached to a social movement of sorts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Outward Bound\) has a transformative effect on disadvantaged youth.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 507.9557 640.8295 521.9477 652.7095 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 293.3237 626.5735 307.3157 638.4535 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 5717 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As should now be apparent, the concept of muscular Christianity has shifted and changed through time and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space. On the whole these papers do an excellent job of describing not only how and why this happens, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why it is as significant for us today as it was in the Victorian era after Thomas Hughes wrote his tale of life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Rugby school. The importance of the ethos and tradition of muscular Christianity should not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underestimated by anyone interested in engaging in sociological or historical analysis of sport, for its themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of fair play, morality, youth development, and sociality through sport permeate texts written on sport, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both the left and the right, and continue to influence people across the globe, in both colonial and post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial contexts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But for those who are interested in the broader significance beyond the study of sport, there is also much to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take away. This volume presents accounts of cultural change, appropriation, adaptation and ideology that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have shaped the lives of millions of people through the experience of colonisation and beyond. For many, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport is the new religion. We should take this claim seriously, not just as a reflection of devotion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community, but also in terms of its potential as an ideological frame. Max Weber taught us that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant ethic was the ethos that laid the foundations for the modern world. But what came next? The time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has come to take seriously just what role muscular Christianity played, first as a principle of imperialism, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also as an ethos for creating socially and morally virtuous citizens of both nations and the world. MacAloon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly suggests that this is necessary, and this text should generate lively debate as to whether sport does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed play such a role.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.219 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 464.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A disclaimer: I have worked closely with John J. MacAloon \(as my academic advisor\), as well as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the contributors, for a number of years. While this review is intended as an objective analysis )] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this text, it must also be read as an 'insider's' perspective. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 352.460 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 352.460 434.691 m 406.448 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 421.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was a phrase used by feminists critical of some of the methods of the women's movement. It was )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken up by Anthropologists in the 1980s to critique the work of the two previous decades that had )] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to explore the experiences of women, but had failed to develop a more sophisticated analysis of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender. See H. Moore )] TJ ET BT 172.652 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Feminism and Anthropology )] TJ ET BT 312.980 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Minneapolis, 1988\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 416.972 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 416.972 377.667 m 470.960 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 364.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See J. MacAloon 'The ethnographic imperative in comparative Olympic research' )] TJ ET BT 457.916 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sociology of Sport )] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal, )] TJ ET BT 107.348 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9 \(1992\), 104-130. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 200.336 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 200.336 349.155 m 254.324 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See A. King, )] TJ ET BT 129.008 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(End of the Terraces )] TJ ET BT 227.000 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1998\) )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 305.324 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 305.324 334.899 m 359.312 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 310.037 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 291.055 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 273.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 273.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/683)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 271.881 m 322.316 271.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 246.904 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.504 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3658)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.104 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 352.4597 435.0055 406.4477 446.8855 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 416.9717 377.9815 470.9597 389.8615 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 200.3357 349.4695 254.3237 361.3495 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 305.3237 335.2135 359.3117 347.0935 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 272.1955 322.3157 284.0755 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/683) >> endobj xref 0 44 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000568 00000 n 0000000657 00000 n 0000005022 00000 n 0000005131 00000 n 0000005241 00000 n 0000005350 00000 n 0000008911 00000 n 0000009039 00000 n 0000009123 00000 n 0000009152 00000 n 0000009280 00000 n 0000009316 00000 n 0000009400 00000 n 0000016809 00000 n 0000016839 00000 n 0000016966 00000 n 0000017002 00000 n 0000017067 00000 n 0000024534 00000 n 0000024625 00000 n 0000032341 00000 n 0000032371 00000 n 0000032499 00000 n 0000032535 00000 n 0000032565 00000 n 0000032693 00000 n 0000032729 00000 n 0000032841 00000 n 0000038611 00000 n 0000038739 00000 n 0000038794 00000 n 0000038922 00000 n 0000038977 00000 n 0000039105 00000 n 0000039160 00000 n 0000039288 00000 n 0000039343 00000 n 0000039471 00000 n trailer << /Size 44 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39566 %%EOF