%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 28 0 R 42 0 R 52 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721091607+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721091607+01'00') /Title (Hunger: a Modern History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3802 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Hunger: a Modern History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The request to review Professor James Vernon?s book brings to mind John Betjeman?s verses in the style of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George R. Sims:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.952 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It?s an easy game this reviewin??the editor sends yer a book,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 220.552 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yer puts it down on yer table and yer gives it a ?asty look,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 206.152 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An? then, Sir, yer writes about it as though yer ?ad read it all through,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And if ye?re a pal o? the author yer gives it a good review.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 345.944 191.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 345.944 190.473 m 359.936 190.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 153.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Betjeman?s verse does not fit the circumstances of this review but associating George R. Sims with a book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on hunger is highly appropriate, for Sims?s most famous line: ?It is Christmas Day in the Workhouse?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.099 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showed him to be a man deeply concerned about social justice but not one who required such concepts as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 110.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?cultural turn? or the ?imperial turn? for the understanding of hunger \(pp. viii?ix\). Since James Vernon is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 96.587 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern cultural historian, he does and, although he offers no definition of hunger, he begins by revealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.331 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he will ?track three great transformations in the modern understanding of hunger ? the divine, the moral, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.075 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the social? \(p. 2\) which he sees occurring between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries. Limiting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 53.819 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope of the topic may puzzle readers then faced with the author?s claim that ?I take the nutritional history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(695)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 October, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Vernon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780674026780)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(384pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvard University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, MA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Derek Oddy)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 345.9437 190.7875 359.9357 202.6675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8288 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of modernity as a given? \(p. 4\). It is a perplexing statement: is the reader to assume that the author has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing to add to previously published histories of hunger, or that hunger is anything more than a label to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applied to various aspects of the unfortunate state of poverty in which many people found themselves, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used as a term when claiming relief from destitution? In fact this does not resolve the shifting values of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Vernon?s approach to a variety of sources ? ?I follow discussions of hunger? \(p. 9\) ? or the lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodological rigour which is evident in his verbose but superficial style.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The arrangement of the book is mainly thematic, so that while there is a broad chronological development, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some overlapping of events in time does occur. Vernon, by the way, appears to be writing about Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British society \(with allusions to Ireland and the empire\) though this is not set out in the preface or first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, which starts on 11 September 2001 in the United States. The second chapter ?The humanitarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovery of hunger? begins in the 1830s and 1840s and ends in the early 1900s with accounts of overseas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famines. Chapter three ?Hunger as political critique? begins at the Great Exhibition and also ends before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First World War but the introduction of the hunger strike takes the author into the 1920s, 1930s and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the 1940s. The fourth chapter, ?The science and calculation of hunger? begins in the 1830s and ends in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1930s and 1940s, as does chapter five ?Hungry England and planning for a world of plenty?. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from chapter six ?Collective feeding and the welfare of society? onwards, the reader is confronted by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable change in the author?s approach. Chapter six, and chapter seven, ?You are what you eat? with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its sub-title ?Educating the citizen as consumer?, are less about hunger than institutional feeding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programmes provided in works canteens, schools, and the introduction of self-service eating places. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Domestic science and cookery using new technology ? electricity ? and household management are also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced in this chapter, leaving chapter eight ?Remembering hunger? and an unnumbered chapter \(p. 273\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a ?Conclusion?. The book ends with an extensive set of notes totalling almost 80 pages, yet there is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidated bibliography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The narrative begins with a swift discounting of the historical debate among economic historians during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1950s and 1960s on the standard of living during the industrialisation of Britain. More significantly, Vernon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barely mentions the debate about the nature of hunger, famine and subsistence crises in Britain from the 16th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the 18th centuries that followed from Peter Laslett?s seminal question ?Did the peasants really starve? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led on to the question ?Were ?hunger? rioters really hungry??)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 330.272 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 330.272 386.163 m 344.264 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 344.264 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This is a serious omission. The debate on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hunger and famine produced a number of monographs and occupied the pages of )] TJ ET BT 425.588 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 507.584 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several years during the 1970s and spread to the )] TJ ET BT 267.632 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 392.276 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; it engaged not only demographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians but also historians of social structure and included specialists on the history of famine such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor J. D. Post, Northeastern University, Massachusetts, author of )] TJ ET BT 377.972 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Last Great Subsistence Crisis in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Western World)] TJ ET BT 124.004 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Post wrote that ?the old biological regime was shattered almost everywhere in Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the second half of the eighteenth century?, and observed that the last major European subsistence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis of 1816?7, while causing large-scale mortality on the Continent, had less noticeable effects in Britain.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 272.115 m 48.008 272.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For ?a modern history? of hunger one might expect this to be Professor Vernon?s starting point. It would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide him with a methodological anchor which his volume lacks. His scant regard for participants in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Industrial Revolution standard of living debate is extended to the succeeding generation of social historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the 1970s who have examined the nutritional surveys of the late 19th and 20th centuries ?but failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open up nutritional techniques to historical scrutiny? \(p. 6\). At such a sweeping generalisation, the reviewer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must pause: has the author perhaps not read )] TJ ET BT 246.644 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Dietary Surveys of Dr Edward Smith 1862?3)] TJ ET BT 483.632 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which offered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a combined analysis by social historians and a nutritionist? It is a work which enabled a modern nutritional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaluation to be made of hunger during the Lancashire Cotton Famine of 1862?3 and later provided a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typology of hunger and famine that showed how qualitative terms might be used systematically rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interchangeably.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 113.660 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 113.660 117.555 m 127.652 117.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 127.652 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Actually, opening up ?nutritional techniques to historical scrutiny? shows a remarkable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of understanding by the author of how other historians have worked in this field in the second half of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 20th century: historians benefit by employing the techniques of other disciplines to obtain greater insight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the past; scrutinising nutritional techniques is not what the historian should do; instead, modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nutritional knowledge should be applied to data from the past. That may lead to a deeper understanding than )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 330.2717 386.4775 344.2637 398.3575 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 272.4295 48.0077 284.3095 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 113.6597 117.8695 127.6517 129.7495 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 8146 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be provided by repeating contemporary opinion. For example, when discussing the Irish famine in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter two, Vernon quotes from many early works but omits the most modern view which is generally free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the rhetoric generated by previous and more nationalist writers on the Irish famine.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 458.600 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 458.600 766.563 m 472.592 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 472.592 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Similarly, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vernon quotes a daily minimum energy requirement of 3,500 calories per day and 125 grams of protein \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(85\) from B. S. Rowntree?s 1899?1901 study of families in York, he adopts the high protein requirements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?man-values? of the imperialist manpower obsessions current at the beginning of the 20th century and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even his later modification of these figures \(p. 132\) fails to evaluate them in modern terms. Today )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nutritionists and even informed historians know that ?man-values? underestimated the nutritional needs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women and children and overestimated everyone?s protein requirements. To invoke science without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding it, reminds this reviewer of the well-known American quantitative historian who faced down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the discussion at an anthropometric history seminar in London by saying: ?It all depends which experts you )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(want to believe?. No modern historian should take refuge in such a stance but should understand and be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepared to apply acquired specialist knowledge to historical data. In Vernon?s case, a description of how B. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Rowntree carried out his nutrition survey is not a substitute for his own nutritional evaluation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is equally unclear why in his chapter on ?The science and calculation of hunger? Vernon feels his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument is strengthened by describing scientists? laboratories and equipment, notably at the Rowett )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Research Institute at Bucksburn near Aberdeen. Since Vernon has not formulated a methodology, the value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these sections is obscure. However, the Rowett, as it is generally known ? officially entitled the Imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bureau of Animal Nutrition by the 1920s ? did work in parts of the empire, which provides a link for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author to include inter-war famines, though whatever success the United Kingdom?s nutritionists had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overseas in the inter-war years is characterised by the author as occurring in the ?colonial laboratories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South Asia and Africa? and written-off as an ?unfulfilled promise of welfare and development? \(p. 277\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition, Vernon?s view of the relations between science and government is over simplified. He claims that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?nutritionists were welcomed back into the fold at Whitehall? \(p. 124\) by the Ministry of Health in 1931. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeper analysis would reveal that they were tolerated not for their knowledge and expertise but only to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevent the Ministry losing control over nutrition and health to the Medical Research Council and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Economic Advisory Council ? a position resulting largely from Sir George Newman?s indolence as Chief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Medical Officer of the Ministry which had driven scientists to seek alternative routes to communicate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing evidence of poor health to the government in the 1920s. Since the Economic Advisory Council had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a direct line of communication to the Cabinet, the Ministry of Health felt seriously threatened by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibility that it could lose an area of departmental policy. Similarly, although Vernon devotes some space )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to John Boyd Orr?s surveys carried out at the Rowett in the 1920s and 1930s, he suggests that Crawford and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Broadley?s market research survey was of more value as it was larger and more geographically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative. Apparently he is not aware of the Rowett Carnegie Survey totalling 7,200 persons in 1937?9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 298.371 m 48.008 298.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Vernon is on weak ground when he adopts views that stem from populist beliefs without adequate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence. For example, he concludes that health in Britain improved in World War II \(p. 154\). However, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the official history of the National Food Survey, Arnold Baines summarised the years 1945?7, when Britons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had suffered six years of restricted food consumption, as a time when adults were losing weight and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children?s growth showed some retardation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 246.308 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 246.308 215.091 m 260.300 215.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 260.300 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Similarly, when evaluating Sir John Orr?s post-war world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food plan, Vernon leaves out the Labour government?s opposition to Orr?s proposals ? his Fig. 5.3, a David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Low cartoon, seems to imply that the United Kingdom supported Orr. In reality, Orr was deeply hurt by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s rejection of his plan, even though it differed from the position of the United States as the major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exporter of surplus food.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 152.660 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 152.660 158.067 m 166.652 158.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 166.652 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The British government?s opposition to the proposed world food board )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented the viewpoint of the food-importing nations. A world food bank, if not actually a monopoly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could, by price manipulation, distort the international food trade. This alarmed British officials, reminding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them of the unpleasant treatment they had received at the hands of the Combined Food Board in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Washington, DC, earlier during the Second World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, )] TJ ET BT 76.004 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hunger)] TJ ET BT 112.664 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a work which seeks to serve a number of different purposes, though Professor Vernon?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intentions and standpoint are not always clear. It is a detailed study based upon extensive reading which, on )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 458.5997 766.8775 472.5917 778.7575 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 298.6855 48.0077 310.5655 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 246.3077 215.4055 260.2997 227.2855 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 152.6597 158.3815 166.6517 170.2615 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R ] /Contents 43 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Length 8135 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection, appears to be mainly of a secondary nature. That raises the question of who Professor Vernon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expects to benefit from reading his book. Is it more than a very detailed course book for his students in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Centre for British Studies at Berkeley? The Americanisms included in the text may suit Professor Vernon?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students but their inaccuracy is not attractive to an academic audience in Britain: for example, the Rowett )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Research Institute received considerable funding from the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust based in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dunfermline, Fife, not the later-founded Carnegie Corporation with which it is confused throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. Does Professor Vernon desire to integrate historians into the sociological world of labels such as ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social? \(p. 13\) derived from post-structural studies? British society has been studied effectively without such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jargon both before and since Arendt and Foucault began this misuse of the English language in the 1970s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Vernon?s account follows his declared standpoint on the political left. It might be difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tackle a subject such as hunger without empathy for the hungry. This partiality is maintained through chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eight and the conclusion to denigrate Britain?s role as an imperial power. It may prove popular in the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States, where foreign policy from August 1945 onwards had an underlying strand of destabilising the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingdom?s standing and influence in the world. However, despite the United States being the location of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book?s opening, no further reference is made to the occurrence of hunger in the USA. Indeed, to end his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study in the mid-20th century, as the author states is his intention, it is surprising that he offers no wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment on hunger than that occurring within the British empire. Was there no hunger in modern times in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other capitalist countries, such as the United States during the 1930s Depression, or should the book end in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the planned economies? Professor Vernon might consider the Soviet famine of the 1930s or what was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguably the world?s greatest famine, that which occurred in China, 1959?61, as fitting for inclusion ? if not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conclusion ? for ?a modern history? of hunger.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hunger is not the most obvious subject for an author living in the United States or for an American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university press to publish. Perhaps, given the book?s price, the publisher assumed that ?hunger? might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prove a popular subject for a single-instance study as ?longitude? and ?salt? have previously done; otherwise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the price would seem to be exceptionally low. In the American context, the book is incongruous: today the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States is recognised as the most consumption-oriented society in the world and its rates of obesity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Type 2 diabetes are creating major social and health problems approaching epidemic proportions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, if Professor Vernon is not above identifying fellow academics as making a ?decent living? out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of sociology \(p. 14\), should he attempt a subject that might be unsavoury to the radical conscience which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at times advertises in this volume? It would not be the first time that academic interest in hunger has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attracted opprobrium: in July 1981, a group of economic and social historians met at Vevey, Switzerland, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discuss ?Famine in History? prior to its inclusion in the Eighth International Economic History Association )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conference, Budapest, 1982. When news reached )] TJ ET BT 275.612 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET BT 343.280 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s ?Diary? column, the paper eagerly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published with satirical comment a menu of the meals provided by the symposium?s hosts, Nestl.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Vernon?s approach to hunger ? dipping into sensational aspects of the subject without a coherent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytical approach ? may not appeal to all, particularly to anyone who has participated in the fieldwork of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nutrition survey in Ethiopia and seen evidence of hunger and even the ever-present precursors of famine at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first hand, as this reviewer has. However, perhaps the general reader should turn to George R. Sims for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proper sense of affront.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.843 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 153.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See )] TJ ET BT 84.344 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Statesman)] TJ ET BT 179.012 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 25 October 1968. John Betjeman was reviewing )] TJ ET BT 418.976 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prepare to Shed them Now. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ballads of George R. Sims)] TJ ET BT 212.012 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Selected and introduced by A. Calder-Marshall \(London, 1968\). The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quotation is reprinted by kind permission of )] TJ ET BT 277.676 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Statesman)] TJ ET BT 372.344 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 375.344 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 375.344 123.315 m 429.332 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See P. Laslett, )] TJ ET BT 135.680 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World we Have Lost)] TJ ET BT 255.008 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1965\) ch. five; D. E. Williams, ?Were ?hunger? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rioters really hungry?, )] TJ ET BT 173.324 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past & Present)] TJ ET BT 246.656 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 71 \(1976\), 70?5. ?Famine in History? was also an open forum )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the Eighth International Economic History Association Conference, Budapest, 1982.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 481.964 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 481.964 80.547 m 535.952 80.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 67.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. D. Post, )] TJ ET BT 116.024 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Last Great Subsistence Crisis in the Western World)] TJ ET BT 384.692 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Baltimore, 1977\), p. 108.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 512.684 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 512.684 66.291 m 552.680 66.291 l S BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 52.035 m 78.008 52.035 l S endstream endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 375.3437 123.6295 429.3317 135.5095 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 481.9637 80.8615 535.9517 92.7415 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 512.6837 66.6055 552.6797 78.4855 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 52.3495 78.0077 64.2295 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R ] /Contents 53 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Length 4168 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. C. Barker, D. J. Oddy and J. Yudkin, )] TJ ET BT 257.996 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Dietary Surveys of Dr Edward Smith 1862?3)] TJ ET BT 494.984 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970\); D. J. Oddy, ?Urban Famine in 19th-century Britain: the effect of the Lancashire Cotton Famine )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on working-class diet and health?, )] TJ ET BT 231.320 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 355.964 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 36 \(1983\) 68?86.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 444.284 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 444.284 766.563 m 498.272 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. Clarkson and E. M. Crawford, )] TJ ET BT 225.992 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Feast and Famine: a History of Food and Nutrition in Ireland 1500-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1920)] TJ ET BT 88.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Oxford, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 169.664 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 169.664 738.051 m 223.652 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Report to the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust from the Rowett Research Institute, )] TJ ET BT 462.308 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Family Diet and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Health in Pre-War Britain)] TJ ET BT 191.012 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Dunfermline, Fife, 1955\). This survey was not analysed until after the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 159.656 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 159.656 695.283 m 213.644 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(50 Years of the National Food Survey 1940?90)] TJ ET BT 290.348 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. M. Slater \(London, 1991\), ch.2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 476.660 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 476.660 681.027 m 530.648 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Lord Boyd Orr, )] TJ ET BT 162.332 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(As I Recall)] TJ ET BT 214.988 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London, 1966\), ch.20.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 331.640 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 331.640 666.771 m 385.628 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net-reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 612.003 m 240.992 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/508/734.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 583.491 m 313.004 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 316.004 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 580.159 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 562.379 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 562.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/695)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 560.985 m 322.316 560.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 536.008 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.608 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3671)] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.208 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=14482)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/508/734.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 444.2837 766.8775 498.2717 778.7575 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 169.6637 738.3655 223.6517 750.2455 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 159.6557 695.5975 213.6437 707.4775 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 476.6597 681.3415 530.6477 693.2215 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 331.6397 667.0855 385.6277 678.9655 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 39 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 612.3175 240.9917 624.1975 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=14482) >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 583.8055 313.0037 595.6855 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXIV/508/734.full) >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 561.2995 322.3157 573.1795 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/695) >> endobj xref 0 70 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000534 00000 n 0000000623 00000 n 0000004477 00000 n 0000004586 00000 n 0000004696 00000 n 0000004805 00000 n 0000008366 00000 n 0000008494 00000 n 0000008578 00000 n 0000008607 00000 n 0000008735 00000 n 0000008771 00000 n 0000008869 00000 n 0000017210 00000 n 0000017240 00000 n 0000017368 00000 n 0000017404 00000 n 0000017434 00000 n 0000017560 00000 n 0000017596 00000 n 0000017626 00000 n 0000017754 00000 n 0000017790 00000 n 0000017895 00000 n 0000026094 00000 n 0000026124 00000 n 0000026252 00000 n 0000026288 00000 n 0000026318 00000 n 0000026444 00000 n 0000026480 00000 n 0000026510 00000 n 0000026638 00000 n 0000026674 00000 n 0000026704 00000 n 0000026832 00000 n 0000026868 00000 n 0000026973 00000 n 0000035161 00000 n 0000035289 00000 n 0000035344 00000 n 0000035470 00000 n 0000035525 00000 n 0000035651 00000 n 0000035706 00000 n 0000035830 00000 n 0000035885 00000 n 0000036018 00000 n 0000040239 00000 n 0000040367 00000 n 0000040422 00000 n 0000040550 00000 n 0000040605 00000 n 0000040733 00000 n 0000040788 00000 n 0000040916 00000 n 0000040971 00000 n 0000041099 00000 n 0000041154 00000 n 0000041281 00000 n 0000041382 00000 n 0000041509 00000 n 0000041617 00000 n 0000041745 00000 n trailer << /Size 70 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41840 %%EOF