%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 28 0 R 45 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818091944+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818091944+01'00') /Title (A Second Domesday? The Hundred Rolls of 1279?80) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4213 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Second Domesday? The Hundred Rolls of 1279?80)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In March 1279 King Edward I commissioned a great inquiry into landholding in England. The surviving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returns were arranged by hundred, hence their name ?the Hundred Rolls?, and give a picture of rural society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, in its level of detail, goes far beyond that found in Domesday Book. If this was intended as a second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Domesday, it was a superior version of it. The contrast is especially striking when it comes to the description )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of peasant tenures. Domesday mentioned the number of villeins and cottars in each manor but omitted their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(names, their obligations and the size of their holdings. The 1279 survey gave all three, both for unfree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasants ? villeins and serfs ? and for numerous freeholders who had either been ignored or had not existed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the time of the Domesday survey. As a result, whereas the Domesday survey of Caldecote in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Huntingdonshire, transcribed in Raban?s book, takes up four lines, the Hundred Roll survey takes up over 50.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite its remarkable nature, the 1279 survey never achieved the fame of its older brother. This was partly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because late thirteenth-century society was far more used to government inquiries than that 200 years earlier, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and thus the activities of the 1279 commissioners went largely unremarked. It was also because nothing was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done with the results. Those of the 1086 survey were edited and transcribed into Domesday Book, becoming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both an object of awe and a resource of practical value. The rolls of 1279 were hardly edited at all, and seem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have been put to no contemporary use. Today, the returns only survive for a handful of counties across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Midlands and East Anglia, the great bulk having been published in unsatisfactory but serviceable form by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(691)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 October, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sandra Raban)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199252879)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(220pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Carpenter)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7922 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Record Commission in 1818.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 192.356 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 192.356 795.075 m 206.348 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 206.348 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ignored at the time of their making, the rolls have proved a goldmine for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern historians. They were at the centre of E. A. Kosminsky?s )] TJ ET BT 350.624 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in the Agrarian History of England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in the Thirteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 155.684 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1956\), and have since been exploited by all social and economic historians of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, in particular for the picture they give of the internal structure of individual manors. In my own case, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state of the manors held by Oxfordshire gentry in 1279, as revealed by the rolls, was a major reason why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I questioned the hypothesis that the class had been experiencing a severe and prolonged social and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 62.348 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 62.348 709.539 m 76.340 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There has, however, been no proper study of the inquiry itself and this is now provided by Sandra Raban?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. The first chapter discusses the ?inquiring culture? of the period and the next \(?A second Domesday??\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the survey?s immediate aims. Further chapters consider how the information was collected and ordered. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story is so well told that one turns eagerly on to chapter five, ?The uses of the rolls?, where the finding that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they had little practical application makes the whole gigantic enterprise in some ways all the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intriguing. The final chapter, which provides a detailed description of the surviving material, is particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable in showing just how much has come to light since the 1818 edition. Lucid and scholarly, Raban?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is definitive and will never be replaced.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What then was the purpose of the inquiry? ?Given the tenuous nature of the evidence?, Raban writes, ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of Edward?s intentions must remain open? \(p. 46\). That is certainly true when it comes to how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exactly the results were to be used, but there seems no similar doubt about the immediate reasons for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquiry. Whereas no contemporary source explains the aim of the Domesday survey, the aim in 1279 was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made absolutely clear in the commissioning writ. There Edward explained that:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because of various encroachments \()] TJ ET BT 237.296 463.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(occupaciones)] TJ ET BT 302.612 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) made on us and others, rich and poor, within )] TJ ET BT 64.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our kingdom, in demesne, fees, feudal rights \()] TJ ET BT 284.648 449.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(feodalibus)] TJ ET BT 334.652 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), liberties and other things of various )] TJ ET BT 64.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinds, we and other men are suffering, and will suffer, loss. In order that, in future, that which is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ought to be ours and that which is and ought to be theirs may be clear, we commission [the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following inquiry].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.348 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.348 404.931 m 169.340 404.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In other words, as Raban puts it, ?the commission was framed in terms of providing a solution to the losses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffered by the king and ?other men? by means of a definitive record of who held what and where? \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(49?50\). Raban does not discuss precisely how the record was to be used to do this, and there seems no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence on the point, but the likelihood must be that, in some way, it was to be appealed to in law cases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over disputed lands, rights and services. Here the example of Domesday Book may well have been crucial: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raban is surely right when she says that its is ?plausible? \(if ?beyond proof?\) that Edward had it in mind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when commissioning the inquiry \(p. 58\). The )] TJ ET BT 254.336 282.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dialogue of the Exchequer)] TJ ET BT 383.312 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, written in the 1170s, thought that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Domesday Book was to ensure ?that every man may be content with his own rights, and not encroach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpunished on those of others?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.332 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.332 252.627 m 200.324 252.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 200.324 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( By the 1270s, Domesday was indeed performing something like this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(function in one specific and widely known area, having become ?the principal source of proof in claims to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hold land in ancient demense?, claims, that is, made by peasants to enjoy special privileges \(including fixed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(services\) because they lived on manors which had, at the time of Domesday, been in the hands of the king. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If, however, this was Edward?s inspiration, the role he envisaged for the 1279 survey seems to have gone far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond anything currently performed by Domesday. The latter was appealed to chiefly in ancient demesne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases, the former, so the writ implies, was to be the ultimate source of proof in a whole variety of disputes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over land, rights and services, both those involving the king and ?other men?. In the legal and social life of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the country the Hundred Rolls were to mark a completely new start. ?In future?, as the writ said, everyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to know what was theirs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part of the background to Edward?s intentions lay, of course, in his overwhelming belief that the laxity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his father?s rule had led to the loss of many things belonging to the crown. Hence the survey of the lands and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possessions of the king, and the detailed investigation \(commanded by the numerous articles of the 1279 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquiry\) into possible royal losses. The Hundred Roll survey is thus closely allied to Edward?s )] TJ ET BT 490.652 56.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(quo warranto)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 192.3557 795.3895 206.3477 807.2695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 62.3477 709.8535 76.3397 721.7335 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 155.3477 405.2455 169.3397 417.1255 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 186.3317 252.9415 200.3237 264.8215 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 8276 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proceedings and the investigations carried out by the general eyre. Indeed some of the articles of the eyre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were re-used for the 1279 inquiry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward, however, was also concerned with the losses suffered by ?other men?, and here the inquiry fitted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with his equally urgent priority to reform the realm. The scope of that reform, and the way it was intended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embrace all the king?s subjects, is reflected in the detail in which peasant tenures were recorded, and also in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the stress on the losses of ?men? ?rich and poor?, ?men? being used here pointedly rather than ?freemen? or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the even more exclusive ?earls, barons and knights?. It is true that Raban herself sees the space given to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasant tenures in the returns as almost an aberration. They were ?time-consuming to record and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questionable practical value?. They were also, she suggests, not envisaged, or at least not called for, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original writ \(p. 50\). But is this last point entirely correct? The inquiry was to be into ?our demesnes, fees, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feudal rights, escheats, liberties, and all things touching fees and tenements, and those of others, who holds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them, to wit, demesne, villeins, serfs, cottars, then free tenants?. Now it is perfectly true that the ?who? here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is clearly the lord, and there is no specific injunction that we are to be told ?who? his tenants were. And yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raban?s translation perhaps rather obscures the detail in which the lord?s holdings are to be described. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin text \(given by Raban in an appendix\) the inquiry is to be into:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 546.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(qui ea tenent scilicet in dominico ut in dominico in villanis ut in villanis in servis ut in servis in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 532.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cotariis ut in cotariis et postmodo in liberis tenentibus ut in liberis tenentibus)] TJ ET BT 435.380 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 438.380 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 438.380 530.979 m 452.372 530.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The emphatic repetition here ? )] TJ ET BT 183.644 494.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in dominico ut in dominico in villanis ut in villanis )] TJ ET BT 429.668 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and so on ? is, as Paul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brand tells me, found in other legal documents of this period. The sense of ?)] TJ ET BT 401.300 479.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ut)] TJ ET BT 410.636 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? is that of ?as? or ?according )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as?, and so one might translate ?in demesne as in demesne, in villeins as in villeins, in serfs as in serfs, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cottars as in cottars, and afterwards in free tenants as in free tenants?. The construction is clumsy, reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better for holding ?demesne as [they hold in] in demesne? than for ?villeins as in villains etc.?, but, as Paul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brand puts it, ?the underlying meaning is clear: the king wants a full list of all the component parts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manor or holding concerned?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.980 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.980 407.187 m 191.972 407.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 191.972 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It was, I would suggest, this clause that prompted, and was intended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prompt, the chapter in the articles of the inquiry which led to the recording of sub-tenures in such detail, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commissioners being instructed there to inquire into ?How many lands and tenements each free tenant, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(villein or serf or cottar holds in market towns or all other vills and hamlets and from which lords and for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what services and for rendering what customs?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 262.292 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 262.292 350.163 m 276.284 350.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 276.284 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Thus the recording of peasant tenures, far from being an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accidental extra, was a central part of the inquiry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The returns, as thus conceived, could certainly be used by lords striving to establish the obligations of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenants, but they might also be appealed to by tenants, free and unfree, trying to resist new impositions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their lords. Indeed, it was precisely peasant appeal to the record of Domesday Book, as we have seen, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have given Edward the idea for the Hundred Rolls in the first place. That peasants were well aware of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance of this new record in shown by the way those from Rycote in Oxfordshire objected to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rents of 16)] TJ ET BT 85.340 239.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(s)] TJ ET BT 90.008 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( per virgate and were allowed to set out in detail the much smaller burdens in rents and works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, so they ?asserted?, had ?anciently? been ?customary?, all this getting into the rolls despite the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that their lord, the knight Fulk of Rycote, was one of the commissioners.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 382.328 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 382.328 209.859 m 396.320 209.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 396.320 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The peasants of Rycote had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidently succumbed to their lord?s demands, but elsewhere in the midlands, as a major new study by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Junichi Kanzaka suggests, the force of manorial custom had served to keep peasants rents down below those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justified by market forces.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 159.992 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 159.992 167.091 m 173.984 167.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 173.984 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If so, one can well imagine that peasants were keen to have their rents noted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the definitive record of 1279, and perhaps even hoped that they might be frozen by it. By the same token, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one can understand why some lords were reluctant to co-operate with the inquiry, and indeed prevented their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenants supplying information to it, this in sharp contrast to their conduct in 1086 when they were only too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keen to have their lands recorded. But then the Domesday record confirmed their title to land without being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned in anyway with the obligations of their peasants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the inquiry was viewed in the way we have suggested, it may help to explain why nothing in the end came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of it. Raban, in a meticulous survey of the evidence, shows that the surviving returns are only a portion of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 438.3797 531.2935 452.3717 543.1735 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 177.9797 407.5015 191.9717 419.3815 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 262.2917 350.4775 276.2837 362.3575 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 382.3277 210.1735 396.3197 222.0535 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 159.9917 167.4055 173.9837 179.2855 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 9440 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what once existed. My own view is that the inquiry may well have been more or less completed for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole country. If so, the failure to do anything with it, even to the extent of making the returns manageable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and searchable in a series of Books, needs all the more explanation. Essentially the devil was in the detail. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward and his advisers seem to have had a general idea of a grander Domesday to which everyone could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeal for proof of their rights. A new age of dispute settlement would dawn. But there were two problems. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first was procedural, namely deciding just how litigants could call upon the Hundred Roll record. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second, far more contentious, was deciding who exactly could appeal and in what circumstances. This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same problem as that faced by Henry II?s judges when devising the early procedures of the common law, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and they had solved it by excluding the unfree altogether.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 309.968 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 309.968 681.027 m 329.960 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 329.960 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The 1279 inquiry, by contrast, was concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the grievances of ?men? in general not just freemen. The implications could be revolutionary. Under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the law as it stood, thanks to the definitions of Henry II?s judges, the terms on which the unfree held land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the exclusive concern of their lords, who could vary those terms at will, however much in practice they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were sometimes constrained by manorial custom. How was the 1279 record to relate to this framework? At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one extreme, the unfree might be excluded altogether from appealing to it, at least in any matter concerning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their services. But that hardly seems to have been Edward?s original intention. It would certainly have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at odds with his vision of an all encompassing royal authority. At the other extreme, all kinds of avenues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be opened up for the unfree to bring cases about their tenures into the king?s courts, even to the extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of calling in the survey in support of manorial custom. The consequences of that would have been truly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary. Given the problems of deciding how exactly the Hundred Rolls could meet their stated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purpose, it seems hardly surprising that no decisions were ever made, and the inquiry became so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wasted effort, leaving its processes largely unexplored and unexplained until Sandra Raban?s splendid book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 476.451 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 445.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rotuli Hundredorum)] TJ ET BT 164.348 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2 vols., Record Commission, 1812?18\). The returns are in volume two. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 515.984 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 515.984 444.435 m 555.980 444.435 l S BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 430.179 m 78.008 430.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 417.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. A. Carpenter, ?Was there a crisis of the knightly class in the thirteenth century: the Oxfordshire )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence?, )] TJ ET BT 117.992 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 243.992 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 95 \(1980\), 721?52; reprinted as ch. 18 of my )] TJ ET BT 467.624 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Reign of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry III)] TJ ET BT 108.992 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1996\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 193.316 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 193.316 387.411 m 247.304 387.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 374.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raban, )] TJ ET BT 100.676 374.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Second Domesday?)] TJ ET BT 205.316 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 37, and p. 90 for the Latin text. The writ is found in English calendar )] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 76.352 360.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1271?81)] TJ ET BT 244.028 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1893\), p. 343. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 364.352 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 364.352 358.899 m 418.340 358.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 346.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is Raban?s translation \(pp. 41?2\); for alternatives and the Latin text, see )] TJ ET BT 436.292 346.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dialogus de Scaccario)] TJ ET BT 545.612 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trans. C. Johnson \(London, 1950\), p. 63 \(new edition with same pagination by Johnson, F.E.L. Carter )] TJ ET BT 64.016 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and D. Greenway \(Oxford, 1983\)\); and )] TJ ET BT 254.624 317.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dialogus de Scaccario)] TJ ET BT 363.944 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. and trans Emilie Amt \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007\), p. 97. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.012 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.012 301.875 m 182.000 301.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 289.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raban)] TJ ET BT 94.676 289.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, A Second Domesday?)] TJ ET BT 205.316 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 37?8, 190?1. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 293.972 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 293.972 287.619 m 347.960 287.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 274.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In an email to me of 6 Aug. 2007. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 229.664 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 229.664 273.363 m 283.652 273.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 260.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raban, )] TJ ET BT 100.676 260.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Second Domesday?)] TJ ET BT 205.316 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 50. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 241.316 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 241.316 259.107 m 295.304 259.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 246.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 246.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rotuli Hundredorum)] TJ ET BT 164.348 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ii. 757; see Carpenter, )] TJ ET BT 278.996 246.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reign of Henry III)] TJ ET BT 367.304 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 372. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 409.304 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 409.304 244.851 m 463.292 244.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 231.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 231.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Kanzaka, ?Villein rents in 13th-century England: an analysis of the Hundred Rolls of 1279-80?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 217.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 188.660 217.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 55 \(2002\), 593?618. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 294.980 217.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 294.980 216.339 m 348.968 216.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 203.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 203.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See P. Hyams, )] TJ ET BT 140.012 203.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(King, Lords and Peasants: the Common Law of Villeinage in the Twelfth and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 189.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thirteenth Centuries)] TJ ET BT 163.688 189.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1980\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 245.336 189.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 245.336 187.827 m 305.324 187.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 162.965 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 143.983 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 126.203 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 126.203 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/691)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 124.809 m 322.316 124.809 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 99.832 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3666)] TJ ET 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39352 %%EOF