%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 26 0 R 43 0 R 63 0 R 105 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721024217+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721024217+01'00') /Title (The Nation, Psychology, and International Politics, 1870?1919) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4713 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Nation, Psychology, and International Politics, 1870?1919)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Discussing )] TJ ET BT 89.684 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Psychology of Nationalism and Internationalism)] TJ ET BT 344.024 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the American academic Walter Pillsbury )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estimated that:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 235.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Probably no word has been spoken more often in the political discussions of recent years than )] TJ ET BT 64.016 220.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the word ?nation? or ?nationality?. No principle has been more frequently referred to by all )] TJ ET BT 64.016 206.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sides in arguing for right and wrong than that each nation is entitled to settle its own affairs. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 507.632 206.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 507.632 205.161 m 521.624 205.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 168.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to the US psychologist, nationality was ?the expression of a mental attitude and the product of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience based upon a fundamental instinct?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 261.296 154.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 261.296 152.649 m 275.288 152.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 275.288 154.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Writing at a point when the world emerged from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prolonged and violent conflict, he affirmed the desirability of a League of Nations, but qualified that ?no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider state is conceivable except as an organization of the present national states?. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 433.256 125.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 433.256 124.137 m 447.248 124.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 447.248 125.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Pillsbury is one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals whose work features in Glenda Sluga?s original and insightful study )] TJ ET BT 426.308 111.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nation, Psychology, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and International Politics, 1870-1919)] TJ ET BT 216.020 97.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.020 97.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.020 95.625 m 233.012 95.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 233.012 97.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( His comments neatly encapsulate a central theme of Sluga?s book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(namely the extent to which conceptions of nationhood and psychology were closely intertwined in the eyes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of many contemporaries at the beginning of the 20th century. The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epitomises this entanglement: officials and intellectuals debated plans for a ?scientific peace? that was partly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(690)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 30 September, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glenda Sluga)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230007178)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(232pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Laqua)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 507.6317 205.4755 521.6237 217.3555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 261.2957 152.9635 275.2877 164.8435 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 433.2557 124.4515 447.2477 136.3315 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 219.0197 95.9395 233.0117 107.8195 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 8925 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(premised on a belief in the measurability of nationhood. Appeals to ?national consciousness?, the ?free will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of peoples? and their right to ?self-determination? took centre stage and thus adapted concepts from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realm of psychology to the discourse of a new world order.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drawing on contemporary publications as well as diplomatic records, Glenda Sluga?s book marks an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important contribution to the transnational history of the idea of the nation, especially with regard to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter?s role in international politics. Her monograph is organised in an unusual yet effective way: the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two of five chapters focus on the debates on peace-building during the First World War and its immediate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aftermath. These ideas and plans are subsequently contextualised in two thematic chapters with a broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological perspective ? one of them considers concepts of nationhood in relation to the rise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychology from 1870, and the other one looks at gender and nationhood. The final chapter pulls these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strands together by returning to the years between 1914 and 1919, pointing at the privileging of nationhood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over gender in the schemes to organise international relations. 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In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some cases, they were also associated with intellectual outlets such as the British journal )] TJ ET BT 462.296 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Europe)] TJ ET BT 542.960 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pacifist associations such as E. D. Morel?s Union of Democratic Control \(UDC\). Sluga shows that, despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pronounced differences concerning war aims or post-war planning, many intellectuals agreed on the primacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of nationhood in organising international relations. By tracing their understanding of the nation, Sluga?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study offers a fresh perspective to the study of peace-building. Many previous works, including Lawrence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gelfand?s classic study of the Inquiry, offer much detail on policy decisions, yet barely investigate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse that sustained them.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 178.004 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 178.004 428.931 m 191.996 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 191.996 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In this respect, Glenda Sluga directs our view towards often neglected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues, offering building blocks for a cultural history of international politics. This means that some aspects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of post-war planning only receive occasional mention: working with a different approach, one might easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment more extensively on the rapport between nationalism and aims such as the military containment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?enemy? states or the reconstruction of the post-war economy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead, the monograph initially concentrates on the idea of constructing a world order on the basis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national units. Such ideas were widespread during the war years. For instance, the liberal historian Ramsay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muir ? featured in Sluga?s book as an associate of )] TJ ET BT 277.964 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Europe )] TJ ET BT 361.628 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? asserted in 1916 that ?internationalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is necessary as the fulfilment of nationalism. 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Sluga?s earlier work on )] TJ ET BT 459.608 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Problem of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trieste and the Italo-Yugoslav Border)] TJ ET BT 216.680 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a case in point.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 302.672 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 302.672 245.859 m 316.664 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 319.664 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nation, Psychology and International )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics)] TJ ET BT 70.688 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( deals with similar ambiguities; it stresses the selectivity inherent in granting ?self-determination? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some but not all groups that claimed it. 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This was particular relevant when appealing to such principles on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global scale: as Sluga points out, peacemakers applied ?two versions of nationality, one relevant to Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European states, the other to elsewhere?. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 232.628 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 232.628 103.299 m 246.620 103.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After the First World War, the ?identification? and ?assessment? of nations assumed particular significance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with regard to the former parts of the Habsburg and Ottoman empires, thereby boosting the position of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars such as Robert Seton-Watson, co-founder of the School of Slavonic Studies at King?s College )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 161.3237 543.2935 175.3157 555.1735 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 178.0037 429.2455 191.9957 441.1255 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 523.9277 303.1975 537.9197 315.0775 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 302.6717 246.1735 316.6637 258.0535 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 232.6277 103.6135 246.6197 115.4935 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 49 0 R 52 0 R 55 0 R 58 0 R 61 0 R ] /Contents 44 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Length 8737 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London and editor of )] TJ ET BT 138.668 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Europe)] TJ ET BT 219.332 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The presumptuousness of carving nation-states out of the remnants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these empires is depicted by an episode recounted by Sluga: speaking to a representative of the Lazistan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(district, Arnold Toynbee pointed out that the delegate was ?mistaken in thinking that he is a Turk. Toynbee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidently exposed him as, instead, ?really a Moslem Georgian!??.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 360.284 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 360.284 752.307 m 380.276 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 380.276 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Toynbee was only one of several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominent historians involved in providing advice on the post-war order ? James T. Shotwell at Columbia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University and Harold Temperley in Cambridge were also involved in such endeavours. While the relation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between history-writing and nation-building is well-known,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 320.660 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 320.660 709.539 m 340.652 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 340.652 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Sluga?s book considers this nexus from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fresh angle: it shows how historians formed part of a community of intellectuals and engaged in debates on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nature of international relations. As Ian Tyrell has suggested, the activities of Shotwell and other US )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians can be placed in the wider context of historians ?going public? ? in policy debates but also in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history?s relation with other disciplines.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.340 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.340 652.515 m 246.332 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this respect, it is striking how psychology, as a relatively recent academic subject, influenced the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians and politicians alike, namely by ?psychologising? the nation. Scholarly studies, popular science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political discourse represented nations as psychological phenomena ? and Glenda Sluga has unearthed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an impressively wide-ranging array of sources that illustrate this. Even though commentators such as Walter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bagehot and Ernest Renan, and social psychologists such as Gustave Le Bon and Gabriel Tarde disagreed on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether national characteristics were innate or acquired, their writing implied the relevance of psychological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categories for the study of nations. The epilogue of Sluga?s book makes the point that the legacy of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemingly scientific explanations continued throughout the 20th century. The most enlightening and original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspect of her work, however, is the way in which she connects the significance of ?psychology? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions of nationhood with the sphere of international relations. If psychology impacted on our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of nationhood and if the principle of nationality played a central role in the peace negotiations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1919, one will find many linkages between psychology and international politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sluga?s emphasis on these connections is far from anachronistic: her book offers a wealth of evidence on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how intellectuals from opposing camps explicitly referred to the relevance of psychology in regard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international relations at the time. As pointed out in her book, only a few observers were as perceptive as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson?s former collaborator Walter Lippmann, who criticised the focus on ?collective minds, national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(souls, and race psychology? as the ?democratic El Dorado?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 321.944 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 321.944 386.163 m 341.936 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 341.936 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Moreover, the focus on the nation as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological phenomenon contributed to the gendered nature of the international sphere. This was apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Pillsbury?s depiction of nations as ?an enlargement of the family, and the state a development of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paternal authority?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 127.328 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 127.328 343.395 m 147.320 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 147.320 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If international relations themselves were built on the basis of such ?families?, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant that ?paternalism? ? for instance with regard to peoples that were deemed less ?cultivated? ? went )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond being merely implicit. At the same time, Sluga also highlights how ?gender? became reflected in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?equation of womanish souls with inferior nations? ? a likeness which intellectuals as diverse as Maurice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barrs and \(during his tenure as president of Princeton University\) Woodrow Wilson made.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 474.272 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 474.272 286.371 m 494.264 286.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, )] TJ ET BT 98.672 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nation, Psychology and International Politics)] TJ ET BT 340.676 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( shows that the peace process and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates sustaining it were more complex: women campaigners such as Rosika Schwimmer and Jane Addams )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenged the status quo by asserting that a future world order should also include equal rights for women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and guarantee universal suffrage. The British pacifist Helena Swanwick and the Women?s International )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League for Peace and Freedom \(whose origins date back to the 1915 anti-war congress at The Hague\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented the cases for gender equality and for pacifism as interrelated concerns. In this respect, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of self-determination acted as a stimulus for people aiming to subvert existing gender orders. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diplomats? unwillingness to consider questions of women?s suffrage in the debates of ?self-determination? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlights the ambiguities of liberal internationalism and the problem of applying such concepts in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistent way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In light of the multiple challenges to the hegemonic discourse, )] TJ ET BT 336.320 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nation, Psychology and International )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics)] TJ ET BT 70.688 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( could have cited further attacks on the status quo ? for instance, the way in which the language of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-determination could help to criticise the conceptual underpinnings of the national principle at both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic and the international level. Sluga?s study briefly mentions W. E. B. DuBois and the Pan-African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congress of 1919, which directly addressed the civilisational notions upon which the post-war conception )] TJ ET endstream endobj 45 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 360.2837 752.6215 380.2757 764.5015 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 320.6597 709.8535 340.6517 721.7335 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 226.3397 652.8295 246.3317 664.7095 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 321.9437 386.4775 341.9357 398.3575 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 57 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 127.3277 343.7095 147.3197 355.5895 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 474.2717 286.6855 494.2637 298.5655 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 66 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R 91 0 R 93 0 R 95 0 R 97 0 R 99 0 R 101 0 R 103 0 R ] /Contents 64 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Length 11098 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was based.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 86.000 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 86.000 795.075 m 105.992 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 105.992 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Similar observations may apply to the question of class: on the one hand, franchise reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was treated as being independent from peace negotiations ? yet at the same time, with the creation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(International Labour Organization, such issues also became the concern of international institutions. Related )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the sphere of psychology, one might consider the relation between class and a fear of the masses ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially with the evocation of ?mobs? in the type of psychological literature popularised by Le Bon. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 527.612 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 527.612 738.051 m 547.604 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, as Sluga?s work concentrates on French, British and American debates, it would be worthwhile to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(address similar debates among intellectuals and politicians from the Central Powers. How did nationalism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German academia feed into conceptions of international relations ? especially in light of Wilsonian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internationalism being associated with the unpopular settlement of Versailles? Furthermore, if the national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement envisaged during and after the war was linked to key tenets of modernity ? namely nationalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and psychology ? where did this leave the Habsburg Monarchy? After all, the latter was shaped by an uneasy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mixture of dynastic rule, competing nationalisms, artistic modernism and ? significant in the context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sluga?s work ? the rise of psychoanalysis at the )] TJ ET BT 266.312 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fin de sicle)] TJ ET BT 323.636 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Considering yet another angle, one might also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonder whether nationalism in German-speaking lands contradicted the beliefs of international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internationalists in the Allied states ? did the latter therefore use the language of national ?pathology? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevent German nationalism from undermining the ultimate value of a post-war order based on national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(units?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Any innovative study is likely to generate further questions. )] TJ ET BT 324.656 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nation, Psychology, and International )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politic)] TJ ET BT 66.020 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is successful in doing so and, at the same time, a thoroughly engaging book in its own right. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interrelation between nationalism and liberal internationalism may seem self-evident but there has been very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little scholarship that explores the exact nature of their relationship. Glenda Sluga?s work rectifies this and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does so in a thoughtful and refreshing way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author thanks Daniel Laqua for his careful and thoughtful review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 381.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. B. Pillsbury, )] TJ ET BT 144.692 381.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Psychology of Nationalism and Internationalism)] TJ ET BT 399.032 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1919\), p. 1. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 520.340 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 520.340 379.923 m 560.336 379.923 l S BT 64.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 365.667 m 78.008 365.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 352.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pillsbury, )] TJ ET BT 113.360 352.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Psychology of Nationalism)] TJ ET BT 263.696 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,p. 126. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 302.696 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 302.696 351.411 m 356.684 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 338.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pillsbury, )] TJ ET BT 113.360 338.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Psychology of Nationalism)] TJ ET BT 263.696 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,p. 307. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 302.696 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 302.696 337.155 m 356.684 337.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 324.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Sluga, )] TJ ET BT 112.016 324.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nation, Psychology, and International Politics, 1870-1919)] TJ ET BT 415.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2006\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 520.676 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 520.676 322.899 m 560.672 322.899 l S BT 64.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 308.643 m 78.008 308.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 295.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sluga, )] TJ ET BT 97.352 295.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nation, Psychology, and International Politics)] TJ ET BT 342.356 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 6. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 372.356 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 372.356 294.387 m 426.344 294.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 281.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. Gelfand, )] TJ ET BT 122.000 281.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Inquiry: American Preparations for Peace, 1917-1919)] TJ ET BT 405.632 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, Conn., 1963\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 265.875 m 118.004 265.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 253.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Muir, )] TJ ET BT 108.020 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nationalism and Internationalism: the Culmination of Modern History)] TJ ET BT 447.704 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1916\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 88.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 88.016 237.363 m 142.004 237.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 224.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Sluga, )] TJ ET BT 112.016 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Problem of Trieste and the Italo-Yugoslav Border. Difference, Identity, and Sovereignty )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in 20th-Century Europe)] TJ ET BT 178.676 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Albany, N.Y., 2001\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 290.324 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 290.324 208.851 m 344.312 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 195.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sluga, )] TJ ET BT 97.352 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nation, Psychology, and International Politics)] TJ ET BT 342.356 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 35. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 378.356 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 378.356 194.595 m 432.344 194.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 181.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sluga, )] TJ ET BT 97.352 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nation, Psychology, and International Politics)] TJ ET BT 342.356 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 16. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 378.356 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 378.356 180.339 m 438.344 180.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 167.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See e.g. S. Berger, M. Donovan and K. Passmore, )] TJ ET BT 306.644 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Writing National Histories: Western Europe since )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1800)] TJ ET BT 88.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1999\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 172.340 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 172.340 151.827 m 232.328 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is the title of an essay in )] TJ ET BT 207.344 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historians in Public: the Practice of American History, 1890-1970)] TJ ET BT 528.992 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. Tyrell \(Chicago, Ill., 2006\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.996 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.996 123.315 m 269.984 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. Lippmann, )] TJ ET BT 136.676 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Public Opinion)] TJ ET BT 210.344 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1946 [orig. 1922]\), p. 26, as cited in Sluga, )] TJ ET BT 482.972 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nation, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Psychology and International Politics)] TJ ET BT 246.344 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 1 and 9. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 311.672 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 311.672 94.803 m 371.660 94.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pillsbury, )] TJ ET BT 113.360 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Psychology of Nationalism)] TJ ET BT 263.696 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 6. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 293.696 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 293.696 80.547 m 353.684 80.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 67.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sluga, )] TJ ET BT 97.352 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nation, Psychology, and International Politics)] TJ ET BT 342.356 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 84-5. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 394.352 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 394.352 66.291 m 454.340 66.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 53.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another example is the way in which groups in India, Korea, China and Egypt used the language of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 65 0 obj [63 0 R /Fit] endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.9997 795.3895 105.9917 807.2695 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 68 0 obj [63 0 R /Fit] endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 527.6117 738.3655 547.6037 750.2455 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 72 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 520.3397 380.2375 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