%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721230315+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721230315+01'00') /Title (Ideology and Empire in Eighteenth-Century India: the British in Bengal) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3880 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ideology and Empire in Eighteenth-Century India: the British in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Bengal)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the course of a single generation, the British empire was transformed from being a network of self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governing Atlantic communities into a cluster of largely Asian territories acquired, for the most part, through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquest. As countless historians note, the second half of the eighteenth century saw an ?epochal shift in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world power?. For many scholars it was this period which saw the ?foundations of modern colonial empires? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 2\). For some, it marks the beginning of forms of imperial domination which continue into our present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Travers opens his elegant and well-argued account of this initial period of imperial rule in India by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noting how startled British contemporaries were by the extension of European sovereignty in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subcontinent. Edmund Burke called the rise of British power in India one of the most ?stupendous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutions that have happened in our age of wonders? \(p. 1\). The demise of the Mughal empire and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successor states, and the growth of European authority in Asia, created shockwaves in the intellectual world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of London and elsewhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But despite their surprise at Britain?s transformed role, Travers emphasises how the Britons who first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought about sovereignty in India drew largely from intellectual resources which existed in their own past. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As he shows, a generation of British officials from Robert Clive to Warren Hastings walked backwards into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(697)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 October, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Travers)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978-0-5218-6145-8)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(292pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jon Wilson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7950 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their colonial future, trying to paper over the fissures and ruptures that separated them from the Indian or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British pasts by talking about India?s ancient constitutions and customary rights. Travers has no doubt the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British )] TJ ET BT 69.692 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(were)] TJ ET BT 93.020 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( doing something different in late eighteenth-century India. There was, he says, ?a clash of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different political cultures in Bengal?, even if those cultures were always ?dynamic and internally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested?. ?Clearly?, he says, ?the contested history of the ancient Mughal constitution cannot be used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support a theory of continiuity at the level of political discourse? \(p. 250\). But, as Travers notes, the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britons )] TJ ET BT 72.356 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(described )] TJ ET BT 122.012 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their actions as if they accorded with the political traditions of India?s past ?blurs the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edges between the categories of ?British? and ?indigenous? politics in the eighteenth century?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Travers?s book seriously complicates arguments about the extent to which the transition to colonialism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India was marked by continuity or dramatic change. Its major achievement is to introduce a third term, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps more accurately a third moment, between the continuous, evolving traditions of Mughal and post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mughal politics on the one hand and the consciously innovating, actively reforming colonial state on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other. The time between 1757 and 1793 was a brief period of constructive imperialism guided neither by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominance of Indian political and social forms nor the transformative effort of British officials. Instead, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relied on a series of deep-rooted arguments among the East India Company?s officers between rival attempts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to recover India?s past which nonetheless significantly transformed Indian politics. Many nineteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers romantically celebrated Indian custom, some even nostalgically harking back to the Mughal empire. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But none thought the legitimacy and succesful operation of the British state relied on its ability to persuade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians and Britons alike that it was merely a continuation of India?s ?ancient constitution?, as Travers?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late eighteenth-century officials did. While men such as Robert Clive, Warren Hastings and Philip Francis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed to engage with pervasive European stereotypes of ?Oriental despotism?, the serious task of colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state-building was rooted in a much more positive view of India?s political past. Far from being an empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founded on ideas of imperial mission or colonial improvement, the East India Company?s late eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century regime was ?an empire of constitutional restoration? \(p. 207\), intent on justifying itself in the name )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the subcontinent?s ? supposed ? political past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Travers shows how some of the most fundamental cleavages within late eighteenth-century British political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse were reflected in the fierce debate Company officers had about this ancient Indian constitution. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters three and four, he demonstrates how British arguments about the relative power of the central state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against country property were replicated in the debate between Warren Hastings and Philip Francis, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example. Francis used opposition ideology to champion the rights of rural proprietors in Bengal against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hastings?s attempt to centralise, a rural bias mistaken as the importation of French physiocratic ?radicalism? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the historian Ranajit Guha.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 178.340 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 178.340 329.139 m 192.332 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 192.332 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Often, the language used by Company officials had more in common with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vocabulary of the defenders of the customary rights of North American colonists than parliament. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(network of arguments which Travers?s officials are part of extends across the Atlantic as well as the Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ocean. Their complex colonial contexts meant that odd intellectual moves were made. Appointees of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament like Francis used whig ?country? rhetoric to oppose the power of corporate property in the name )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Crown, for example.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Travers does not see India simply as the field on which pre-forrmed European ideas or representations were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played out. )] TJ ET BT 90.344 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideology and Empire)] TJ ET BT 191.660 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( articulates a sense of the importance of political argument through time and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its relationship to governmental processes. The concepts and categories used to describe Indian action are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treated as continually contestable terms in a series of debates that have ?real? referents, not least the East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India Company?s ability to collect revenue from Indian society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, the arguments Travers makes in his second chapter, ?Colonial encounters and the crisis in Bengal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1765?1772?, are one of the strong points of the analysis. The chapter shows how the Company?s fluctuating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to establish legitimate forms of government in the period immediately after it began to collect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revenue ? and assert its political right to do so ? were rooted in a series of fiscal crises. Company officials in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bengal were squeezed between pressure from London for ever-greater quantities of revenue and a rapidly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing relationship with Indian nobles and landholders. These crises led to the devastating Bengal famine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1769?70, followed by widespread resistance from landholders and peasants. In a detailed local study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relationship between one British collector and the Dinajpur Raj, Travers shows that in practice the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 178.3397 329.4535 192.3317 341.3335 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7745 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British effort to impose its sovereignty was blunted by the necessity of negotiation with magnates; despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their transformative intentions, local accomodations needed to be sought if the British wanted to collect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revenue at all. As Travers suggests, the East India Company?s brief attempt to evoke an ancient Mughal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polity and construct ?an empire of constitutional restoration? emerged as an attempt to ?give some coherence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and stability? to their chaotic territorial government? \(p. 99\) wracked by financial instability and crisis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Travers?s discussion of ?crisis? will be considered in a moment. Here, though, one must note the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Travers offers an account of the ebb and flow of ideas in relation to political practice. He deploys something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(akin to Quentin Skinner?s contextualist methodology to reveal how particular concepts were deployed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain action in a number of different contexts at once; his account constantly loops back from the heights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of political discourse to events in the rather murkier realms of Company finance and local politics. Just as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Skinner?s account of early modern political thought, in Travers?s narrative actors describe their future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct using concepts drawn, usually explicitly, from their own political past. As Travers shows, that past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was largely but not exclusively populated with British political concepts, even if ideas such as ?the ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution? were torn from their original contexts and given new meanings in Bengal. One feels that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Travers would have liked to have said more about Indian argument, but doesn?t find sufficient material to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allow him to do so in his largely British archive. Indian ?voices? are present in so far as they were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects within colonial conversation; Travers?s point is to show how their words were muffled by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British concepts and categories to which their own arguments are assimilated. So, Muhammad Reza Khan, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(senior critic of Hastings?s regime, was converted by Francis and his allies into an English country whig. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ongoing work of scholars such as Kumkum Chatterjee and Muzaffar Alam will provide a better account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the twists and turns of Mughal and post-Mughal political discourse in the eighteenth-century. But in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future, this liberation of these discourses from the grip of colonial historiography will depend on Travers?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the British intellectual contexts into which Indian arguments were initially translated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(perhaps one might say\) misunderstood.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideology and Empire)] TJ ET BT 135.332 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a properly post-national and post-imperial account of the early phase of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism in India because it concerns a form of empire, and a form of modernity, which is neither )] TJ ET BT 520.592 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(our)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire nor our modernity. In his account, the past is neither excoriated nor celebrated as a positive, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative way of doing things that is superior to those of our present time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, Travers?s rich and nuanced account of the twists and turns of British thought in its imperial situation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasts with the rather more reductive way historians of political thought have written on similar topics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recently. A recent genre of scholarship has impugned the pluralisic credentials of liberal political thinkers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from James and John Stuart Mill onwards. In doing so they contrast liberal imperialism with other, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemingly more palatable ways of thinking about the relationship between Europe and the rest of the world, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether those proposed by anti-rationalists like Edmund Burke or Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 427.316 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(savants)] TJ ET BT 463.316 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( such as Voltaire.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 546.632 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 546.632 288.627 m 560.624 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A number of such accounts have made important theoretical interventions in each case. But again in each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case, the fluctuating arguments of individuals thinking and acting in real, historical time is reduced to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reified position that can be used or criticised in argument today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By contrast, Travers?s writing shows how the best forms of historical understanding do not come with either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemnation of or sympathy for individual characters, and that history which is not ?judging history? ? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quote James Mill ? can be written well. )] TJ ET BT 225.656 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideology and Empire)] TJ ET BT 326.972 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( does not offer a sympathetic portrayal of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strange conduct of men placed in imperial situations such as Clive, Hastings and Francis. But with a light )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and unjudgemental tone, the book does place ideas in context and explain what this generation of imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers thought they were doing. Travers does not abstract the thought of the individuals he considers from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their historical context to allow them to be used to judge empire today. Challenging the myth of intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherence which underpins many accounts of imperial intellectual history, his book undertakes the far more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important project of explaining how empire and its early justifications actually emerged.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Driving Travers?s argument is his attempt to show how imperial agents legitimated their conduct in Bengal. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a good Skinnerian, Travers assumes that actions have conceptual consequences, and need to be justified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a language which legitimises them in some form. In his account actions sometimes are caused by )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 546.6317 288.9415 560.6237 300.8215 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7274 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular ideological positions imported from Britain, at other times justification occurs afterwards, but in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each case they have significant consequences for subsequent conduct.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps, though, Travers?s attempt to show the close relationship between imperial action and the discourses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which justify it produces its own myth of coherence. This is so simply in the way his approach presumes all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action is either produced by or produces coherent strands of legitimist thought. Action and the conceptual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justification of action are closely related, but as Travers \(like Quentin Skinner\) perhaps sometimes forgets, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they are different things. Actions can be performed which cannot be justified within existing discourse, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes which receive no contemporary explanation at all. Individuals can hold contradictory sets of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughts at what seems to be the same point in time. Properly ?contextualising? political thought requires )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the incoherence of human action, its semantic failures, as well as to moments when action occurs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without an intention to explain at all. The failure of words totally to describe action plays some role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Travers?s analysis. After all, his text begins with Burke?s description of the revolution from which British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule in India emerged as an incomprehensible act. But that failure is not adequately explained.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Travers frequently refers to imperial ?crises? and ?breakdowns? of various kinds; the word ?crisis? occurs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15 times. He often suggests that legitimist concepts emerge in moments of stress. But he describes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptual process in which existing ideas are mapped onto new kinds of imperial action as, for the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part, a remarkably unstressful and anxiety free chain of events. One criticism of )] TJ ET BT 419.588 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideology and Empire)] TJ ET BT 520.904 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, then, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that it fails to account for the very radical way in which British concepts such as the ?ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution?, despotism or the right of conquest were reworked to find conceptual use in Bengal. One is left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wondering what, precisely and practically, happens to concepts when they travel. How far does their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reployment and redefinition make them part of a conceptual world wholly alien to the one which produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their original use? Are ideas articulated in a dramatically different context the same ideas?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideology and Empire )] TJ ET BT 138.332 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaves one thinking about the relationship between concepts and imperial crises in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental sense. There is an unexplained tension throughout the text. On the one hand, Travers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises the unprecedented character of what the British were doing in India, and the important role a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of uncertainty and continual crisis had in producing imperial ideology. This seems convincing, until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one realises that Travers is suggesting that British officials approached politics in exactly the same way they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have done in Britain. One has to ask, if they found empire such a perplexing enterprise, why did they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rely on they historicist, constitutionalist mood of political legitimacy they would have deployed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussing the politics of their ?own? society? One wonders how persuasive it would be to argue exactly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reverse of Travers?s case. Perhaps this colonial attempt at constitutional restoration demonstrates how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively straightforward it was for Britons to assimilate empire in India to British ideology, showing in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process how comfortable they were in ruling Bengal during this first period of direct rule. But perhaps other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces led them to produce different ideas of colonial rule.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There were, of course, processes that prevented the easy assimilation of Indian empire into British ideology. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One was the fiscal relationship between the Company and Indian society, which Travers discusses superbly. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The absolute centrality of revenue collection to everything the Company did made it alter its structure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently in search of increasing, secure sources of cash. The tension between these rapid, anxious twists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and turns and the search for stable sources of historicist legitimacy is a crucial theme of the book. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rigidity of the Company?s fiscal concerns, as well as the corporate character of its civilian chain of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(command, marked ways in which British officials were doing something very different and peculiarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial in governing Bengal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second process, which also marks colonial India?s difference from Britain but which Travers pays less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to, was the military conquest of Bengal. That process required the practical mobilisation of troops )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long after the Battle of Plassey in 1757. But its conceptual consequences were just as significant.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Travers rightly emphasises the importance of the language of ancient constitutionalism in the period. But in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both Europe and India the idea of the ?ancient constitution? was deployed to minimise the rupturing force of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquest. In Britain the idea of the ?ancient constitution? was used to deny the transformative impact of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7241 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman Conquest, in Bengal of events such as Plassey. Within the colonial discourse Travers describes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquest was always impicitly present as the figure in opposition to which the discourse of ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutionalism was deployed. But however hard they tried to suppress it, Britons writing about India )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not avoid a more explicit counter-discourse which described British actions as conquest. By the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century, this discourse had stabilised into a discussion of ?the right of conquest?, an idea that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought with it the assumption that where they ?tolerated? pre-colonial institutions they did so from a sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of expediency not law. In the era of high European imperialism, the ?right of conquest? became a stable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principle of international law.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.660 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.660 695.283 m 190.652 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 190.652 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But in the period that Travers is discussing, the situation was more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex, the idea of conquest confirming suspicions about the illegitimacy of British rule, or the ease with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which colonial order could be undermined by empire?s more emotional and atavistic side. Travers?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the languages of legitimacy deployed by British officers only considers one side of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unstable opposition between conquest and constitutionalism, rupture and continuity. Yet it was the unsteady )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance between the two which governed imperial minds.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideology and Empire)] TJ ET BT 135.332 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( superbly excavates the forgotten history of a moment in early colonial political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought, and in doing so forces us dramatically to rethink accounts of British rule in India during the period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Travers?s emphasis on the importance of historicist languages of legitimacy would have been diminished by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of other ideas and forces, and the impact of the argument book weakened as a result; it is up to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other scholars to place the arguments Travers highlights in the broader context this reviewer has just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicated. In any case, such criticisms are merely the comments of a scholar with his own agenda and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own argument to sell.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.008 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.008 512.211 m 152.000 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 152.000 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( They offer nothing more than a starting point for how one might begin to engage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the significant intervention offered by this enormously engaging book. There is no doubt that scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of empire, India and the history of political thought will need to respond to this work for some time to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 450.195 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ranajit Guha, )] TJ ET BT 133.676 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Rule of Property for Bengal: an Essay on the Idea of Permanent Settlement)] TJ ET BT 505.964 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1963\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 403.923 m 149.000 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a number of very different versions of this approach, see Uday Singh Mehta, )] TJ ET BT 454.604 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liberalism and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire: a Study in Nineteenth-Century Liberal Thought)] TJ ET BT 333.344 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1999\); Sankar Muthu)] TJ ET BT 443.000 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, Enlightenment against )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire)] TJ ET BT 99.344 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2003\); and Jennifer Pitts, )] TJ ET BT 230.000 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Turn to Empire: the Rise of Imperial Liberalism in Britain and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(France)] TJ ET BT 98.672 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 136.664 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 136.664 346.899 m 190.652 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Sharon Korman, )] TJ ET BT 166.664 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Right of Conquest: the Acquisition of Territory by Force in International )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Law and Practice )] TJ ET BT 152.348 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 187.340 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 187.340 318.387 m 241.328 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 305.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jon E. Wilson, )] TJ ET BT 137.684 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Domination of Strangers: Modern Governance in Eastern India, 1780?1835)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.008 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.008 289.875 m 152.996 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 265.013 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 235.107 m 154.700 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 231.775 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 213.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 213.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/697)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 212.601 m 322.316 212.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 187.624 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3674)] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.568 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century_studies/v042/42.3.schurer.pdf)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 176.6597 695.5975 190.6517 707.4775 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 138.0077 512.5255 151.9997 524.4055 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 404.2375 148.9997 416.1175 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 136.6637 347.2135 190.6517 359.0935 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 187.3397 318.7015 241.3277 330.5815 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 99.0077 290.1895 152.9957 302.0695 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 235.4215 154.6997 247.3015 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/eighteenth-century_studies/v042/42.3.schurer.pdf) >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 212.9155 322.3157 224.7955 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/697) >> endobj xref 0 46 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000580 00000 n 0000000662 00000 n 0000004594 00000 n 0000004703 00000 n 0000004813 00000 n 0000004922 00000 n 0000008483 00000 n 0000008611 00000 n 0000008695 00000 n 0000008779 00000 n 0000016782 00000 n 0000016812 00000 n 0000016940 00000 n 0000016976 00000 n 0000017060 00000 n 0000024858 00000 n 0000024888 00000 n 0000025016 00000 n 0000025052 00000 n 0000025117 00000 n 0000032444 00000 n 0000032577 00000 n 0000039871 00000 n 0000039901 00000 n 0000040029 00000 n 0000040065 00000 n 0000040095 00000 n 0000040223 00000 n 0000040259 00000 n 0000040386 00000 n 0000040441 00000 n 0000040569 00000 n 0000040624 00000 n 0000040752 00000 n 0000040807 00000 n 0000040934 00000 n 0000040989 00000 n 0000041116 00000 n 0000041276 00000 n 0000041404 00000 n trailer << /Size 46 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41499 %%EOF