%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141227061927+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141227061927+00'00') /Title (Medieval Single Women: The Politics of Social Classification in Late Medieval England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4359 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Medieval Single Women: The Politics of Social Classification in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Late Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The history of single women in pre-modern Europe has begun to attract a good amount of attention in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last decade. Thanks to historians such as Judith Bennett, Kim Phillips, Ruth Mazo Karras and P. J. P. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldberg, we now have some knowledge about single women in medieval England, particularly about their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working lives, their youth, their sexuality and contemporary attitudes toward them. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 435.308 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 435.308 222.033 m 449.300 222.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 449.300 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Beattie herself has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also been contributing to the scholarship on the topic for the last few years, and her work has so far stood out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for her ability to find the choice vignette and to provide lively stories from the historical records. Since many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of her articles have appeared in edited collections, not all readers may be familiar with her work, and this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph gives new readers a chance to engage with Beattie's arguments. As Beattie is the first to admit, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her book is more about how medieval people classified women by marital status, rather than about single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women)] TJ ET BT 69.344 137.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( per se)] TJ ET BT 101.336 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This work places Beattie firmly among those doing some of the most interesting theorising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about singleness in the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This monograph provides a window into medieval English ideas about marital status and theories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categorisation, rather than a social history of the women being categorised. The book is a series of case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies in which Beattie examines the categorisation of single women in varying contexts and by different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups. Specifically, she looks at the classification of single women in religious texts, tax subsidies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(686)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 August, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cordelia Beattie)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199283415)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(191pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amy Froide)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 435.3077 222.3475 449.2997 234.2275 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8138 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guild records, as well as in civic and probate documents. Beattie's understanding of a range of medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources is truly impressive here. Already known as an attentive reader of sources and genres, Beattie is at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pains to show the reader the nuances of each type of record that she uses. The downside of this it that she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes long explanations of documents and how historians have read them before we get to her interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis. Nevertheless, her presentation of the debates on and the caveats attendant in using religious texts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tax records, guild records and court documents will be very useful for postgraduates studying medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the key themes of Beattie's book is how we as scholars should define the category 'single women'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While in my own work on early modern England I found the word 'singlewoman' to mean a woman who has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never married, Beattie argues that the same term had more varied connotations in the medieval period. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 528.584 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 528.584 654.771 m 542.576 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 542.576 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one context - the 1413 Statute on Additions [Titles] - the term 'single women' included never-married )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women and sometimes widows, in essence women without husbands. Nevertheless, in the same time period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but in a different context - penitential discourses on chastity - contemporaries could use the term to only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mean never-married women. I am persuaded by Beattie's argument that the term 'single women' had varying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meanings depending on the context; but, as Beattie herself shows, the term 'widow' gained wide acceptance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in various types of records over the medieval period, and I would argue this is why 'single women' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventually came to mean unmarried women who were not widows, e.g. never -married women. Beattie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues strongly that her definitions come out of the sources, and that others who have worked on single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women have created modern classifications into which they have inserted women in the past. This is a tad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ungenerous and overstated, since, for instance, my use of the compound term 'singlewoman' comes directly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the sources as well. But Beattie's point that we must pay attention to nuance and difference and not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalise about the meanings of terms over time is well taken.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beattie's attention to language and nuance is important, but as she shows us, language was a tricky thing in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Middle Ages. When sorting out just who was being classified and what terms were being used, she has to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take into account Latin, law French, and English words. I wanted some more discussion of how we can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know what groups of women contemporaries were classifying when they used the Latin term )] TJ ET BT 483.932 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sola, )] TJ ET BT 509.936 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translates into the English 'single'. And the same goes for the term )] TJ ET BT 353.972 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(soluta)] TJ ET BT 383.312 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. These terms are even less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transparent than English ones.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book also makes an interesting and persuasive contention about medieval views of the sexuality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single women. Beattie particularly takes issue with Ruth Mazo Karras's contention that 'there was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptual space in the medieval scheme of things for a sexually active singlewoman who was not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prostitute'. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 87.512 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 87.512 317.139 m 101.504 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 101.504 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Her reading of the same preacher's manual to which Karras referred, the )] TJ ET BT 453.536 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fasciculus Morum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\('Little Bundle of Morals'\), shows that while the text defined fornication as intercourse with widows, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prostitutes or concubines, it did not rule out the possibility of non-virginal and never-married women that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not fit into the above three categories. While it is always difficult to argue a point based on absence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overt evidence, Beattie once again reminds us of the nuances of language. Beattie's assertion that medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people had more categories for single women than just virgin and whore is on firmer ground in her reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of )] TJ ET BT 47.012 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jacob's Well)] TJ ET BT 107.900 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a discourse on the 14 degrees of lechery. The text refers to maydens [virgins], wydewes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comoun wommen [prostitutes], and syngle wommen. Beattie interprets this as meaning that there was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classification for unmarried women who were not virgins, widows or prostitutes. I could suggest a counter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation: that the term 'syngle wommen' here may also refer to older never-married women who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no longer viewed as maydens or young women in a pre-marital state. This points to one of Beattie's key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contentions: language is open to interpretation. However, since this is a text on sexuality, I think Beattie is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably correct that women were here being categorised by sexual and marital status and not by age or life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cycle.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beattie's chapter on how single women appear in the 1379 poll tax revisits previous work she has done that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usefully reminds us of the socially constructed nature of supposedly transparent and formulaic sorts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents like tax returns. Some used the Latin terms )] TJ ET BT 297.992 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(solus/sola, vidua)] TJ ET BT 378.668 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 404.996 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(puella)] TJ ET BT 434.996 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(which Beattie translates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as single, widow, and maiden/girl, respectively\). Other returns made more use of occupational, familial or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(household terms, such as daughter or servant, to categorise single women. Beattie shows that assessors seem )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 528.5837 655.0855 542.5757 666.9655 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 87.5117 317.4535 101.5037 329.3335 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7951 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have used )] TJ ET BT 97.004 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(puella)] TJ ET BT 127.004 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to indicate a daughter at home in contrast to 'servant' for a young woman working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside the home. She argues that the terms )] TJ ET BT 245.660 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(puella)] TJ ET BT 275.660 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 298.988 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vidua)] TJ ET BT 325.652 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( both had an economic inflection; in the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case, of financial dependence, and in the second, of financial assessment according to the deceased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husband's status. This chapter also brings up the issue that there were regional variations in the terms used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by tax assessors for single women. I would have liked much more of a discussion on Beattie's part about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographical, regional, or local variations \(if any\) in how contemporaries categorised single women. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems integral to her book's argument that language and the meaning of terms and categories varied by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context. Since Beattie makes use of sources from all over England - London, Bishops \(now Kings\) Lynn, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwich and York - she does not confine herself to the meanings created by contemporaries in only one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(region, such as the southeast, for instance. More on this would have been interesting.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the next chapter, Beattie examines the appearance of single women in 14th-century guild returns, registers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and account books. Even though the guilds in question are religious and not craft organisations, she finds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the categories of 'single woman' and 'single sister' have an economic and legal inflection and she argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they are analogous to the legal category of )] TJ ET BT 240.632 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(femme sole,)] TJ ET BT 297.284 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a legally and economically independent woman. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beattie also points out that the references to single women in guild records do not necessarily mean these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women were members in any numbers. For example, a return that said a woman could join if she paid a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain fee, only means she could theoretically join the guild, for in reality the fee may have been too high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for most women. While wives also appeared in guild records, they paid a lower fee than single women, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their husbands were the actual payees.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beattie found that other guild records preferred to use terms for single women that had moral \(rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic\) associations and that evoked chastity. In guild registers, for instance, the latin terms )] TJ ET BT 492.284 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(virgo)] TJ ET BT 517.616 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(puella )] TJ ET BT 67.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are always used for young single women. There was no term for a young man that had associations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virginity, rather, the Middle English word 'sengilmen' appeared. Beattie describes the use of 'sengilman' as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vernacular shift in the later 15th century, but it is not clear why )] TJ ET BT 339.968 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(virgo )] TJ ET BT 368.300 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not undergo a similar vernacular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift to 'maiden'. Beattie makes a significant point when she argues that contemporaries had a vested interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in labelling young women 'maidens' and thus emphasising their chastity, while young men were described in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neutral terms as 'sengilmen'. But since this argument is important it probably merited its own chapter and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer disposition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the last chapter of the book Beattie examines the term 'single woman' as a personal designation in court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records and probate documents. She argues that the growing use of the term 'single woman' was influenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the actions of the central government, in particular the 1413 Statute of Additions, which attempted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standardise personal additions in legal documents. The justices decided the term 'singlewoman' was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate addition for unmarried women. But since the term )] TJ ET BT 335.300 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vidua)] TJ ET BT 361.964 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( continued to be used for widows, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('singlewoman' was largely applied to the never-married. Beattie attributes the introduction of the term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('singlewoman' into English society to the 1413 Statute since the earliest uses of this vernacular term that she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can find come afterwards - in the 1430s and 1440s. She says the term only came to be widely used in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15th and early 16th centuries, and it operated as a variant of maiden rather than widow. This chronology is in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(line with what I have found and it helpfully provides a context for why 'singlewoman' is one of the words for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never-married women in the legal documents of the early modern period. Beattie does take issue with my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertion that there was a transition in the 17th century from using the word maiden to using 'singlewoman', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or its more common counterpart, 'spinster'. She, I think correctly, argues for more complexity, saying any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transition occurred in different records, at different places and at different times, and that sometimes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change was from singlewoman back to maiden, instead of the direction I posited. Since I based my argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on probate and civic records from Southampton, Bristol, Oxford and York, I think Beattie is right that we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be seeing variations over region and record. Ultimately though, by the 17th and definitely by the 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries, the terms 'maiden' and 'virgin' are outmoded and largely unused in English legal, civic, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic records \(although still apparent in literary genres\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beattie's arguments for the late medieval period help me understand how much more single women were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined and classified within a secular context in the early modern era, compared to a more religious context )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 4431 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in medieval England. With the Reformation and the disappearance of vowed virgins or nuns, as well as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing secularisation of both English society and its records, contemporaries eschewed the use of terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with virginal and religious connotations to classify women. Rather, the terms with economic and legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inflections, such as 'spinster' and 'singlewoman' dominate by the end of the 17th century. Beattie's final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter is a great example of how the work of medievalists can assist historians of more recent centuries to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contextualise their own work. While Beattie has written her book for a specialist medieval audience, I hope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of gender and of later periods will also take a look. They will be rewarded with an example of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to do careful social and cultural history that never strays from the sources but that also offers a fruitful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of those same documents.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 647.523 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Singlewomen in the European Past, 1250-1800)] TJ ET BT 290.672 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. M. Bennett and A. M. Froide \(Philadelphia, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999\); K. M. Phillips, )] TJ ET BT 172.364 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Maidens: Young Women and Gender in England, 1270-1540)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 2003\); R. Karras, )] TJ ET BT 216.308 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Common Women: Prostitution and Sexuality in Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1998\) and see note 3; and P. J. P. Goldberg, )] TJ ET BT 321.980 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women, Work, and Lifecycle in a Medieval )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economy: Women in York and Yorkshire c. 1300-1520)] TJ ET BT 326.648 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1992\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 408.296 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 408.296 558.483 m 462.284 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. M. Froide, )] TJ ET BT 132.680 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Never Married: Singlewomen in Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 401.984 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2005\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 483.632 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 483.632 544.227 m 537.620 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. M. Karras, 'Sex and the singlewoman' in )] TJ ET BT 275.312 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Singlewomen in the European Past, 1250-1800)] TJ ET BT 501.968 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. M. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bennett and A. M. Froide \(Philadelphia, 1999\), p. 104. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 330.332 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 330.332 515.715 m 384.320 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 490.853 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/114/1/195.1.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 460.947 m 290.012 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 293.012 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 457.615 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 439.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 439.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/686)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 438.441 m 322.316 438.441 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 413.464 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.064 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3661)] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.664 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/114/1/195.1.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 408.2957 558.7975 462.2837 570.6775 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 483.6317 544.5415 537.6197 556.4215 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 330.3317 516.0295 384.3197 527.9095 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 461.2615 290.0117 473.1415 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/114/1/195.1.full) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 438.7555 322.3157 450.6355 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/686) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000588 00000 n 0000000677 00000 n 0000005088 00000 n 0000005197 00000 n 0000005307 00000 n 0000005416 00000 n 0000008977 00000 n 0000009105 00000 n 0000009189 00000 n 0000009218 00000 n 0000009346 00000 n 0000009382 00000 n 0000009473 00000 n 0000017664 00000 n 0000017694 00000 n 0000017822 00000 n 0000017858 00000 n 0000017888 00000 n 0000018015 00000 n 0000018051 00000 n 0000018116 00000 n 0000026120 00000 n 0000026232 00000 n 0000030716 00000 n 0000030844 00000 n 0000030899 00000 n 0000031027 00000 n 0000031082 00000 n 0000031210 00000 n 0000031265 00000 n 0000031392 00000 n 0000031498 00000 n 0000031626 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31721 %%EOF