%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 45 0 R 53 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221034733+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221034733+00'00') /Title (The Politics of Housing: Power, Consumers and Urban Culture) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1811 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Politics of Housing: Power, Consumers and Urban Culture)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(693)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 30 September, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Shapely)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719074332)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(231pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Malpass)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6635 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For various reasons housing is important to everyone and thus it has rarely been far from the centre of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political debate in Britain. As the main urban land use, housing is a valuable and scarce resource, and if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics are about command over resources then housing is inescapably a political issue. From the point of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of individual households, a decent affordable home, conveniently located, is a basic requirement, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a whole slew of businesses, from developers and landlords to estate agents and do-it-yourself stores, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(housing is a source of income generation and wealth accumulation. The politics of housing have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated by one powerful underlying assumption: that the market should provide for most people most of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time. However, between 1919 and 1979 local authorities in the UK built nearly 6.5 million council )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(houses and flats, and by the end of this growth phase they owned almost a third of all dwellings in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country. After 1980 council housing went into numerical decline as a result of the introduction of a statutory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right for tenants to buy their homes at substantial discounts. By this time council housing was already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiencing a different sort of decline, in terms of its status, reflecting the changing socio-economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position of its tenants. The transformation of council housing, from virtually nothing in 1919 to a situation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where it housed nearly one family in three \(and often a much higher proportion in urban areas\), and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent decline from being a tenure of choice appealing to the better off working class to a safety net for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the least well off, as a result of deliberate changes in central government policy, has rightly attracted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial scholarly attention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the volume of research carried out over many years, it is surprising that \(as far as I know\) this is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first book entitled )] TJ ET BT 122.348 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of Housing)] TJ ET BT 236.024 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and Peter Shapely is to be congratulated for spotting that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still available. In fact the focus of the book is much narrower than its title suggests; the central empirical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(core of the book draws on detailed historical research on Manchester between 1890 and 1990. And within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester the study concentrates not on the local politics of housing as a whole, but on slums, slum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearance, council housing and overspill estates. Three key themes run through the book. The first is that too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many accounts of the history of housing ignore the importance of the local level, drawing unjustifiable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims that gloss over variation from place to place in the interpretation of central government policy. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument here \(which few would want to disagree with\) is that it is necessary to embrace both the national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the local. In fact the literature contains a good number of accounts of the formation and implementations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of housing policies at the local level in a number of British towns and cities, but this book is a welcome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition, containing a wealth of original detail about housing conditions and policy responses in Manchester.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, emphasis is placed on the notion of ?civic culture?, as both a way of referring to differences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between localities and a way of generalising about:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?a central element in the operation of government and governance at the local level. Civic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture transcends traditional politics. It provides a network of unspoken values, norms and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns of behaviour. Local politicians have a shared sense of identity, of belonging to the same )] TJ ET BT 64.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community with its distinctive history and traditions? \(p. 11\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In relation to the Manchester study the concept is used as a short-hand for continuities such as the preference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for cottage estates rather than flats, and the city fathers? determination to pursue grand ambitions. In a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentence that refers directly to the homes for heroes period immediately after 1918, but which could stand as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a summary of the Manchester research as a whole, Shapely says that, ?As so often during the twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, the council had the big vision and had increased expectations, only to see it all ending in frustration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and disappointment? \(p. 98\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third theme is that ?the tenant? was largely ignored until the 1960s, both in Manchester and elsewhere, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that it was only when the council?s efforts ?proved to be a disaster? that ?the angry, active citizen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumer emerged? \(p. 213\). This is perhaps a more contestable claim, depending on your view of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics of housing, of which more later.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 9186 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The structure of the book is logical and straightforward: after an introduction that provides a literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review and critique of the historiography of housing, there are two chapters on the national context and local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of central government policy. The focus of part two, headed ?the rise of municipal housing? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then shifts to Manchester, and covers the period up to about 1960. Part three, ?the decline of municipal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(housing?, takes the story on into the early 1990s, although it is not made clear why the book stops at that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point. The strength of the book lies in the detailed empirical research, which has generated a richness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local detail that is missing from many existing accounts. However, the interpretation of the data is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questionable. The local story in Manchester, as recounted by Shapely, is essentially one of the city hall elite, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gripped by civic culture, seeking to pursue its own ambitious and generally well-meant vision without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to ?the tenant?, until serial incompetence aroused tenants to anger. This is a black and white world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which the council are the bad guys and the tenants are the good guys. The tone is relentlessly anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(municipal, which renders the author unable to acknowledge the fact that local authorities in the 20th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were responding to problems created in the private housing market, and were working within a policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework set by central government. The council seems to get the blame whatever it does, whether it is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building new homes fast enough or building them too fast, or too far away. The private builders and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landlords who created the problem are somehow absolved of responsibility in this account. The impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government policy is not brought out as fully as it might be because the national level is discussed quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separately, rather than being woven into the local narrative as a key variable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have two main criticisms of the book. The least of these is that although it is extensively referenced, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has introduced me to some sources that I want to follow up, there are, nevertheless, some surprising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omissions. This is partly a reflection of a general problem, namely, the extent to which different academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplines remain unaware of each other?s publications and debates. Curiously, however, Peter Shapely has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought out a number of relevant unpublished PhD theses, but has failed to mention readily accessible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published work on the same topics. Key works on the history of housing and housing policy by, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Harloe )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 111.992 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 111.992 428.931 m 125.984 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 125.984 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Stephen Merrett )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 229.964 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 229.964 428.931 m 243.956 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.956 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are not cited. Well-known and often cited books on slum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearance and redevelopment in the 1960s by, for example, Norman Dennis )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 399.596 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 399.596 414.675 m 413.588 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 413.588 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and John Gower Davies )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 534.560 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 534.560 414.675 m 548.552 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are not mentioned. One of the main bones of contention in the politics of housing over the last 30 years has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been the sale of council houses, a subject which is discussed in the book without reference to either Alan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Murie or Ray Forrest )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.668 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.668 371.907 m 152.660 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 152.660 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, whose extensive research in this area is widely known and respected. Important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local historical studies, such as the collection edited by Melling )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 341.660 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 341.660 357.651 m 355.652 357.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 355.652 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, are also absent as far as I can see, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite his inclusion of a chapter on Manchester based research. English, Madigan and Norman )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 495.920 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 495.920 343.395 m 509.912 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 509.912 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included Manchester as a case study in their 1970s research in slum clearance, but I saw no reference to it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Also in the 1970s some really good local historical research on the politics of housing was carried out by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of teams linked to the official Community Development Projects. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.992 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.992 300.627 m 404.984 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 404.984 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Some of this work is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referenced in passing, but it deserves closer attention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My second criticism is more fundamental and follows from the last point. A number of key analytical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts are freely deployed but without definition or discussion, and without connection to the sorts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyses that have been developed in the literature. The most obvious and worrying omission concerns the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term ?the politics of housing?, which is not analysed and discussed in depth, or in relation to the existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature. The politics of housing are about who gets what, when and how. Peter Shapely?s account is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated by the attempt by the city?s elite to remove the slums and to build a better, lower density, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suburban, environment for ?the tenant?. The latter enters the story as an angry consumer after the council has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to deliver its vision. But the politics of housing are much more complex, and his analysis and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation is inadequate in a number of ways.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, the established literature makes reference to the importance of not just looking at the consumption side )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? Michael Ball long ago pointed out that the supply side represents a powerful set of stakeholders )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.284 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.284 105.555 m 518.276 105.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 518.276 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land and property owners, landlords and builders make only fleeting entrances in this book. A wider view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the politics of housing would embrace recognition of the dynamics of the market, which can be seen to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergone a prolonged period of modernisation as private renting \(the predominant form of provision in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th century\) was replaced by owner occupation. The contribution made by local authorities and council )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 111.9917 429.2455 125.9837 441.1255 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 229.9637 429.2455 243.9557 441.1255 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 399.5957 414.9895 413.5877 426.8695 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 534.5597 414.9895 548.5517 426.8695 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 138.6677 372.2215 152.6597 384.1015 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 341.6597 357.9655 355.6517 369.8455 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 495.9197 343.7095 509.9117 355.5895 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 390.9917 300.9415 404.9837 312.8215 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 504.2837 105.8695 518.2757 117.7495 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 48 0 R 51 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 7671 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(housing need to be fitted into this process of change. In other words, housing policy needs to be seen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporting a market-driven and market-led transformation. In this context council housing needs to be seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be playing different roles at different times. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 258.308 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 258.308 766.563 m 278.300 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 278.300 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For most of the time local authorities were building for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what was known as ?general needs? ? they were simply attacking the serious overall shortages of decent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affordable housing. But in the 1930s and again from 1955 to about 1975 they were engaged in slum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearance and the associated rehousing of displaced families. These need to be seen as two quite different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities; in the case of general needs housing the local authorities were encouraged to build at scale only in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periods when market conditions were such that the private sector could not meet the needs of ordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumers, while slum clearance reflects a more permanent, structural, inability of the market to deal with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas of rundown housing in a socially acceptable way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, the dynamics of the central-local government relationship are inadequately explored and remain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely un-integrated into the account. For instance, there is very little on the ways in which central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government was able to influence decisions and actions in Manchester over the years. A fascinating aspect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the politics of housing is how governments were able to shape local responses in the context of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially enabling legislative framework. Local authorities enjoyed considerable discretion and autonomy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in terms of how they defined and measured the problem within their boundaries, and how many houses they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(built, how much they charged in rent and how they decided to allocate individual dwellings to people on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(waiting lists. But over time central government was able to steer council housing in different directions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to centrally defined priorities. Just as Shapely is right to argue for a local perspective, it is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary to acknowledge that the decline of council housing has been driven by central government policies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursued by both Conservative and Labour administrations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Third, there is the problem of Shapely?s treatment of ?the tenant?. The wider housing studies literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally makes a clear analytical distinction between the better off working class and the less well off, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguing that council housing began as housing for the better off, skilled workers, but that it has been turned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a residual safety net service for the least well off. This is central to the politics of public housing \(and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way it has been discussed in the academic literature for 30 years\) but it is an aspect that is not considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the book under review. Another criticism of the way Shapely writes about tenants concerns the suggestion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they were ignored until the 1960s. This just will not do. The historical evidence suggests that the middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class and self-help voluntary organisations that were active from the latter part of the 19th century failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(build anything like enough houses to dent the shortage, but when housing was politicised by working-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands during the First World War then an effective policy response was rapidly forthcoming. It is simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not credible to write tenants out of the story until they start to become visibly active in the 1960s. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences between the earlier periods and more recent times are important in at least two ways. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem for those who insist that tenants were ignored in the past is to explain how and why that was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time when local authorities built such large numbers of houses, many of them of high quality, whereas the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period when tenant activism becomes more visible coincides with the decline in new building and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general decline in the standing of council housing as a whole. Part of the answer seems to lie in the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power of tenants as voters, and importantly as voters with jobs. The housing needs of the employed working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class are now overwhelmingly met by the private market, significantly shifting the terms of debate within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the politics of housing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other dimension concerns the emergence of tenants as consumers, which seems to me to reflect an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important change in the welfare state away from collective provision for individual need and towards an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individualised consumer orientation. Whereas Peter Shapely welcomes the rise of the demanding tenant, I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see it as a sign of a retreat from the ideals of the post-war welfare state. As Bauman )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 438.248 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 438.248 146.067 m 458.240 146.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 458.240 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has pointed out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumerism and the welfare state are at cross purposes with one another. The rise of consumerism can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore be seen as part of the backlash against collective welfare.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By modern standards the book is pretty free of editing lapses and typographical errors, but it does contain a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large number of very short sentences, sometimes two complete sentences on one line, and this interferes with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pleasure of reading it. In terms of its content I regret to have to conclude that this book suffers from the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 258.3077 766.8775 278.2997 778.7575 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 438.2477 146.3815 458.2397 158.2615 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R ] /Contents 54 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Length 6135 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same problem that Peter Shapely sees in the civic culture of Manchester: creditable ambition but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappointing outcome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.315 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Harloe, )] TJ ET BT 119.336 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The People?s Home?)] TJ ET BT 221.984 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1995\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 303.632 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 303.632 715.299 m 357.620 715.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Merrett, )] TJ ET BT 118.676 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State Housing in Britain)] TJ ET BT 235.688 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1979\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 320.012 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 320.012 701.043 m 374.000 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Dennis, )] TJ ET BT 118.676 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(People and Planning)] TJ ET BT 220.004 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1970\) and )] TJ ET BT 321.656 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Public Participation and Planners? Blight)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1972\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 145.340 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 145.340 672.531 m 199.328 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. G. Davies, )] TJ ET BT 128.672 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Evangelistic Bureaucrat)] TJ ET BT 266.660 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Tavistock, 1972\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 404.648 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 404.648 658.275 m 458.636 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Forrest and A. Murie, )] TJ ET BT 185.336 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Selling the Welfare State)] TJ ET BT 304.328 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1988\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 388.652 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 388.652 644.019 m 442.640 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Housing, Social Policy and the State)] TJ ET BT 240.008 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. Melling \(London, 1980\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 396.332 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 396.332 629.763 m 450.320 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. English, R. Madigan, and P. Norman, )] TJ ET BT 258.344 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slum Clearance)] TJ ET BT 335.336 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1976\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 419.660 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 419.660 615.507 m 473.648 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Community Development Project, )] TJ ET BT 232.016 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Whatever Happened to Council Housing?)] TJ ET BT 433.328 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1976\) and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benwell CDP, )] TJ ET BT 136.352 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Private Housing and the Working Class)] TJ ET BT 328.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Newcastle, 1978\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 427.988 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 427.988 586.995 m 481.976 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Ball, )] TJ ET BT 106.688 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Housing Policy and Economic Power)] TJ ET BT 287.336 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1983\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 371.660 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 371.660 572.739 m 425.648 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Malpass, and A. Murie, )] TJ ET BT 193.004 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Housing Policy and Practice)] TJ ET BT 331.988 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 1999\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 437.648 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 437.648 558.483 m 497.636 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Z. Bauman, )] TJ ET BT 123.344 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Work, Consumerism and the New Poor)] TJ ET BT 311.336 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Buckingham, 1998\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 419.660 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 419.660 544.227 m 479.648 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 519.365 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://tcbh.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2009/08/14/tcbh.hwp037.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 489.459 m 385.340 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 388.340 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 486.127 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 468.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 468.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/693)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 466.953 m 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