%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140420115257+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140420115257+01'00') /Title (Gender, Work and Education in Britain in the 1950s) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4129 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Gender, Work and Education in Britain in the 1950s)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1950s is a comparatively under-researched area for gender studies. Anyone wanting to understand the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructed gender roles which underpinned not only girls' and women's lives but also those of boys and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men, would do no better than to start with this excellent book. Stephanie Spencer, in exploring the choices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made by school-leavers aged 15 to 18 regarding employment, further education and future career, has found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a clever approach to significant issues of women's history in a decade not usually perceived as pregnant with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender issues in the way the war years and their immediate aftermath or the 'swinging sixties' are. Spencer's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis, however, reveals not only continuity of, even reversal to conventional notions of male/female roles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also changes sometimes so subtle that those experiencing them were hardly fully aware of them. At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time economic and technological factors helped a steady rise in married women returning to paid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment once children were in school and thus altered career expectations. By the late 1950s, indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's dual role of home and work was much debated, following a decade when themes of autonomy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence and citizenship were raised constantly, and when the role of women and the education and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment of girls was under scrutiny.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These themes are frequently reiterated here as Spencer explores an abundant range of material including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare legislation, the records of teaching associations, career advice manuals and official career advice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career novels, popular women's and girls' magazines, together with some oral interviews. These somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(689)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 October, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephanie Spencer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781403938169)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(253pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruth Watts)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7472 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serendipitous, but quite inspired choices, allow the author to investigate very diverse source material in each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter and, in so-doing, she deals with very different approaches and methodologies, each building on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of other carefully cited authors. The result is a focused and rich mosaic of evidence which gives the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader a deep understanding of the multiplicity of influences which stimulated girls to do what was expected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of them, to accept 'that's how it was' as many of the interviewees said. On the other hand people did make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choices and Spencer's use of the feminist philosopher Morwenna Griffiths's 'web of identity' allows her to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrate the contradictions and individual identities into the general framework as the point of this metaphor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that a web is constructed by its maker but constrained by outside influences in its overall shape' \(p.15\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the book she returns to this metaphor, explaining how women constantly rewove their lives as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their circumstances changed, especially when they left school or got married. They found themselves in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different places on their web as issues of class and gender forced them to formulate an identity of their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between overlapping, or sometimes alienated, communities whether home and school or a domestic role in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home of their own and a low-paid, low-status, unskilled job. Thus they forged some autonomy while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fulfilling the 'norms' they anxiously watched. Following Griffiths's metaphor and arguments ensures that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spencer explores many facets of a woman's life, including its material circumstances, even if, as she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges, Griffiths's approach cannot always look beneath the surface and explain why some strands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become dominant \(p.197\). Spencer's use of it does result, however, in a very broad-ranging analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her introductory chapter, Spencer shows how despite the increased educational opportunities from 1944 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and full employment in the 1950s, female career choices were constricted by the seemingly universal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion that woman's place would be in the home, an expectation much confirmed by a younger age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage and motherhood. The vast majority of girls left school at 15 and, after, at most, a brief training )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, entered employment only to leave once married. Class mostly determined the choice of career and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which type of school was attended, and, even if there were greater choices open to a few girls, all were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affected by notions of a 'universal woman', who in essence was white and middle class. Such an image )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pervaded throughout both official documents and women's magazines, although largely speaking most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociological \(and, for that matter, psychological and educational\) debates at the time concerning class and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(youth ignored gender questions, an omission compounded by later historians. Spencer sets out to redress that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by exploring some of the constructions of adult identity open to girls as they left school, and by probing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship of external forces and individual agency. The role played by women themselves in constructing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these identities and the insights gained into the ambivalence of the female role in the 1950s, lead her to urge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a re-evaluation of 'consensus' politics and a re-definition of what we mean by 'work'. Such questioning is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vital part of the whole book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second chapter gives a very valuable analysis of William Beveridge's Report on social insurance, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recommendations of which became the basis of the welfare state and embodied gender divisions, presenting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('women' as a universal grouping all of whom were destined to become dependent housewives. Those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not were seen as a problem. Acknowledging that, it is ahistorical for feminists not to recognise that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material benefits accruing from the welfare state and the high status accorded to motherhood were welcomed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by most women. Spencer explains that notions of companionate marriages were not unproblematic. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centred on the needs of men, the breadwinners, and left married women with a 'somewhat detached )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship to the welfare state' \(p.32\), their benefits provided only through their husbands. Men, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, were to be protected from the dehumanising effect of unemployment. Yet motherhood \(within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wedlock\) was also perceived as 'work', the stress on its nurturing role both fitting the child care concerns of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1950s and giving women a gendered definition of citizenship. Although women's organisations gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtually unanimous support, Spencer shows that they expressed many reservations, not least annoyance at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the disregard shown to spinsters. However, their desire for equal status in benefits and contributions for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women and men was dismissed by civil servants. Exploring this and material in the Mass Observation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archive, Spencer proves that women both largely accepted the assumptions of the Beveridge Report while, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice, many of them increasingly chose to be both workers and mothers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The new welfare state gave rise to ideas of 'social citizenship' which with regard to females included earning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a living when necessary, responsible housewifery and motherhood and social obligations. Official language )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7803 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referred to 'woman' without the divisions of class, but the latter were very real and crucial when it came to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupational choice. By examining in turn contemporary sociological and educational writing on school )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leavers' occupational choices \(now rightly perceived as historical documents\), the archives of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(headmistresses' and the Assistant Mistresses' association and submissions made to the Central Advisory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Council for Education for the Crowther Report 15-18 of 1959, Spencer is able to uncover tensions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dichotomies between general assumptions of the universal woman, and the notable distinctions between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few who went to grammar school \(chiefly middle class\), and the vast majority who attended secondary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderns. Historians have taken little notice of the latter and among those who have Gary McCulloch is one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the few to have recognised how secondary schools tried to socialise the working-class girl. Educational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts of the 1950s indicate the gendered vocational courses at secondary moderns, but generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary educational and sociological material ignored or marginalised girls, a factor attributed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spencer partly to the male dominance of sociology at the time. Reports from the women's teaching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associations, on the other hand, crossed class lines and while accepting the need to prepare girls for likely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic responsibilities, were acutely conscious of having also to educate girls for work at a time when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was increasing demand for female employment and for their rights and duties as citizens, which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teachers envisaged on far more equal terms than Beveridge had. They were somewhat uneasily aware too of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(girls' fear of being 'unfeminine' - a prime reason why so few entered occupations such as engineering - and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the complexities of a situation where girls were marrying and bearing children earlier. Such considerations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpinned the Crowther Report, where the preoccupation with girls' domestic role led to recommendations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a gendered curriculum where girls would be educated for their 'natural' work. Spencer shows that such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginalisation might not fit changing employment needs of either employers or individual women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spencer thus demonstrates clearly how investigating old questions through a gendered lens uncovers new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(layers of meaning and leads to fresh interpretations. From chapter four she goes even further in using )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources from this period previously little examined, if examined at all. In a fascinating examination of advice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuals and women's employment, she shows that, although the domestic role of women was always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognised, increasingly careers advice advocated choosing appropriate paid work which might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interrupted by a period at home rather than stopped altogether. Thus a woman's 'career' incorporated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different periods of the time she could be in employment. Whether perusing advice from the youth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Employment Bureau, manuals or the fortnightly )] TJ ET BT 267.668 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women's Employment)] TJ ET BT 373.880 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a female would learn that satisfying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment, as well as preparing her for being an ideal housewife and a lifelong display of feminine graces, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also part of her duties as a citizen. Well-chosen statistical tables \(pp. 200-4\) illustrate the gendered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of occupational choice, showing that while an increasing number of women returned to the workforce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once their children were older, many others continued at home. Much of the supposedly classless career )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advice was middle class in tone, for example paid work was assumed to be more fulfilling than domestic, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then, of course, middle-class women were more likely to have entry to skilled employment. The sociological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature acknowledged that women had a dual or combined role as worker, wife and mother - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complementary strands of the web, says Spencer, which 'could be easily woven together into the web of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adult identity' \(p.86\) as the individual's status changed. Work, indeed, should prepare girls for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibilities as home makers and citizens, even as a girl's status at work was affected by where she stood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the marriage market. Boys' choices were gendered too, however, their choices were interrupted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Service and defined by the expectation of them being breadwinners.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whereas advice from the Youth Employment Service is shown to have been largely directed towards local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unskilled and semi-skilled work for secondary modern school leavers, the proliferation of careers advice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books, both official and otherwise, seem more middle class in tone, anxious to promote a wider range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skilled work for women but with very gendered overtones. In the ones examined here, girls are directed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards jobs which they will be able to combine successfully in future years with their prime domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibilities, and satisfying jobs. Teaching and nursing of all kinds \(and dentistry\) are preferred. It was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonder that so few women were to be found in engineering and science since the advice they were likely to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receive on the difficulties on entry and acceptance compounded their own distrust of 'dirty' jobs. Other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advice books stressed good grooming and over-scrupulous housework to such an extent that it seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amazing that any housewife ever had time to contemplate even part-time work, whereas )] TJ ET BT 459.248 59.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 45.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Employment)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8000 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, while accepting that appearance and domestic responsibilities were very important, focused on )] TJ ET BT 497.588 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paid, or at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least worthy voluntary work, as intrinsic to women's duty to the community. Consideration of a wider range )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of jobs here interestingly included engineering as particularly attractive to women because it dealt with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technical problems in homes, schools and other public buildings and could be returned to after marriage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the late 1950s )] TJ ET BT 120.680 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(man)] TJ ET BT 141.344 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power shortages helped attitudes which were already changing towards women's work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a realignment of gender roles in the workplace was being encouraged. To achieve this, however, girls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed to be encouraged to stay on at school and to take extra qualifications. Spencer's analysis of the brief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heyday of a source little known to most historians - the career novel for girls aged 14 to 16 \(older if they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were at grammar school\) - gives a revealing insight into contemporary views on women and work. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fictional tales could be dismissed as merely the wishful thinking of their middle-class editors, writers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishers, but their extraordinary popularity in the years before greater educational and employment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities for girls and women increased, is testimony to their appeal, even if this was partly owing to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(romantic twist whereby the loyal, plucky girl who chose her job wisely always got her man. The deliberate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy in these books of stimulating girls to train for those skilled jobs 'suitable' for women and future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homemakers who might well return to work was illustrated by both the detailed correspondence which went )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into their making and the collaboration on themes between the main publishers, Bodley Head and Chatto and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Windus. Spencer offers a fascinating glimpse into these popular books \(usefully listed at the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter\), middle-class in tone yet read eagerly by many working-class girls. Like the contemporary radio )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soap )] TJ ET BT 59.012 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Archers)] TJ ET BT 118.004 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, they conveyed didactic messages in an engaging form, their lessons also teaching how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(girls and women should behave at work. Through work indeed, heroines 'grow up' \(pp. 115-16\), a point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made by woman reformers in the 19th century, although, of course, still girls first experience of it might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite short. Ironically, however, although many of the heroines intend to carry on working after their great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triumph of marriage or return to it after childbearing, none of their mothers work. Role models have to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established professional women, often sympathetic aunts. How these idealised stories were partly based on, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet also conflicted with, reality is shown by Spencer's reflections of the career of one of the authors, Evelyn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Forbes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A major preoccupation of the career novels was having the 'correct' appearance. This was also a major focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of recreational literature aimed at girls and women. Using the magazines )] TJ ET BT 385.940 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Housewife)] TJ ET BT 436.604 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 459.932 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Woman)] TJ ET BT 496.592 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comic )] TJ ET BT 66.344 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Girl)] TJ ET BT 86.348 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( aimed at 12 to 16 year olds \(although I certainly read it when younger and gave it up before I was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a teenager\), Spencer shows how females were educated into how to be 'feminine', how to be a 'woman' in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war, consumer society, a model which was constructed as white, middle-class, heterosexual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(married or most likely to be. The unstated focus was really on the needs of the male breadwinner. Physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance and crafted images were a priority and to be maintained both at home and in the growing variety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of jobs, some increasingly adventurous, promoted in these publications. The latter all actively sought to unite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers around the job of being a woman, participation by readers being encouraged in readers' clubs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence, although the latter, particularly in advice given on the problems pages, actually revealed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how hard it was for many to conform to prevailing values. Weavers of webs, after all, are not passive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creatures. Spencer herself stresses that those who edited and wrote such publications were largely women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who did not conform to the roles endorsed. On the other hand, she presents a world in which women were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creating the very role model which constrained the autonomy of career choice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aware of a need to hear the voices of the girls themselves, Spencer interviewed 23 women who had left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school between 1956 and 1960. She did this through advertising in south London for volunteers and in no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way claims that this small, self-chosen group are necessarily representative especially as the majority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them had been to grammar school. Nevertheless, even taking into account Spencer's own careful caveats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning such interviews, the latter are instructive. The women said nothing about notions of citizenship, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but otherwise their recollections demonstrate how they internalised the rhetoric on the female adult role, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using it to rationalise their abandonment of enjoyable paid work for domesticity. Their accounts reveal the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of 11+ results, fitting in at school, parental control and expectations, the need to find a way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between teachers' and family values, and often, of the knowledge that a wage packet was needed at home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly if younger siblings, especially brothers, had to be supported. It was easy to find a job but not to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2945 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(get appropriate advice on which job was best. All of these women married but Spencer found they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginalised their lives as wives and housewives in contrast to the way they fitted their lives around being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mothers, a role which gave them greater confidence in life. Most took up employment later, usually part-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time at first, and eventually created new careers. Obviously their stories were told with the benefit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hindsight, but Spencer reveals that the only time their narratives faltered was when they perceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inconsistencies between what they wanted and the actual choices they made, particularly with regard to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(option they took when leaving school. The way many interviewees anxiously stressed how they had to fit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life as it was, is telling evidence of the pervasiveness of gendered social norms in the 1950s, while at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time their vivid stories indicate nuances and personal struggles often overlooked.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spencer, through the wide variety of sources she has interrogated and the analytic tools she has used, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores and analyses the wider implications of the interrelationship between education, both formal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informal, employment and the individual's sense of self in a very thoughtful and readable way. Throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she draws on a wide range of relevant literature, both critiquing it and using it to support her analysis. She is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aware that further exploration of this much neglected period is necessary, but she has made an excellent job )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of plugging some of the gaps and proved, once again, how useful gender is as a category of analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 539.647 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 521.867 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 521.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/689)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 520.473 m 322.316 520.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 495.496 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 481.096 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3664)] TJ ET BT 34.016 466.696 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 520.7875 322.3157 532.6675 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/689) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000560 00000 n 0000000642 00000 n 0000004823 00000 n 0000004932 00000 n 0000005042 00000 n 0000005151 00000 n 0000008712 00000 n 0000008840 00000 n 0000008924 00000 n 0000008989 00000 n 0000016514 00000 n 0000016579 00000 n 0000024435 00000 n 0000024500 00000 n 0000032553 00000 n 0000032637 00000 n 0000035635 00000 n 0000035763 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35858 %%EOF