%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140725153408+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140725153408+01'00') /Title (Medicine, Charity and Mutual Aid: The Consumption of Health and Welfare in Britain, c.1550-1950) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4068 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Medicine, Charity and Mutual Aid: The Consumption of Health )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(and Welfare in Britain, c.1550-1950)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This collection of 12 essays originated in a number of conference papers addressing the theme 'History from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Below: the Urban Poor and the Reception of Medicine and Charity in Western European Cities'. The essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the book examine the consumption of health and welfare in Britain, or more accurately, in England, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the main chronological focus being on the 19th and 20th centuries. Both collectively and individually, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge the existing historiography of health and welfare and offer new insights into the complexities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relationship between providers and consumers of charitable and mutual aid. In particular, the essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore the agency of the poor, and not so poor, with regard to the developing urban economy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rejecting historical approaches which regard recipients of charitable assistance and medical treatment as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passive or deferential, the editors, Anne Borsay and Peter Shapely, have brought together a collection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays which focus on recipients of support as 'consumers'. This description reflects the central theme of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book: that those who received support were able to exercise a degree of choice and influence. The essays in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medicine, Charity and Mutual Aid)] TJ ET BT 199.676 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( set out to explore the history of medical care and charitable assistance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the perspective of these consumers. The emphasis on 'consumption' signals an important shift in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis from histories of health and welfare which examine the provision \(or production\) of charitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(688)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 August, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Borsay)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Shapely)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754651482)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(284pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moira Martin)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7523 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assistance and which are concerned mainly with the motivation, power or status of donors, doctors and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professionals. As the editors acknowledge, there are real difficulties in examining the attitudes, feelings and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions of recipients since 'the poor left few records and their perspectives were generally unrepresented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though other media' \(p. 3\). Thus, while Stuart Hogarth had access to the autobiography of a man who was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for some time a patient at Manchester Infirmary, most contributors had to use a range of sources to examine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role of consumers. If the presence of the latter is somewhat obscured in some essays, this may reflect the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodological problems of revealing the agency of the poor and sick.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hogarth's essay, 'Joseph Townsend and the Manchester Infirmary', makes a major contribution to our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of social relations within the hospital. He challenges Foucauldian approaches to the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medicine, which suggest that by the late 18th century the relationship between doctor and patient had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed to such an extent that patients were no longer able to contribute to their own diagnosis and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment. Through a detailed study of the autobiography of Joseph Townsend, a 21-year-old textile worker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admitted to Manchester Infirmary in 1827, Hogarth offers an alternative analysis of the doctor-patient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship. By privileging the patient's narrative, Hogarth reveals the ways in which Townsend was able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence his treatment, negotiate his status as an in-patient and persuade his doctors to undertake a novel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surgical procedure to rectify a disability acquired as a child. Townsend's testimony demonstrates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affective nature of the relationship between doctor and patient and the changes the patient experienced in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('inner world'. While Hogarth warns against replacing an interest in power with an interest in emotion, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account draws on the social history of the emotions to show how patients like Townsend helped to shape the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions in which they lived, worked and received treatment. It is a fascinating study of personal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional relationships in an institutional setting.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Hogarth provides a patient's account of daily life in a voluntary hospital, six other essays examine the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between patients and medical institutions. A focus on institutions is characteristic of much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent research on the social history of medicine and this collection is no exception. The contributors aim to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyse medical establishments from the perspective of the patient, and all succeed in this to a greater or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lesser extent. In some essays, however, the concept of the patient or inmate as a 'consumer' is problematic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Borsay's excellent essay explores a number of institutions for deaf children and shows how these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions were supported by a mixed economy of care based on fees, donations, and later, state funding. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Her essay also shows how child recipients were used in marketing: first, in terms of the politics of display, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when visitors were encouraged to view the children in the institutions, and second, in terms of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction and marketing of children's narratives. Biographical information, memoirs and letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purporting to be the personal testimonies of deaf children were used for fundraising purposes, while donors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumed the responsibility of speaking on behalf of those 'denied the power of pleading for themselves' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(78\). As Borsay argues, these 'voices' bore little resemblance to the children's experience and she uses a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of sources to contrast the lived experience of the children with the sentimental rhetoric that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced. Neither the children nor their families can be considered as 'consumers' and Borsay concedes that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite small acts of resistance, the children were virtually powerless in these disciplinary institutions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the ideological conflict which developed between doctors and educationalists over whether deaf )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children should be taught to communicate manually or orally, it might be expected that organisations such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British Deaf and Dumb Association, and later the National Institute for the Deaf, would have protected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the interests of the children caught up in this dispute. However, opposition to signing and the desire to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('normalise' deaf children influenced deaf people's own organisations, and in the 1930s, children already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluent in signing were physically prevented from communicating in this way and punished for so doing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Borsay analyses the history of deaf establishments from the perspective of the deaf children, but she also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlights some of the factors which contributed to the harshness of these institutional regimes and she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thereby increases our understanding of the political economy of care. Her account reveals the darker side of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the market in health and welfare and shows that some 'consumers' had little power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If deaf children had little influence in terms of their education, the parents of children at Great Ormond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Street Hospital exercised a degree of choice over the duration of their children's hospital treatment. Andrea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tanner's study of the London children's hospital uses a database of hospital admissions and case notes to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5763 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyse how families viewed and used the hospital. Although 90 per cent of the children treated were out-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patients, the great dilemma facing some parents was first, whether to agree to their child's admission to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ward, and then, whether to leave them in hospital for the duration of the treatment. As Tanner shows, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were many obstacles for working-class parents to contend with in bringing their sick children to hospital, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parents nevertheless sought treatment for their children, and when medical opinion suggested it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary, they agreed to their children being admitted. The database reveals age and gender differences in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admissions and in the premature removal of children from Great Ormond Street Hospital. Parents removed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their children if they considered the treatment to be ineffective or misguided, or if they thought their child )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was unhappy. Tanner provides a detailed analysis of the possible reasons for the removal of children from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hospital, and her account reveals the complex relationship between the hospital and the London working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class. She concludes that 'parental prerogative remained a powerful control on what was - and what was not - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptable in terms of child medicine'; however, there is little to suggest that parents were able to transform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the hospital procedures they found so problematic \(p. 161\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Family members were often responsible for the admission of mentally ill patients to Holloway Sanatorium. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This luxurious private asylum was designed for the middle class, though the respectable poor might also be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admitted, especially after 1889 when the hospital was registered as a charity. Anne Shepherd provides an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting insight into the liberal regime of the hospital and her account of the range of recreational facilities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available to patients, challenges the view that such hospitals were oppressive. The majority of patients were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discharged within a year, though readmission was not uncommon and a number of patients remained for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several years. Shepherd reveals the circumstances which led to families requesting admission for family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members, often unmarried daughters, when their behaviour was considered to be intolerable. While these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases provide some insight into the demand for such provision, the perspective of the patients is not evident )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this essay. The fact that some patients elected to stay at Holloway on a voluntary basis suggests that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(care given in the hospital was appreciated, but we do not hear from the patients themselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A different kind of sanatorium is examined by Flurin Condrau, though the idea of fresh air, rest and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate exercise was common both to sanatoriums for tuberculosis \(TB\) and to those for the mentally ill. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Condrau's reappraisal of the historiography of TB and of the role of such sanatoriums is persuasive and he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides an interesting analysis of the fluidity of the concept of 'success' with regard to treatment. Drawing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a detailed knowledge of sanatoriums in both Germany and Britain, and using a range of sources, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including statistics and literary sources, Condrau challenges histories of the sanatorium which emphasise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either the futility of this form of treatment, or the disciplinary nature of institutional care. Although Condrau )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejects accounts which minimise the agency of the patients, we are told relatively little of the experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment from the perspective of the working-class patient. Condrau discusses the economic problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endured by these patients' families and the alienating experience of being treated in semi-rural locations, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlike his earlier study of a German sanatorium )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 265.976 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 265.976 286.371 m 279.968 286.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 279.968 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, this essay gives less attention to the patients themselves. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are some extracts from personal testimonies, but most relate to the problem of re-integrating into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society after treatment.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 265.9757 286.6855 279.9677 298.5655 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7012 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two essays explore the relationship between prospective patients and those who controlled entry to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluntary hospital sector. Jonathan Reinarz examines a number of voluntary hospitals in Birmingham in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th century, while Barry Doyle examines voluntary hospitals in Middlesbrough in the 20th century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reinarz's essay examines different models of hospital provision and considers the enquiries made into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prospective patients' respectability and financial resources. He argues that those seeking treatment knew how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to depict themselves as the 'deserving poor' and he shows how hospital staff frequently turned a blind eye to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acts of disorder on the ward. Although personal enquiries and a system of fees were introduced in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hospitals to manage excess demand, the efforts of hospital administrators to 'know' their patients did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily mean they were able to control them. Thus, at the women's hospital, some women did not return )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for follow-up appointments, while at the Queen's Hospital working-class men who contributed to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hospital Saturday Fund assumed they had a right to treatment, and some became life Governors and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributed to hospital policy. Reinarz concludes that by the end of the 19th century 'the lines between donor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and recipient had begun to blur' \(p. 133\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The overlap between donors and recipients is very apparent in Barry Doyle's study of the voluntary system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Middlesbrough, in which he examines the extent to which financial contributions to hospital funds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed working-class patients access, not only to medical treatment, but to power in terms of hospital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management. Doyle shows how the local working class were both consumers and producers of hospital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(services. His detailed analysis of the dynamics of power in the management of Middlesbrough's voluntary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hospitals suggests that the move to more democratic structures, with increased trade union and trades council )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation, challenged the authority of traditional elite, even if the latter remained dominant until 1946. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Doyle's study of the politics of voluntary hospital care in the first half of the 20th century overturns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions regarding the moribund status of such hospitals and offers a more optimistic account which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises the cross-class, community-based nature of these organisations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While much of the book is concerned with medical institutions, there are other essays which explore other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms of charitable assistance and mutual aid. The study of cathedral almsmen by Ian Atherton, Eileen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McGrath and Alannah Tomkins is particularly interesting. This essay shows how, despite the humble tone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted in petitions for cathedral almsrooms, almsmen did not behave as expected once a place had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secured. Many failed to perform any of their duties and refused to attend church services, while others took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the stipend, but chose not live in the cathedral close. Despite this failure to conform, expulsions were rare, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and when challenged, almsmen would appeal to a higher authority than the dean. As with other essays in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection, this study suggests that dualistic models of donor and recipient fail to capture the complexity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the charitable relationship, which in this case involved three parties: the almsmen, the cathedral and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crown.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sheila Cooper's essay on kinship and family also deals with the early modern period, and she offers an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of kinship which is broadly defined and which allows her to examine the high degree of reciprocity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and trust involved in this form of support. Earlier historical accounts suggest that the nuclear family was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inadequate to deal with the hardships of life, and that in many cases community support was essential for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survival, but Cooper argues that 'life cycle service was a very important mechanism mitigating the problem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of nuclear hardship' \(p. 59\) and that a number of people, not necessarily blood relatives, would provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accommodation, financial assistance or an occasional meal to needy kin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The impact of enclosures in both rural and semi-urban areas in the late 18th and 19th centuries is examined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Sylvia Pinches. Although enclosure resulted in the expropriation of common land, some compensation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was made through the creation of allotments, coal clubs and the recognition of limited rights to gather wood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and furze, or to pasture animals. Entitlement was a matter of local dispute and Joseph Arch, the leader of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Agricultural Workers' Union, successfully challenged the omission of his name from the list held by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local coal club. Opposition was not always so effective, however, and charitable assistance was generally a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor substitute for traditional rights and, as Pinches concludes, a deep sense of grievance contributed to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class politics of villages and towns at this time.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 4833 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Shapely's essay on the Co-operative Men's Guild examines collective self help in the 20th century, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is perhaps most interesting as a study of an organisation that never quite fulfilled its objectives. Unlike the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Co-operative Women's Guild, this organisation's political agenda failed to attract working-class support and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it became little more than a social club. The ideal of active citizenship and the belief that new forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic organisation would create a better society had a radical edge, but the ideas and language of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cooperative Guildsman )] TJ ET BT 173.012 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were infused with almost missionary zeal. How this was received during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depression of the 1920s and 1930s is not discussed, but membership remained around 5,000 throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920s and never exceeded 12,000.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final essay in this collection is a critique by Pat Starkey of the attempt made in the 1970s to encourage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the clients of voluntary social work agencies to have their say about the support they received. She argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that these efforts to record the views of clients were undermined by the crude methodology used and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inability of the researchers to distance themselves from their own agendas and see their interventions from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the perspective of the clients. As Starkey argues, the voices reproduced were 'as much those of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researchers as of the clients' \(p. 261\). Starkey's essay provides a fitting conclusion to this collection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays, in that it suggests the need for caution in assuming that we can reproduce the voices of the poor and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sick. Nonetheless, all these essays provide fresh perspectives on the history of medicine, charity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutual aid; they question the binary opposition between providers and consumers and attempt to explore the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversity of relationships, which often involved the support of a third party, whether a trade union, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employer or the crown.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 480.963 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 450.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. Condrau, '"Who is the captain of all these men of death": the social structure of a tuberculosis )] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanatorium in post-war Germany', )] TJ ET BT 230.480 436.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Interdisciplinary History)] TJ ET BT 402.812 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 32 \(2001\) 243-62. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 498.800 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 498.800 434.691 m 552.788 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 409.829 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/507/454.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 379.923 m 313.004 379.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 316.004 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/bhm/summary/v082/82.4.brown.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 351.411 m 351.704 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 354.704 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 348.079 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 330.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 330.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/688)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 328.905 m 322.316 328.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 303.928 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.528 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3663)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.128 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/507/454.full)] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.728 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/bhm/summary/v082/82.4.brown.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 498.7997 435.0055 552.7877 446.8855 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 380.2375 313.0037 392.1175 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/507/454.full) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 351.7255 351.7037 363.6055 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/bhm/summary/v082/82.4.brown.html) >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 329.2195 322.3157 341.0995 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/688) >> endobj xref 0 33 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000605 00000 n 0000000687 00000 n 0000004807 00000 n 0000004916 00000 n 0000005026 00000 n 0000005135 00000 n 0000008696 00000 n 0000008824 00000 n 0000008908 00000 n 0000008973 00000 n 0000016549 00000 n 0000016633 00000 n 0000022449 00000 n 0000022479 00000 n 0000022607 00000 n 0000022643 00000 n 0000022708 00000 n 0000029773 00000 n 0000029878 00000 n 0000034764 00000 n 0000034892 00000 n 0000034947 00000 n 0000035074 00000 n 0000035182 00000 n 0000035309 00000 n 0000035422 00000 n 0000035550 00000 n trailer << /Size 33 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35645 %%EOF