%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141120084358+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141120084358+00'00') /Title (Athlete First: A History of the Paralympic Movement) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4124 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Athlete First: A History of the Paralympic Movement)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book spans a long history from the early inception of sport for wheelchair users in the 1940s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progresses to the Sydney Paralympics. Essentially an organisational history, written in association with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(International Paralympic Committee \(IPC\), the book charts its 60-year history: from what was essentially a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluntary group of people at a hospital in the UK intent on the rehabilitation of Second World War ex-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servicemen with spinal paralysis, to an official organisation in close association with the International )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olympic Committee \(IOC\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Disability history is a relatively new sub-discipline. Although it will be some time before disability can be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category of analysis into cultural production and human identity in the same way as class, race and gender, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is to be hoped that publications in this field will raise the profile of disability as a distinct mode of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquiry. These histories with disability as a focus can broaden our knowledge and open up areas of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation into historical continuity and change. They can also demonstrate the ways that social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchies are legitimated. Steve Bailey's book provides consideration of some of these analytical practices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in its examination of the history of the Paralympic movement. There is little written on the sporting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leisure practices of disabled people, and examining these can tell historians about disabled people's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities, both socially and culturally in a given time and place. This book can also provide details for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociologists, anthropologists and policy-makers, as well as historians, about the nature of elite sport among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(684)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 August, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steve Bailey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780470058244)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(302pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiley and Sons)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julie Anderson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7496 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disabled people, and demonstrate the similarities between people's desire to excel, regardless of whether or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not they have a disability. No doubt one of the purposes of this work is to remove some of the stigma )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding disabled people, as sport is viewed as a means for people to come together, regardless of race, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender or cultural identity. Sport can also divide, which is mirrored in the sporting movement for disabled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people and their reflection of political issues within able-bodied sport in reaction to the Cold War, apartheid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other events of the period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book will certainly be useful for students who are interested in disability sport. It provides details, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including short histories of the many voluntary organisations that have been involved in sport for disabled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people. There are other benefits of a publication such as this for historians, mainly surrounding access. Many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have spent time, some of it dispiriting, in the careful study of minute books. Most historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applaud those of us with the intestinal fortitude to contextualise the records of those meetings. Additionally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the minute books from the Paralympic Committee are not in the public domain, so Bailey has had an insight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that other historians who work in this particular field of study have not; therefore, he has done those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians a huge favour in providing a valuable interpretation of material unavailable to them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first historical chapter centres on the research and practices of neurosurgeon Ludwig Guttmann, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was central to the development of wheelchair sport in the UK. In 1944 Guttmann was asked to run a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialist Spinal Injuries Centre at a small hospital called Stoke Mandeville in Aylesbury. Part of the therapy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was sport, which took the men's minds off thinking too much about their life spent in a wheelchair, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created a highly competitive atmosphere within the hospital. Experiments with sport as therapy took many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms in the early years of the hospital but the sports considered best for the men were archery and netball. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1948 the first Stoke Mandeville Games were held in the grounds of the hospital, coinciding with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opening events of the Olympic Games in London. A yearly summer competition continued at the hospital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until 1960 when the games were held in Rome following the able-bodied Olympic Games.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rome was a catalyst for the expansion of the Stoke Mandeville Games and the next twenty years saw a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement toward combining sport for athletes with disabilities, and a move away from the isolation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sporting competition specifically for those in wheelchairs. It must be borne in mind that the Stoke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mandeville Games were only open to wheelchair athletes until 1976 Games in Toronto \(the able-bodied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Games were held in Montreal\), where blind and amputee athletes participated. Bailey makes some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection between the protest movements of the late 1960s and the struggle for disabled people to gain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same rights as all citizens. Within this period of unrest, athletes with disabilities were changing both their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social, and to a lesser extent, their sporting aspirations. Disabled sport reflected many of the issues of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, although on a smaller scale. The question of apartheid in sport, a pressing question in able-bodied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport, was reflected in the concerns of organisations for disabled sport. Unlike able-bodied sport, multi-racial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teams were fielded in disability sport by South Africa, which is an interesting juxtaposition. The number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competitions for disabled athletes grew internationally and regionally. The first Commonwealth Games for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(athletes in wheelchairs were held in 1962 and the first Pan-American Games were organised in Winnipeg in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1967. Winter Games were inaugurated in 1972. Bailey argues that this period was part of a significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change for the sporting federations in the establishment of a unified sporting movement for disabled people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the embryonic Paralympic movement develops it becomes more administratively organised and Bailey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follows the action off the sporting field into the Committee room. He focuses on the inevitable progression )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toward a united Paralympic movement, and argues that the dominance of individuals such as Guttmann, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than uniting, divided the disabled sporting groups, which caused problems in the initial stages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assembling all associations under the one umbrella organisation. An International Co-ordinating Committee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(ICC\) was established in the 1980s with a number of representatives from different disabled groups. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naturally there were controversies, as the ICC endeavoured to solve a number of long-term issues. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realisation that there was little point in mere athletic participation, that public appeal and spectators were one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the most important aspects to modern elite sport, resulted in decisions such as the combining of different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranges of locomotor classifications to make them more appealing to the watching public. At the 1984 Los )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Angeles Olympics, wheelchair racing was held as a demonstration sport. This set a precedent for disabled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport to be featured at able-bodied Olympics although both games were kept entirely separate. Furthermore, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7354 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the term 'Paralympics' continued to be controversial throughout this period, and it took some time before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate was finally resolved.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bailey states that the 1988 Seoul Games heralded a new era in Paralympic sport. While this is probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because the sporting organisations were working better together than previously, this is also because the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paralympics began to imitate the able-bodied games more closely, in both positive and negative ways. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly to able-bodied sport, there was more focus on the nation and less on the disability. The Seoul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Games were held in the same venue as the able-bodied games, which, Bailey points out, had not happened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since 1964. Ongoing controversies such as logos, inclusion of athletes and the measurement of disability still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued but organisationally, the ICC handed over control to the International Paralympic Committee, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was more closely associated with the IOC.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section of the book, and over half of it, focuses on the work of the modern International )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paralympic Committee until 2004. Certain issues continued to be problematic, including: technical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems, levels of disability for competition purposes, the relationship with the IOC and the inclusion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(athletes with an intellectual disability. Problems were evident at the Sydney Paralympics, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegations that the Spanish basketball team did not meet the criteria for the correct levels of intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disability. Doping offences and the altering of physiognomy were increasing and elite sport for those with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disabilities continued to resemble that of able-bodied people. Other issues included methods to improve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(athletic performance that were the preserve of the disabled sporting body. Another on-going issue was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing the attitude of the public so they were aware of the elite professional attitude of the attendees at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paralympics. Members of the public had not changed their attitude about disabled people and their levels of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competition. Spectator levels were low and it continued to be difficult to raise public awareness. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closer ties with the IOC meant the financial future of disabled sport was more secure than it had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously. Moreover, the games for those with disabilities had changed from the custom of medical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rehabilitative practice to an elite national and sport specific sporting event.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Bailey's book is certainly useful as a reference for any study that focuses on the Paralympics, there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways that the book's scope could be broadened and therefore made more appealing both as a scholarly work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the story of the Paralympics. What makes wonderful research fodder can make less exhilarating reading. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One feels that Bailey connects much more closely with the early history of the Paralympics, with all its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notions of 'making do' and its reliance on the voluntary help and makeshift equipment and theories about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those in wheelchairs, which is the focus of this area of international sport. Although this is a study of 'elite' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport, there was an opportunity in this book to historically contextual sport played by disabled people, as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has a longer history than Bailey gives it, although he does provide some background on the World Games )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the Deaf. In the pre-history of the Paralympic movement Bailey does provide a fascinating account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of sport for wheelchair users. It is not clear if this part of the book was supposed to provide an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall history of disabled sport, but there is a substantial amount of documentary evidence that exist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailing disabled people playing sport prior to the 1940s which is not mentioned. Crowds would turn out in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London to watch the blind men of St Dunstan's, which was a hostel for blind ex-servicemen from the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War compete in their Saturday Sports. The final of the rowing competitions for St Dunstan's were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(held at Henley, the same location as the Oxford and Cambridge boat race. Other homes for wounded soldiers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the First World War such as the Star and Garter held many sporting competitions. The One-Armed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Golfers Association had their first tournament in 1933 at the Burgess Golfing Society of Edinburgh. Similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the ethos of Stoke Mandeville in the 1940s, sport, particularly for those who became disabled as a result )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of war, was supposed to restore both a sense of manliness and confidence in a changed environment. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(association between war and sport as a type of therapy for those disabled in the conflict is overlooked in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earliest inception.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What might have made the story of the Paralympics come to life more vividly was a broader context. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easier for a reader to connect with events outside the boardroom, as opposed to a picture of a series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meetings, decisions and internecine disagreements which are less interesting. In relation to drug testing for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, it might have been useful to make more of what was reported in newspapers and other media )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially surrounding controversies in disabled sport. Concern surrounding the use of drugs in sports by )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R 24 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5661 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disabled people has a long history, the first International Medical Congress on Sports for the Disabled was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(held in 1980. In addition to the anxiety caused by the misuse of anabolic steroids and stimulants, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of drugs used to control a number of conditions associated with various disabilities was raised. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 534.968 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 534.968 766.563 m 548.960 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Did a disabled person taking a legal drug constitute performance enhancement? There are a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting articles in )] TJ ET BT 137.672 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sports Illustrated)] TJ ET BT 221.348 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( one of which Bailey mentions which described the myriad ways that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disabled people could gain an unfair advantage. One article in 1995, not mentioned by Bailey, details )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(athletes practices of retaining urine in dangerous quantities to increase blood pressure to improve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 100.652 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 100.652 695.283 m 114.644 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Try as he might, one gets the feeling that the organisation has constrained his historian's story-telling ability, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and at some points becomes reportage, although Bailey, to his credit, tries to avoid it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While sport for disabled people will probably never have as much appeal to the general public as able-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bodied sport, this book helps to polish away any conception that elite disabled athletes are not as anxious to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(win as their able-bodied counterparts, in an attempt to remove the notion of 'overcoming' that is so prevalent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for able-bodied people when they consider the achievements of disabled people. Bailey's message is clear: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book is not about people demonstrating archery for rehabilitative purposes in the grounds of a hospital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any longer. There has been immense progression in disability sport which this work clearly demonstrates. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paralympians are elite athletes and are now taken more seriously as competitors. Despite this change in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitude there are still issues affecting participants. As Tanni Grey noted in her biography, 'no matter how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many times you tell them a racing chair is a piece of sporting equipment like Steve Backley's javelin, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still respond with the patronising attitude about how brave and wonderful you are'. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 433.460 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 433.460 500.211 m 447.452 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 466.707 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 436.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Oseid, 'Doping control for the disabled sportsmen?', in )] TJ ET BT 341.648 436.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The First International Medical Congress on )] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sports for the Disabled)] TJ ET BT 175.688 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. H. Natvig \(Oslo, 1980\), pp.18-29. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 365.000 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 365.000 420.435 m 418.988 420.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 407.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Hoffer, 'Ready, willing and able', )] TJ ET BT 240.308 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sports Illustrated)] TJ ET BT 323.984 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 14 August 1995, 64-76, 74. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 464.648 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 464.648 406.179 m 518.636 406.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 393.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. Harrison, )] TJ ET BT 125.336 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tanni: The Inspiring Story of a World-Class Athlete)] TJ ET BT 375.680 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London, 1996\), p.174. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 496.004 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 496.004 391.923 m 549.992 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 367.061 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 348.079 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 330.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 330.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/684)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 328.905 m 322.316 328.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 303.928 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.528 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3659)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.128 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 534.9677 766.8775 548.9597 778.7575 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 100.6517 695.5975 114.6437 707.4775 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 433.4597 500.5255 447.4517 512.4055 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 364.9997 420.7495 418.9877 432.6295 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 464.6477 406.4935 518.6357 418.3735 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 496.0037 392.2375 549.9917 404.1175 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 329.2195 322.3157 341.0995 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/684) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000554 00000 n 0000000636 00000 n 0000004812 00000 n 0000004921 00000 n 0000005031 00000 n 0000005140 00000 n 0000008701 00000 n 0000008829 00000 n 0000008913 00000 n 0000008978 00000 n 0000016527 00000 n 0000016592 00000 n 0000023999 00000 n 0000024125 00000 n 0000029839 00000 n 0000029869 00000 n 0000029997 00000 n 0000030033 00000 n 0000030063 00000 n 0000030191 00000 n 0000030227 00000 n 0000030257 00000 n 0000030385 00000 n 0000030421 00000 n 0000030549 00000 n 0000030604 00000 n 0000030732 00000 n 0000030787 00000 n 0000030915 00000 n 0000030970 00000 n 0000031098 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31193 %%EOF