%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150727184531+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150727184531+01'00') /Title (Speaking for the People. Party, Language and Popular Politics in England, 1867-1914) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4016 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Speaking for the People. Party, Language and Popular Politics in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(England, 1867-1914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the last two decades the history of modern British politics has been the subject of fierce debate as its long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cherished narratives and explanatory models have been questioned from a variety of 'revisionist' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives. In the proliferation of work that has followed \(who on earth can keep up with the books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishers, authors and reviewers proclaim as essential\), we have been left with something approaching a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical Babel in which historians often talk past each other as they tell competing stories in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different tongues. Among many others, narratives of class formation, the rise of party, electoral reform and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological continuity are articulated and contested from a plethora of methodological positions ranging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from an agnostic empiricism or a common sense materialism to various linguistic or postmodern turns. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a congested and contested field most mix their metaphors and struggle to keep their head above water. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Only the brave or foolhardy dare seek to make sense of it all, let alone seek to tell a new story in a new way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Speaking for the People, Jon Lawrence tries to do both. As one of the most interesting and imaginative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British political historians currently at work, he is better equipped than the rest of us to pull this off. Given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this book was a long time in the making, he has been helped too by being able to rehearse several of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(69)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 April, 1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jon Lawrence)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521470346)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(289pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521470346)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Vernon)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6452 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments elsewhere - although he adds a few more for good measure. If, as we shall see, it does not always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(add up to the sum of its parts and is, like the politics whose history Lawrence writes, full of ambiguities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tensions, it remains a remarkably dense, suggestive, bold and ambitious book which deserves wide and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careful attention from all those interested in the social and political histories of 19th and 20th century Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Significantly, Lawrence is at pains to eschew what he sees as the dogmatic and imperious tones of others' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("strident interventions" \(53\) for the rhetoric of subjectivity and provisionality. Thus the book begins with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the stories through which Lawrence has understood his own and his family's experience of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between class, locality and party politics in order to situate the specificity of his reading of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past. And later, when outlining his project, he declares that it should not be read "as a declaratory manifesto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for historical 'best practice' but as a brief outline of the assumptions and influences which have helped shape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the substantive study of English popular politics that follows" \(61\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is, of course, all rather disingenuous, for quite rightly he has a project which he believes provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more accurate reading of the past than those he critically engages with. No surprise then that he quickly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopts the declaratory rhetoric earlier decried, demanding that others "must focus ... on" \(61\), "must seek to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(..." \(62\), "The task for studies of popular politics is to ..." \(62\), "What we need is ..." \(63\) and so on. No )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprise then that the early atmosphere of equanimity is soon disturbed by dismissive glancing references to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the work of particular protagonists as well as to whole approaches \(my favourite being the "limited horizons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and self-contained logic" of high politics \(62\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So what is the project and the problematic it addresses? Lawrence's central concern is the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between political parties and those they claim to represent and speak for. As he succinctly puts it:)] TJ ET BT 94.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Put at its simplest, a principal argument of the book is that studies of popular )] TJ ET BT 94.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics must focus greater critical attention on the relationship between political )] TJ ET BT 94.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activists, of whatever persuasion, and those they seek to represent politically. We )] TJ ET BT 94.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must recognise that precisely because this relationship is one of 'representation' it )] TJ ET BT 94.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must constantly be negotiated and renegotiated - the 'formal' politics of political )] TJ ET BT 94.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations can never be a complete and faithful reflection of the interests )] TJ ET BT 94.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(objectively )] TJ ET BT 154.340 353.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(or)] TJ ET BT 165.008 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( subjectively defined\) of those who are represented ... In studying )] TJ ET BT 94.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular politics we are therefore studying the interaction between the world of )] TJ ET BT 94.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('formal' and 'informal' politics, conscious that the relationship between the two is )] TJ ET BT 94.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never unmediated, and that our analysis must therefore always be sensitive to the )] TJ ET BT 94.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tensions and ambiguities in the relationship between 'leaders' and 'led' \(61\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He is perhaps especially interested in quite particular dimensions of this relationship; namely how parties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim to represent particular classes or localities and the processes of inclusion and exclusion inherently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved in constructing such constituencies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 191.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence has two particular historiographical dragons he wants to lay to rest which he believes have done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 177.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence to the ambiguities and tensions involved in the relationship between parties and their publics. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first, and perhaps the most contentious, is the historiography of the rise of class; the second, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 148.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography of the rise of party. Both are seen not only to dominate accounts of popular politics in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period but to share a set of unhelpful teleological assumptions about the nature of political change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 108.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much of Part I of the book is devoted to a discussion of the historiography of class in order to refine its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materialist explanatory model and challenge its periodisation of political change. The first chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 79.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates how by the 1970s an eclectic range of histories - Marxist, radical, liberal - shared remarkably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 65.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar accounts of how industrialisation had begot the rise of class, which in turn begot political change. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter Two, he deploys this historiography's own social structural techniques to dispel the myth that the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6974 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period 1880-1920 saw the emergence of a newly proletarianized, residentially and culturally homogenous, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working class. His argument is not that we should dispense with materialist explanations of political change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all together, just the cruder mechanical models currently on offer. The task at hand is then to explore the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("non-reductionist and non-teleological" ways in which material factors "often shape both the terms upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which subordinate groups are able to act politically, and many of the fundamental concerns of the politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they embrace" \(40\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus later, in what for many will constitute the substantive chapters on the politics of Wolverhampton, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence is at pains to avoid social structural class explanations when examining the relative successes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failures of Conservative and Labour politics. In Chapter Five, the Tories' success in appealing to the town's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manual workers is accredited to the populist languages and practices of Tory activists who embraced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasures of the people and the politics of nation and empire. In contrast, he suggests Labour was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectacularly unsuccessful in winning the support of the increasingly homogenous 'east end' working class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community, gaining ground instead in the socially more heterogeneous northern and southern districts with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diffuse or inclusive rhetoric of the idle versus the productive, the people or the working classes. In Chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8, he returns again to this lack of fit between Labour's constituency of support and social structural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations of class politics. "Labour politics", he insists, "were not simply the natural outgrowth of a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mature, assertive and homogenous working class" \(160\). I will return later to the tensions of Lawrence's own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of class, suffice it here to say that those seeking a return to class explanations of popular party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics will not find much comfort in this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet not content to uncouple the causal relationship between the rise of class and the rise of party, Lawrence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sets out to unpick the widely held assumption that this period witnessed the triumph of party and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management or disciplining of popular politics. Throughout the book he emphasises the persistence of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-party spirit within popular politics, indeed perhaps even a heightening of it in the face of the increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centralisation of party machinery at the national level. In Wolverhampton both Tory and Labour politics tap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in to resentment of the local Liberal establishment and its domination of the party's \(un\)representative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation. Indeed, a central theme of the book is difficulties faced by Labour politics in reconciling the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspicion of the way in which national organisations \(especially the dreaded Liberal caucus\) sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control local politics with the need to construct a national movement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although increasing national party control was clearly distrusted, Lawrence also suggests such fear was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misplaced for political parties were never entirely successful at incorporating or taming a sometimes unruly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular politics. In one of the most interesting chapters of the book, he argues that the need to win the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support of voters usually took priority over trying to improve them. Consequently, at least until the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War, popular politics remained a firmly manly environment where shows of strength and the politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of disruption remained paramount.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And, lastly, once the teleologies of the rise of class and party have been dispensed with, we are, Lawrence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wants to suggest, left with the absolute centrality of the politics of place. The middle section of the book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part II, is entirely devoted to an examination of the fabric of municipal and parliamentary politics in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wolverhampton in order to demonstrate not its representative nature but its peculiarities. Indeed, at times it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears as though he wants to use locality to replace class as the central explanatory model of politics. Thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Chapter 6 he suggests the reason for Labour's failure to win over Wolverhampton's working class 'east )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end' was that its activists did not live there and therefore could not "claim to be rooted in these communities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to understand them from the inside" \(132\). A theme echoed later in Chapter 9 when he details Labour's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reliance on outside 'carpet-bagger' parliamentary candidates as well as in the Conclusion's lament for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour's "inability to exploit the 'politics of place'" \(267\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be possible to provide challenges to many of the points Lawrence relies upon to elaborate his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critique of the rise of party and class and his insistence upon the centrality of place. However, as a way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opening up these questions I want to focus first on the internal coherence of his argument, or rather the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent lack of it.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6982 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let's start firstly with the issue of class. While Lawrence initially challenges the idea of growing working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class homogeneity in part by suggesting that "outside London there is very little to support arguments about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('the rise of the working-class neighbourhood' before the First World War" \(35\), we are later told that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely such neighbourhoods existed in places like Wolverhampton's 'east end' and the coalfield )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities of Durham or south Wales. Indeed, as we have seen, he suggests Labour's relative failure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the war was in failing to represent these very communities, or to make the most of the high levels of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic stability evident in even socially more diverse city populations such as London and Liverpool.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, although Lawrence wants to contest any straightforward notion of the triumph of party, much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his argument relies upon documenting the growing distrust of the machinery of national party politics. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, in many ways he simply pushes the triumph of party to a date \(or rather various dates\) beyond 1914 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which then remain largely unexamined. Thus, while assuring us that he does "not wish simply to push )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward the timing of the 'triumph of party' to after the First World War" he talks of "significant changes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1918" \(193\), or of the completion of national party control within Labour politics by the 1920s \(257\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or of the nationalisation of Labour politics during World War Two \(240\). Similarly, having used the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persistence of the politics of disruption to demonstrate the failure of parties to manage popular politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(although as he shows it was a tool of party politics\), he suggests its eventual decline in between the wars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(192\). This makes sense, given that as he himself acknowledges in the Conclusion much of the discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal and Labour politics usefully focuses on their ambivalence towards those they sought to represent; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their desire to moralise, educate, even to tame, demos.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lastly, we turn to the politics of place. Although I would heartily agree with his call "for extensive new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research into the 'politics of locality' which recognises, rather than disguises, the peculiarities of place" \(6\), it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems a little disingenuous to suggest there has been a dirth of such work - it has surely remained the staple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(format for doctoral work. But the larger issue is whether Lawrence himself does justice to the peculiarities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place. The book is divided into three parts, of which the second part deals with Wolverhampton. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent at showing the interstices of municipal and parliamentary politics and the peculiarities of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifting alliances. Condensed from his 1989 PhD thesis there are three densely written and uneven chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Liberal, Conservative and Labour politics at particular times. The third part of the book returns to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national trends and themes and arguably commits exactly the type of mistake Lawrence previously decries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(namely "relying on whistle-stop tours of the country's archives" and picking out uncontextualised examples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from apparently random geographical or chronological points to demonstrate the argument.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the end the book singularly fails to move from the local to the national, the particular to the general, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show how the latter is more complicated and nuanced by the former. One can't help suspecting that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure of the book says more about the economics and politics of academic publishing than about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence's devotion to the politics of place.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I want to suggest that perhaps these tensions in the book's central arguments stem from Lawrence's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitious, but ultimately flawed, attempt to outline what he appears to imply is a new methodology for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political history. If I understand him correctly, and it sometimes difficult as he conflates arguments about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(method with arguments about historiography \(or particular interpretations\), he wants to outline a position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which acknowledges the central place of both the processes of representation and the material contexts in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which they operate. Material factors shape the conditions of emergence for, or the form of, a subaltern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics; discursive resources shape the conditions of possibility, or the content, of that politics. In his mind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this positions himself between the fundamentalists: the mechanical social structuralists on one side, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('postmodernist revisionists' \(his term, not mine\) on the other.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To my mind, as one of these so-called 'postmodernist revisionists', it seems a wildly uncontentious position - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one that many of the supposed fundamentalists on both sides would agree with.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The difficulty is, of course, in the detail, in moving from the theoretical model to the historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice. And it is here that I feel Lawrence's book is found wanting. It ends up not elaborating and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7291 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrating the theoretical position he outlines, but reading as though it has been written by a schizophrenic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let me try and illustrate how.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much of the book is written as though class and locality are simple material realities, the product of socio-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic change. It is full of statistics and tables documenting the social composition and residential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns of its objects of analysis. Chapter 6 is a good example. Here class is understood as stemming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily from occupational status, and sub-divided into manual and non-manual work, with the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category being sub-divided again into 'lower middle class' and 'substantial middle class' \(134\). Localities are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places with discrete communities \(conveniently coinciding with the boundaries of municipal wards or census )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enumerator returns [130-3] - with even sample streets subdivided accordingly [n.12 134]\)- that labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activists are set apart from \(130-3\). As we shall see shortly, there are real problems with such an approach, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but not only are these not addressed but it is plainly contradicted by those other parts of the book that deal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with class and locality as discursive categories, actively constructed by political rhetoric. Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric appeals to the dignity of the working man \(106-10\), Labour to constituencies "such as 'the working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class', 'the workers' and 'the people' \(146\); all political parties claim and contest the right to represent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular localities \(165-7\), the "politics of locality were made - they did not simply happen" \(236\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A similar set of tensions is evident in Lawrence's reading of particular types of sources. As he shows in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent penultimate section of the book on the construction of a foundational mythology of Labour politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the auto/biographies of early Labour leaders, he has a good eye for the narrative forms and tropes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which shape so much of the source material for political history. And yet, he not only exercises this critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skill very rarely, but also insists upon the reading such accounts as simply descriptive, as corresponding to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what actually happened instead of re-presenting them. As he surely knows, the tropes of leadership deployed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Labour leaders drew from long-established forms and genres in Radical and Liberal politics and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiographies of the labouring poor more generally. They have a history and their appropriation by Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders meant that they emplotted and re-presented their lives through these forms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I raise this point because it returns us to another, that is Lawrence's use of social surveys, census figures, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government reports as unproblematic sources which correspond to the objective conditions of social life. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While he chides others for taking "the rhetorical strategies of labour leaders for a faithful description of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employer strategy" \(29\), he makes the same mistake when detailing the social structural constraints upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular politics. Although he makes some qualifications regarding the accuracy of figures \(eg.29\), he seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blissfully unaware of the ways in which these types of source material were actively constituting the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domain. They were, what Mary Poovey has recently described in Making a Social Body as, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representational technologies through which the social domain was constituted as an object of rule. Far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innocently describing the world, they sought to construct 'society' in ways which made it amenable to these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technologies of rule. There is another political history to be written here, one which like Poovey draws upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Foucauldian analysis of liberal government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(This is not to deny the importance of material realities or constraints upon subaltern politics. Given his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappointment at the way in the geography of Labour activism did not coincide with the geography of class, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one material constraint Lawrence surprisingly neglects is the very great difficulties faced by working people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in reconciling the demands of employers with the demands of municipal or parliamentary candidatures and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I want to suggest that part of the reason Lawrence gets himself into such difficulties is that for his central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis to work he has to be able to demonstrate that political parties misrepresent those they claim to speak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for. This, of course, raises what Lawrence recognises to be the very thorny issue of reception, of how those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom political parties spoke for felt about the manner of their representation \(67-8\). Although he outlines a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical way around this problem through attention to the forms and genres through which political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourses were disseminated and appropriated, it is not one that he ever takes up in the substantive analysis. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Remarkably there is almost nothing on the dynamics of political communication: nothing on the forms and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tropes of the press \(surely a vital source of the construction of localities\), nothing on oratory, nothing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceremonial forms, nothing on the reshaping of civic spaces ... Instead he resorts to plan B - to reading the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 4174 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics of disruption as resistance \(while also, as we have seen, acknowledging its party political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimensions\). So, while he denies the plausibility of measuring the objective interests of a social group \("we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to recognise that conceptions of 'interest', like many of the practices of popular politics, often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominate less because they reflect the immediate 'objective' interests of a social group, than because they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are legitimated by past discourse and practices" 68\), this is precisely what he ends up doing in terms of class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and locality. How else can he can he bemoan that Labour activists were "only marginally more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative, in the literal sense, of the average working man, than the traditional party politician" \(266\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence is on much surer ground when he discusses the exclusionary practices of party politics. He should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be especially applauded on his careful attention to its gendered nature, many of the most illuminating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passages are those that address the manliness of party political cultures. Given his strength in this area it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappointing that he pays so little attention to questions of race, nation and empire. There is, for instance, no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to the important work of Catherine Hall on the centrality of discourses of race and empire to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates around the 1867 Reform Act. Other important episodes where the history of metropolitan politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collide with the histories of race and empire are also ignored or fleetingly mentioned, one thinks obviously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Ireland but also the Bulgarian atrocities, the American Civil War, the Boer War, Jewish immigration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese labour and so on. In short, there is no reckoning with a postcolonial perspective or the undoubted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefits it could bring to an often myopically English political history. And when we are on silences, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countryside and the politics of agricultural work does not get a look in, or an explanation for its absence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These last few bleats aside, I have tried to do justice to the richness of Lawrence's thesis and to judge it on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its own terms on the basis of its internal coherence. As I emphasised at the beginning of this review, I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believe he has written an important book. To my mind its ambiguities and tensions make it a book that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good to think with. I hope that this review will prove an equally fruitful way of Lawrence to reassess his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own work and the state of the field that is British political history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 413.599 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 395.819 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 395.819 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/69)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 394.425 m 316.316 394.425 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 369.448 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 355.048 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/696)] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.648 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 394.7395 316.3157 406.6195 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/69) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000600 00000 n 0000000682 00000 n 0000004750 00000 n 0000004859 00000 n 0000004969 00000 n 0000005078 00000 n 0000008639 00000 n 0000008767 00000 n 0000008851 00000 n 0000008916 00000 n 0000015421 00000 n 0000015486 00000 n 0000022513 00000 n 0000022578 00000 n 0000029613 00000 n 0000029678 00000 n 0000037022 00000 n 0000037106 00000 n 0000041333 00000 n 0000041461 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41555 %%EOF