%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 35 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723004254+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723004254+01'00') /Title (Caribbean Exchanges: Slavery and the Transformation of English Society, 1640-1700) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4304 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Caribbean Exchanges: Slavery and the Transformation of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Society, 1640-1700)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the bicentenary of the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade approached, the past few years saw a great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outpouring of scholarship on subjects related to the relationship between Britain, slavery, race and empire, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with particular focus upon Britain's entry into participation in the slave trade and plantation agriculture, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the rise of popular opposition to slavery. Yet despite this intense interest in the English, and then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British, encounter with slavery, and in the ways in which slavery affected both Africa and the plantation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies, little emphasis has thus far been allotted to the important question of how England itself was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed by its encounter with slavery. It is this issue upon which Susan Dwyer Amussen centres her new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph, limning the nature of the new ideas, practices, objects and people which English colonists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought back with them from the West Indies, and exploring the place which these islands assumed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolitan imagination over the course of the 17th century. In so doing, Amussen contributes to the 'new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial history' theorised by, among others, Kathleen Wilson, Antoinette Burton, and particularly Paul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gilroy and Catherine Hall, all of whom emphasise the necessity of placing 'the histories of colony and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropole ... in one analytic frame, as separate histories that are deeply intertwined' \(p. 11\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 475.748 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 475.748 93.729 m 489.740 93.729 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Amussen, slaveholding did not come 'naturally' \(p. 10\) to 17th-century Englishmen and -)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women; it was a practice which they learned to manage via trial and error over the half-century which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(687)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 August, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Dwyer Amussen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780807858547)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(313pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of North Carolina Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapel Hill, NC)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Natalie Zacek)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 475.7477 94.0435 489.7397 105.9235 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7941 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separated the beginnings of slavery and sugar production in Barbados and Jamaica from the maturation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that system towards the close of the century. In her view, not only the slaves but their masters found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves transformed by the experience of bondage, which soon altered the latter's ideas about social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order, labour management, agricultural productivity, racial identity and political authority. Moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because many West Indian colonists returned, temporarily or permanently, to the metropole, a two-way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traffic in people 'made the experience of the West Indies a more real and visible feature of English society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than that of England's mainland colonies' \(p. 7\). In six chapters and an epilogue, )] TJ ET BT 421.280 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Caribbean Exchanges)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores the effects of West Indian slavery and colonialism on Englishmen both at home and abroad.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Amussen's view, it is crucial to understand 17th-century English metropolitan society in order to see how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its values and practices shaped those of the West Indian settlements, and this goal is the principal concern of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book's first chapter, 'Trade and settlement'. In this period, England experienced both rapid population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth and increasing social polarisation. Labour and its management was a vexed issue both at home and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the colonies, linked as it was to questions of law, individual liberty and social hierarchy. But while in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England 'slavery was a metaphor frequently used as the antithesis of freedom to condemn the illegitimate use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of power' \(p. 19\), in Barbados and Jamaica, and elsewhere throughout the Anglo-Atlantic world, it became a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day-to-day reality, at the same time that the expansion of trade relationships meant that English people came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into contact with people of other races and cultures. The interplay of labour requirements and emerging ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about ethno-racial hierarchy encouraged first Virginia, then Barbados, and finally Jamaica, conquered from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Spanish in 1655, to turn to African captives held in lifelong, heritable bondage as the ideal workforce for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plantation agriculture. Beginning around 1660, sugar was the principal commodity produced by England's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caribbean colonies, and it not only generated enormous profits for both the islands and the mother country, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but soon became central to England's commerce and existed as a 'constant reminder' \(p. 40\) to English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people at home of distant, seemingly exotic colonial possessions. Amussen emphasises the complexity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the improvisational nature of the processes which created these sugar-producing colonies, and the extent to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which their white inhabitants 'drew upon and reshaped English ideas of identity' \(p. 42\) - these settlers hoped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to recreate England, or at least a recognisable version thereof, but their reliance upon tropical staple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agriculture and African slavery meant that they were called upon to create new, intensely exploitative, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overtly un-English social relations in Jamaica and Barbados.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These social relations are the subject of the next chapter, 'Islands of Difference,' which centres its analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon two principal contemporary depictions of 17th-century Barbados and Jamaica: Richard Ligon's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(True and Exact History of the Island of Barbados)] TJ ET BT 272.012 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1657\) and John Taylor's 'Multum in Parvo', an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpublished manuscript which narrates the author's sojourn in Jamaica in the late 1680s. Both Ligon's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative, which has been extensively analysed by historians and literary scholars, and Taylor's much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscure text are 'saturated with [the] perceived difference and strangeness' \(p. 43\) which the two writers saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the islands, and thus their accounts 'provide a useful framework for examining both the journey and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world that English men found when they arrived in the West Indies' \(p. 46\). Both men were impressed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(islands' warm climate and exotic flora and fauna, and by the )] TJ ET BT 325.448 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tremendous)] TJ ET BT 381.440 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( agricultural productivity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land, but they struggled to understand these tropical societies and to explain them to their English audiences. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They found the social life of the islands alarming, particularly in relation to the treatment of both slaves and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indentured servants; the evident unhappiness and constant threat of rebellion of these unfree labourers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rendered island society deeply unstable, and threatened to undermine the planters' prosperity because the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production of greater wealth necessitated still worse exploitation of the workforce. Ligon and Taylor differed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in relation to the question of blame: the former, who did his best to believe that Barbadian society was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognisably English, and that slavery and servitude were not inherently wrong, insisted that it was only a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few bad masters who mistreated their labourers, and simultaneously contributed to the hardening of racial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotypes by arguing that Africans were bestial and that it was their innate inferiority, rather than slavery, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that prevented Barbados from being an exact facsimile of the mother country. Taylor, by contrast, came to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believe that cruel treatment of slaves and servants was not limited to a couple of evil masters, but rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permeated the institutions of chattel slavery and indentured servitude, both of which were based on greed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its attendant exploitation of supposed inferiors. To Taylor, Jamaican society, and its prosperity, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely based upon this greed, which corrupted every aspect of life in the colony and would always prevent )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7621 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it from replicating the benefits of English ideals and institutions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next two chapters of )] TJ ET BT 156.320 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Caribbean Exchanges)] TJ ET BT 262.640 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( examine the methods by which Barbadian and Jamaican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planters developed 'well-established agricultural and social systems' and 'entrenched governments' \(p. 74\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the course of the 17th century, and draw heavily upon the papers of the Helyar family, Somerset )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landowners who were closely involved in the early economic and political development of Jamaica. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helyar papers make clear the many challenges inherent in establishing and running a plantation, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'many differences between the colonies and England and the manifold problems English planters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encountered in Jamaica' \(p. 75\). The production of sugar was an extremely complicated process, one which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called for enormous capital investment in land, slaves, buildings, and machinery, in which English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural expertise was usually not applicable, and in which things very often went disastrously wrong. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, the tremendous mortality in the islands, due largely to the fact that malaria, smallpox, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of fevers were endemic there, meant that many planters died before their estates had become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profitable. Those who survived were forced to cope with the loss of slaves and servants to diseases whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins and treatment were little understood, and with the fact that sugar cultivation quickly exhausted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soil. The result was that, although tales circulated in England of the great riches to be reaped from sugar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planting, success was rare and hard-won, and at any time the majority of planters lived with crushing anxiety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding their futures. They also were all too aware that 'all our estate here ... depends wholly upon the frail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thread of the life of our Negroes' \(p. 91\), as demographic and political changes in the metropole, combined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with gruesome accounts of the miserable lives of white labourers, made it increasingly difficult for planters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to recruit indentured servants for Jamaica and Barbados. The presence of ever-increasing numbers of black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slaves was the foundation of the planters' hopes for prosperity, but at the same time it caused them great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anxiety, not only about the prospect of slave rebellion, but because slavery, far more than the tropical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climate or the physical distance, was what marked the islands as definitively un-English.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the planters struggled to render their estates profitable, they also contended with how best to adapt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English forms of government to tropical realities. The development of 'right English government' was a great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge to Jamaican and Barbadian colonists, not least because the islands were, in political terms, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensions of England, but sufficiently unlike the metropole, particularly because of the presence of slaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and slavery, that many aspects of English political practice simply could not work there. English and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial interests were often at loggerheads, as the former emphasised the importance of upholding imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority, while the latter centred on maintenance of English rights and liberties. West Indian planters prided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves on their Englishness, and their sense of benefiting from a long struggle for liberty, but at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time they resented paying taxes to the metropole and were convinced that sovereignty should reside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with them, not at Whitehall; they went so far as to claim that their local houses of assembly possessed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powers parallel to those of the House of Commons. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, metropolitan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and colonial office-holders clashed repeatedly over issues such as taxation, the recruitment of white servants, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the religious conversion of slaves. Within the islands, controversies also raged within local government, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and particularly over questions of legal identity and individual rights, which were complicated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence of slaves. By the end of the 17th century, the Jamaican and Barbadian legislatures had developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal codes which differentiated sharply between white and black, free and enslaved, creating a separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judicial system which redefined slaves, and in many cases free people of colour, as a new category of legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persons lacking the vaunted English rights associated with white settlers. These laws helped planters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain control over the often restive slave labourers who by the end of the 17th century significantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outnumbered the islands' white inhabitants, and gave formal recognition that the liberties the planters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoyed depended upon the denial of liberty to the slaves, but simultaneously served as evidence of just 'how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far from English experience the enslavement of other people was' \(p. 144\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five, 'Due order and subjection', deals with the 'daily tensions of racial and class relations and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex processes by which they were negotiated' \(p. 145\). Here Amussen returns to a theme of her chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Ligon and Taylor, stressing the impossibility of replicating English concepts and practices of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchy in the West Indies. Not only did the presence of slaves and of free or enslaved racially mixed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals complicate ideas about social status, but the high mortality among white settlers forestalled the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7845 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of patriarchal families and of entrenched local elites. Planters often quarrelled with one another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding money, political authority, and often seemingly trivial issues of precedence and personal honour, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in these small societies grudges could fester over many years and pass on to subsequent generations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many servants, and some slaves, were keen to challenge the authority of their masters, and the constant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence of sailors, particularly in Port Royal, Jamaica, the 'wickedest city in the West', rendered the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(atmosphere of island towns volatile and sometimes violent. Jamaica was also perpetually troubled by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence of the Maroons, descendants of runaway slaves who inhabited the island's mountainous, densely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forested interior and often emerged to raid plantations or kill unwary settlers. The result of these overlapping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anxieties was the creation of a set of extremely brutal punishments, directed largely although not exclusively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at slaves, which contributed to the metropole's image of the West Indian planter as a vicious brute, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which 'marks the realization that slavery made the social order of the islands fundamentally difficult from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in England' \(p. 174\). Amussen raises here a point to which she returns in her epilogue, that the severity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the laws regarding punishment of slaves, though widely decried in England, may have provided a model )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for criminal law and industrial capitalism in late 18th- and early 19th-century England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter of )] TJ ET BT 131.984 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Caribbean Exchanges)] TJ ET BT 238.304 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( represents a noteworthy break from those preceding it, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amussen not only shifts scene from the West Indies to England, but moves from analysis of social, political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and economic developments to a discussion of artistic and literary representations of Caribbean slavery. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she emphasises throughout this section, many West Indian planters returned temporarily or permanently to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, and in so doing brought with them both ideas about slavery and actual slaves. The visibility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these absentee planters, their imported slaves, and tropical products such as sugar, spices, and fruits, meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the Caribbean had a 'physical presence' \(p. 178\) in late Stuart England, one which engendered a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant cultural response in the metropole. The sight of black slaves in the streets of London and Bristol )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only encouraged writers such as Morgan Godwyn, Thomas Tryon, and Richard Baxter to pen early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critiques of slavery, but also gave rise to depictions of slaves, and of their masters and mistresses, in many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the plays which enlivened the London stage. Many of these works criticised slave-based colonial society, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depicting wealthy planters who profited from the cruel exploitation of their labourers, and colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adventurers who were nothing more than the dregs of English society, yet Amussen finds that even the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overtly critical texts render slaves effectively invisible. Similarly, although more than 70 English portraits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late 17th and early 18th centuries include one or more black figures, these men and women, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially boys and girls, are depicted as objects of exotic display, bolstering the power and wealth of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white women and men who are the artists' true subjects, and setting off the literal and figurative whiteness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their owners. Yet perusal of runaway advertisements in English newspapers shows that by the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17th century black people were 'part of the rural and urban landscape' \(p. 221\) of England, and she argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it was as a result of a sustained confrontation with colonial 'others,' in colony and metropole alike, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English people at home and abroad came to 'produce Englishness as white' \(p. 266\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amussen follows up on this point in her epilogue, in which she argues that the changes in ideas and practices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relating to labour, law and racial and gendered identity in 17th-century Jamaica and Barbados had a similarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformative effect upon 18th-century England. Referring briefly but insightfully to the major alterations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in English life in that period, she claims that most of these changes were foreshadowed, and influenced, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the practices pioneered by West Indian planters. Throughout the 18th century, more and more laws, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epitomised by the Black Act of 1723, were put in place to protect the property rights of elites and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disenfranchise the poor, placing them in a legally and politically as well as financially inferior position to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their supposed betters. As black female slaves emerged in the popular imagination as drudges and as sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(playthings for white men, middle- and upper-class white English women were encouraged to aspire to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('ladyhood', a status based on leisure, chastity and sexual passivity, while poor women's inability to attain this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status encouraged society to view them as depraved as well as deprived. 'Scientific' ideas of race allowed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English intelligentsia to think of particular groups -not just racial 'others,' but also other seemingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undesirable or dangerous people, such as the Irish or the poor - as inherently different, and thus inferior and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less deserving of what we now refer to as human rights. In conclusion, Amussen argues that the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience in the West Indies 'provided a model for a society where the bonds of paternalism had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely abandoned'- a model which would come to life at home as England entered an era of industrial )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 8861 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism and global imperialism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are many reasons to praise )] TJ ET BT 195.296 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Caribbean Exchanges)] TJ ET BT 301.616 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It is a lucidly organised and gracefully written work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which builds effectively upon the insights of previous scholars of the English experience in the West Indies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and which takes a truly 'Atlantic' perspective not only on the development of English settlements in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(islands, but upon the influence of these settlements and their inhabitants, white and black, upon the mother )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country. It contributes not only to the growing historiography of the English Caribbean, but to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flourishing 'new imperial history', which to this point has largely focused upon the period following the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seven Years War, and particularly the 19th century. Amussen's stated goal is to do for the 17th century what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine Hall's )] TJ ET BT 114.164 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Civilising Subjects)] TJ ET BT 203.840 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2002\) did for the 19th; that is, to 'place the histories of colony and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropole ... in one analytic frame' and to explore the Atlantic, and specifically the relationships between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and the Caribbean, as 'a site for the operations of power' \(p. 11\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That said, the book misses some opportunities for fruitful engagement with other scholars and additional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources. While Amussen is to be praised for her insightful analysis of the Helyar papers, the particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of this one family are not necessarily representative of the planting endeavours of 17th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English settlers in Jamaica and Barbados - she might have examined the published papers of the Blakes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish Catholic planters in Barbados, or those of the Lascelles, whose archive has been so successfully mined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Simon Smith and James Walvin. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.024 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.024 542.979 m 223.016 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 223.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Her admittedly fascinating ideas about the influence of West Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal, economic, and political practices parallel those of Peter Linebaugh and Ian Baucom, but neither the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former's )] TJ ET BT 76.496 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The London Hanged)] TJ ET BT 175.160 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1990\) nor the latter's )] TJ ET BT 284.300 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Specters of the Atlantic)] TJ ET BT 395.960 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2005\) are discussed in the text )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or listed in the bibliography. Similarly, I found her analysis of the improvisational nature of planters' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses to Caribbean life to be more indebted to Larry Gragg's )] TJ ET BT 347.780 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Englishmen Transplanted)] TJ ET BT 471.452 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2003\) than is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overtly acknowledged, and her sense of the West Indies as a crucible of modernity follows on Sidney )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mintz's concept of 'the Caribbean as )] TJ ET BT 210.968 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(oikoumene)] TJ ET BT 262.952 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 271.112 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 271.112 457.443 m 285.104 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 285.104 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Finally, her exclusive focus on Barbados and Jamaica is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat historiographically limiting, particularly in its ignoring of the critical role played by the Virginia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colony in encouraging metropolitan English people to re-conceive ideas about empire, sovereignty, race, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender, servitude and national identity. As much as the bicentenary of the abolition of the Atlantic slave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade encouraged an academic and popular acknowledgement of the critical role of slavery in English, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later British, experiences both at home and in the colonies, the simultaneous quatercentenary of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment of the Jamestown settlement gave rise to an increased understanding of the centrality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virginia to English politics, commerce and culture in the 17th century. If England learned many lessons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from its West Indian experience, it seems just as plausible to claim that role for an earlier colony which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined its own practices in relation to race, servitude, gender, law and empire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These caveats aside, though, Amussen is to be praised for her enthusiastic effort to 'bring the Empire home', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to allow scholars of 17th-century England to understand how their own work can be enriched by taking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a truly Atlantic perspective on the indubitably important role which the West Indies played in shaping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English society, politics, economy and society. )] TJ ET BT 262.340 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Caribbean Exchanges)] TJ ET BT 368.660 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a book which should be read by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyone interested in 17th-century English history, as well as those working in West Indian, North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American, and Atlantic history of this period, and will be of interest to anyone concerned with how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English made their empire, and how that empire made, and re-made, them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.843 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 153.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, )] TJ ET BT 150.992 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A New Imperial History)] TJ ET BT 265.988 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. K. Wilson \(Cambridge, 2004\); )] TJ ET BT 439.304 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(After the Imperial Turn)] TJ ET BT 551.636 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. A. M. Burton \(Durham, 2003\); P. Gilroy, )] TJ ET BT 282.668 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Consciousness)] TJ ET BT 134.684 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, Mass., 1993\); and C. Hall, )] TJ ET BT 330.668 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Civilising Subjects: Metropole and Colony in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the English Imagination, 1830-67)] TJ ET BT 226.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, 2003\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 313.004 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 313.004 109.059 m 366.992 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 96.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Blake Family Records, 1600 to 1700)] TJ ET BT 239.996 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. M. J. Blake \(London, 1905\); S. D. Smith, )] TJ ET BT 465.332 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavery, Family, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Gentry Capitalism: The World of the Lascelles, 1648-1834)] TJ ET BT 367.676 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2006\); J. Walvin, 'The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial origins of English wealth: the Harewoods of Yorkshire', )] TJ ET BT 377.468 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Caribbean History)] TJ ET BT 520.472 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 35 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2005\), 38-53. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 136.004 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 136.004 52.035 m 189.992 52.035 l S endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 209.0237 543.2935 223.0157 555.1735 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 271.1117 457.7575 285.1037 469.6375 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 313.0037 109.3735 366.9917 121.2535 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 136.0037 52.3495 189.9917 64.2295 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 2207 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. 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Mintz, 'Enduring substances, trying theories: the Caribbean as )] TJ ET BT 394.148 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oikoumene)] TJ ET BT 448.796 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(', )] TJ ET BT 456.956 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of the Royal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anthropological Institute)] TJ ET BT 185.024 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2 \(1996\), 289-311. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 284.012 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 284.012 780.819 m 338.000 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_colonialism_and_colonial_history/summary/v010/10.1.diptee.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 726.051 m 548.360 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/113/4/1121.1.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 683.283 m 296.012 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 299.012 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 679.951 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 662.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 662.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/687)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 660.777 m 322.316 660.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 635.800 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3662)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.744 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_colonialism_and_colonial_history/summary/v010/10.1.diptee.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.344 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/113/4/1121.1.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 284.0117 781.1335 337.9997 793.0135 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 726.3655 548.3597 738.2455 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_colonialism_and_colonial_history/summary/v010/10.1.diptee.html) >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 683.5975 296.0117 695.4775 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/113/4/1121.1.full) >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 661.0915 322.3157 672.9715 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/687) >> endobj xref 0 45 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000598 00000 n 0000000687 00000 n 0000005043 00000 n 0000005152 00000 n 0000005262 00000 n 0000005371 00000 n 0000008932 00000 n 0000009060 00000 n 0000009144 00000 n 0000009173 00000 n 0000009300 00000 n 0000009336 00000 n 0000009401 00000 n 0000017395 00000 n 0000017460 00000 n 0000025134 00000 n 0000025199 00000 n 0000033097 00000 n 0000033202 00000 n 0000042116 00000 n 0000042146 00000 n 0000042274 00000 n 0000042310 00000 n 0000042340 00000 n 0000042468 00000 n 0000042504 00000 n 0000042632 00000 n 0000042687 00000 n 0000042813 00000 n 0000042868 00000 n 0000042973 00000 n 0000045233 00000 n 0000045361 00000 n 0000045416 00000 n 0000045543 00000 n 0000045697 00000 n 0000045824 00000 n 0000045931 00000 n 0000046059 00000 n trailer << /Size 45 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 46154 %%EOF