%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721235132+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721235132+01'00') /Title (Information and Communication in Venice: Rethinking Early Modern Politics) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4074 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Information and Communication in Venice: Rethinking Early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Modern Politics)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacob Burckhardt famously described Venice as the mysterious city of 'political secrecy'. In his wake, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generations of scholars have continued to point to the remarkable degree of secrecy maintained by Venetian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials where political matters were concerned. Such secrecy, they have claimed, was central to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survival of the early modern state. Keeping political information under wraps - revealing only final decisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and not the information, debates, or conflicts that led to them - allowed Venetians to present a unified front )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the rest of the world and prevent the growth of factionalism and family violence that plagued many other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states. Secrecy kept Venice peaceful, and in turn, its republican government endured for a thousand years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while despotism and absolutism flourished elsewhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secrecy, however, does not come naturally; people like to talk. Filippo de Vivo's study examines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competitions, slippages, and ironic connections between the Venetian ideology of state that maintained this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strict policy of secrecy and the capacity to communicate and express oneself inherent in human nature. As de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vivo shows us, the Venetian state in the 16th and 17th centuries employed highly articulated and well-honed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanisms to maintain control over the flow of political information between the halls of government and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world outside. Such control could never be completely effective, however, since information flowed like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mercury and could never be fully contained or controlled by any particular group. What happens, de Vivo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(685)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 August, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Filippo de Vivo)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199227068)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(323pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liz Horodowich)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8613 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asks, when the drive for secrecy for the benefit of the group is confronted with the individual capacity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chatter, express one's opinion, and manipulate information for personal ends?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(De Vivo begins with a detailed description of how Venetian state officials managed political information. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Namely, no records were kept of arguments and discussions that took place behind closed doors in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government councils; the official legislative process left no trace, thereby preventing any debates that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurred in the halls of state from blossoming into greater political confrontations in the public realm. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition, two magistracies had the responsibility for containing and administering the flow of information: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Council of Ten, which oversaw cases of conspiracy, and the Inquisitors of State, who dealt with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disclosures of any political information more generally. Between the two magistracies, Venetian officials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(safeguarded a vast body of information related to the smooth functioning of the state, ranging from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambassadorial reports with highly classified diplomatic information to discussions about warfare and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taxation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition, another official council called the )] TJ ET BT 256.640 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collegio)] TJ ET BT 297.980 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( directed the daily functioning of the Venetian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government. The )] TJ ET BT 119.000 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collegio)] TJ ET BT 160.340 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was comprised of the Doge - the 'prince' of Venice - and 22 high-ranking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(councilors who together as a group represented 'the central mechanism in the transmission of information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inside the political system' \(p. 37\). If the Inquisitors of State or the Council of Ten, for instance, wanted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pass on any information to the larger governing body of the Senate for wider discussion, they had to pass it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first through the )] TJ ET BT 114.344 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collegio)] TJ ET BT 155.684 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which met every day and decided which information should reach the Senate, how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it should be expressed, and when it should be presented. In addition, ambassadors delivered all their reports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly to the )] TJ ET BT 103.676 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collegio)] TJ ET BT 145.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( alone, giving this magistracy a monopoly on some of the most crucial political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information. Furthermore, the )] TJ ET BT 180.332 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collegio)] TJ ET BT 221.672 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( decided upon the precise discussion and voting agenda for larger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governing bodies. Venetian senators, for instance, could not make their own proposals about legislation on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the floor of the Venetian senate; they could only respond to the agenda and terms of debate supplied to them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the )] TJ ET BT 66.680 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collegio)] TJ ET BT 108.020 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: an agenda that was often restrictive and narrowly defined. Senators frequently had very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little 'extra' information on hand when voting on state policies and were forced to come to decisions based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only on the select or edited information that the )] TJ ET BT 264.992 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collegio)] TJ ET BT 306.332 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( decided it could safely pass on to them. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate and voting in the Venetian government took place among a large group of patricians, in the end, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possession of the most complete information about any given topic or event - a treaty, a business transaction, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or a military escalation, for instance - was restricted to this very small group of individuals in the )] TJ ET BT 502.292 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collegio)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who carefully decided how to parse information out. Like a spider at the centre of the web of Venetian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political life, the )] TJ ET BT 116.012 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collegio)] TJ ET BT 157.352 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( never passed on a word more than was necessary. Such were the baroquely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elaborate mechanisms upheld to keep information literally under lock and key.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(De Vivo then goes on to show that despite such great efforts to maintain political secrecy, disclosures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information happened regularly. There was a vast 'political arena' that operated alongside the official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workings of the state that systematically allowed for the leakage of information. )] TJ ET BT 420.956 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Relazioni)] TJ ET BT 466.292 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for instance, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reports that various officials gave at the end of their missions or assignments, often ended up circulating in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the public sphere in a textual form. These 'secret' reports became objects of exchange that conveyed personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prestige on their owner, and as a result professional scribes and secretaries often copied and sold them to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplement their income. In this hot market for the sale of secrets, )] TJ ET BT 354.632 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(relazioni)] TJ ET BT 397.304 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( moved quickly from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscripts to print and became status items in the personal libraries of collectors. To prove his point, de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vivo traces the leakage of one specific )] TJ ET BT 222.956 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(relazione)] TJ ET BT 267.620 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: an ambassadorial report from Ottoviano Bon, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambassador to France in 1619. Information from this report flowed, step-by-step, from the ambassador )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself through a variety of patricians and finally to the offices of state when officials learned of this breach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of political information.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to the copying and sharing of official reports like this, de Vivo describes how ambassadors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regularly socialised with Venetian patricians in)] TJ ET BT 260.312 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( ridotti)] TJ ET BT 293.324 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or gambling salons, and 'spies' or professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informers like servants, secretaries, patricians' children, and lawyers regularly sold political information for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revenue. Informers also doubled as writers of )] TJ ET BT 254.624 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(avvisi)] TJ ET BT 282.620 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or manuscript newssheets that circulated regularly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16th-century Italy, all pointing to the cracks and fault lines that fissured the official Venetian policy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secrecy. Perhaps most centrally to his study, de Vivo shows how even those whose lives had theoretically )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7559 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing to do with official state politics showed a knowledge of and interest in political events and played a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in the circulation of information about politics. A wide spectrum of people from all social classes, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, regularly met in barber shops, pharmacies, book shops and warehouses, and at the Rialto and San )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marco, to exchange news and information. 'For all the Inquisitors' fears,' de Vivo tells us, we see 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pervasiveness of political communication beyond the political arena: the politicization of urban space' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(97\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Managing information, we see, was an extremely complex and contradictory business. While the state on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one hand was at pains to protect certain 'secret' information, on the other hand, the communication of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information such as laws, edicts, and decrees was a crucial condition of political action and control. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Venetian government therefore found itself trying to keep some information secret while simultaneously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempting to force other information into the minds of the city's inhabitants. The publication of new laws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and messages from state officials, both read, posted and circulated in pamphlets, often competed with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative forms of public communication and expression: poems, drawings, and political messages that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested the state's authority, including pasquinades posted at the statue of the Gobbo or hunchback at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rialto. In )] TJ ET BT 82.352 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(paternosters)] TJ ET BT 142.352 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \('sacred parody' poems that were read, copied, and circulated in countless versions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around the city, usually with the point of emphasising the hypocrisy of rulers and their politics\), for instance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de Vivo demonstrates the dynamic mixture of oral and literate forms of communication that travelled in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vast cross-section of Venetian society. Most people at large in the city were clearly capable of understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and criticising the political events that whirled around them. Like Menocchio, they were not simply passive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receptors of information, but processed, re-formed and re-circulated ideas with their own opinions and spin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a mixture of spoken words, manuscripts and print.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Against this background, de Vivo builds to the narrative culmination of his study: the case of the Interdict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against Venice. As a result of persistent squabbles having to do with land and legal jurisdiction, the papacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively excommunicated the city of Venice in 1606-7. While historians have traditionally analysed this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict through the lens of church versus state, with Paolo Sarpi representing the great freedom fighter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the tyranny of the papacy, de Vivo by contrast uses this incident to consider how early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people communicated their political ideas. De Vivo argues that this period witnessed an unprecedented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the ways that information flowed and to the forces of public thought. Both the Venetian state and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the papacy called on public opinion to decide in favour of one side or another, resulting in an all-out battle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the dissemination of information about the conflict.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Venetian government took the hard line approach of refusing to acknowledge the Interdict at all, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tandem with such thought refused to allow any publications to discuss the event, thereby hoping to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completely invalidate the pope's censure. The government's strategy of attempting to place its hands over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ears of the entire city rested, however, on the flimsy assumption that the state maintained a monopoly on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissemination of information. Indeed, informal means of communication, in particular manuscript copies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters from the papal camp, were transcribed and read in collective settings and quickly got the message of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Interdict to Venetians, making an easy mockery of the official state policy of denial. Here, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting to note as an aside that de Vivo never once mentions the famous debate between Elizabeth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eisenstein and Adrian Johns about the nature of print: a curious omission, since his research addresses this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion directly. These many examples of leaked )] TJ ET BT 286.640 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(relazioni)] TJ ET BT 329.312 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or copied papal letters neatly support Johns' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(side of the argument that even after the advent and regularisation of print, manuscripts were often much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more effective as means of communicating information since they were easily produced \(no machine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required\) and quickly disseminated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the Venetian senate slowly surmised that denial simply did not work, it temporarily reversed its strategy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It passed measures in favour of print publication about the Interdict in the summer of 1606 in the hopes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively attacking and reducing papal arguments with pro-Venetian ones. This resulted in what de Vivo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sees as a historically unprecedented publicity event. In a brief period of about eight months, channels of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication dramatically opened. Venetian printers produced a truly enormous quantity of polemical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pamphlets about the Interdict that invited readers to discuss and challenge the relationship between secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and spiritual authority. While some argued for falling into line with the papacy's camp, others ridiculed the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7603 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ineffectiveness of papal authority, claiming as did one priest from Padua, that it was 'better to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excommunicated twelve years than hanged half an hour' \(p. 241\). In the end, however, when Venice and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papacy resolved their differences, this outburst of debate and discussion ended. When the Interdict was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally concluded, the government quickly returned to its policies of secrecy and silence. Pamphlet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication was once again monitored and restricted, and the government became even more taciturn where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any discussion of state politics was concerned. In the wake of this extraordinary moment of public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion and communication about political events, the Venetian government once again, sadly it seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for de Vivo, retreated into silence and busied itself anew with the task of preventing the leakage of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information from its halls out onto the streets.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(De Vivo wants his readers to glean two main points. First, we need to dismantle our typical way of thinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about politics and political action as being polarised or divided between official political actors and 'the rest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the people'. Most people, he argues, including washerwomen and barbers, had political knowledge and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ingenuity. Along these lines, if everyone knew about politics, this meant that information almost never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flowed in a simple or singular top-down direction from 'the government' to 'the people'. Manuscript copies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government documents that circulated around the city or drawings about state officials etched around town )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are cases in point. Communication and the flow of information always entails a creative interaction between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various people and groups so that in the end, there is no real distinction or opposition between power and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public, propaganda and public opinion, or high and low politics. The manipulation of information was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always a contest or a negotiation. Interdict pamphleteering, for instance, has traditionally been labelled as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda: a term de Vivo disparages since it entirely ignores the reception and creative reformulation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas when they are digested by an intelligent and informed urban population.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, along similar lines, de Vivo repeatedly shows us how, paradoxically, the more regulation existed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the more leakage and abuse of secrecy appeared to occur. When Venetian officials established a law or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulation, instead of effectively blocking or preventing certain actions, such legislation instead actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opened up the issue as a contest or debate, encouraging individuals to contest and break that rule. In the end, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rules and legislation ironically achieved the opposite of their desired end. This is something that scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about censorship has long shown; censorship did not squash Aretino's career as a ribald writer but instead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rocketed him to fame, and this concept applies to infinite other examples. The more rules the state published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about blasphemy, for instance, the more creative people became in their ways of insulting God. The more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed sumptuary legislation became, the more women found ways to wear pearls and damask to church. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de Vivo's examples, the tighter control that state officials tried to maintain on 'secret' government reports, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more individuals desired to get their hands on them, and the more profiteering secretaries were willing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(copy them for a tidy fee. While de Vivo never invokes him, Foucault appears to be the ghost in his machine, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as de Vivo regularly reminds us that all acts of power necessarily invoke 'fissure[s] through which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerless can empower themselves' \(p. 17\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(De Vivo's narrative raises many questions. To name just a few: scholars have long noted that rhetoric really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mattered in Venice since it was not just about eloquence or politeness but existed at the centre of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life. Senators regularly employed their rhetorical training in the halls of state, and as de Vivo points out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('success depended on the ability to speak well' \(p. 20\). However, a truly striking number of rules and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limitations regulated debate in the Senate: so much so that we are left with the impression that senators made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost no use of their rhetorical skills because what they could talk about and what they could say was so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatically limited by the )] TJ ET BT 166.676 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collegio)] TJ ET BT 208.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Perhaps it is therefore wrong for us to imagine that rhetorical capacity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had more of a political bent in Venice than in other early modern states, since in the end, very little 'true' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion was ever allowed to happen. Were the debates that did occur so limited, circumscribed, and stilted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that we cannot even call them real debates, thereby fundamentally altering how we conceive of Venice as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('republican' state?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition, how can we explain the state's apparent lack of interest in the many individuals who willingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and publicly broke the state's rules about sharing secret political information? Why, for instance, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sanudo and Bon not reprimanded for their publications of )] TJ ET BT 314.984 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(relazioni)] TJ ET BT 357.656 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: publications that were unabashedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced with no sense of stealth or secrecy \(compared to the pharmacist Cerruti, who was arrested and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6356 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventually expelled from the city for his suspicious liaisons\)? Is this simply a classic case of the laws being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applied unevenly based on social class, or does this actually reveal an ambivalence or laziness about secrecy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the level of the state? Obviously, the main point here is that the state had only limited control over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way that information circulated, but it often appears that even when there was the possibility to identify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly and prosecute a leak, state officials did not do so. With these and other examples, it is sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unclear whether Venetian magistrates were in fact obsessively concerned with secrecy, or only wanted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construct the appearance of being so concerned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, de Vivo at times seems undecided about Venetian patrician attitudes towards the lower classes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political 'outsiders'. On the one hand, he claims that patricians 'agreed in dismissing the populace as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incapable of comprehending politics' \(p. 156, also 87-8\), but on the other hand, 'oligarchs ensconced in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secrecy of the Ducal Palace's most restricted councils, were constantly preoccupied by the voices of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects in the squares below' \(p. 4\). He states that 'the communication between different spheres was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constant, but not intentional', meaning that patricians may have inadvertently ended up hearing about what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the underclasses thought, but that they did not actively pursue this knowledge, compared to political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outsiders, who persistently 'sought and discussed political information' \(p. 156\). I would argue that indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state officials were always very interested in what everyone else thought and said no matter what rhetoric to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the contrary. Rumour and gossip were significant indicators of political thought widely cast, and any wise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politician sought to keep his finger on the pulse of society for precisely this reason. Sanudo loved to report )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the daily word on the street; his chronicle is largely derived from urban babble. Inquisitors and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assistants, as another example, were always interested in 'what people said', not only to pursue effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the heretic at hand, but also as a means of monitoring the spiritual state of the city.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lastly, where does political communication begin and end? What is it, exactly, the separates political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication from communication at large? If history broadly conceived involves endless forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication and expression \(indeed, this is how we know about history at all, from the remnants of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these communicative acts\), when exactly can we say such communication is specifically political? De Vivo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defines this term in a straightforward manner, stating that it represents 'the circulation of information and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas concerning political institutions and events' \(p. 2\), but at times this definition seems too narrow or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awkwardly forced. To cite just a few examples, he states that when informal manuscript transmissions fused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with official publications, 'different levels of political communication blurred'. Here, 'communication' might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply be more accurate. Or, once the Interdict was finally resolved, de Vivo says that it was if 'the Republic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wished to silence all public communication' \(p. 248\). In this context, it seems more correct just to say that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state wanted to silence any sense of celebration of the resolution; such a celebration could be understood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as political, or not.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a general sense, of course, we get his meaning; he is discussing the spread of ideas about politics, political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events, and news as traditionally defined. Perhaps this is no more than semiotic hair-splitting, or a classic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saussurian example of the ways in which language is arbitrary and often fails to capture completely our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning: 'political communication' is the closest we can come. Or perhaps this could be clarified with more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the language and terms early modern people themselves used to delineate political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication; did they have such a term? Nevertheless, at times he tries to force a wide spectrum of ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or concepts under the umbrella of 'political communication', when in fact most information, communication )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and expression involves a mixture of personal, political, creative, familial, financial, and spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(components. It is hard to know when political communication ends and every and any other type of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication begins.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 2521 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These queries and reflections aside, de Vivo's monograph about Venetian political life in the 16th and 17th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries remains a tour de force. No study better lays bare how the Venetian government really worked, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even those well versed in the complexities of Venetian politics will emerge with a clearer understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the government functioned in its daily practice. He deftly demonstrates that despite intentions, secrets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be kept; that perhaps there is no such thing as 'propaganda' but only constantly shifting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circulating ideas; and that the era that remarkably asserted 'the priesthood of all believers' simultaneously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated the parallel and related concept of the senatorial nature of all urban citizens and inhabitants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/511/1487.full)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 642.771 m 319.004 642.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 322.004 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ren/summary/v061/61.3.kohl.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 614.259 m 336.368 614.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 339.368 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 610.927 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 593.147 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 593.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/685)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 591.753 m 322.316 591.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 566.776 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.376 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3660)] TJ ET BT 34.016 537.976 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/511/1487.full)] TJ ET BT 34.016 523.576 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ren/summary/v061/61.3.kohl.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 643.0855 319.0037 654.9655 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/511/1487.full) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 614.5735 336.3677 626.4535 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ren/summary/v061/61.3.kohl.html) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 592.0675 322.3157 603.9475 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/685) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000590 00000 n 0000000672 00000 n 0000004798 00000 n 0000004907 00000 n 0000005017 00000 n 0000005126 00000 n 0000008687 00000 n 0000008815 00000 n 0000008899 00000 n 0000008964 00000 n 0000017630 00000 n 0000017695 00000 n 0000025307 00000 n 0000025372 00000 n 0000033028 00000 n 0000033093 00000 n 0000039502 00000 n 0000039600 00000 n 0000042174 00000 n 0000042301 00000 n 0000042410 00000 n 0000042537 00000 n 0000042649 00000 n 0000042777 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42872 %%EOF