%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 41 0 R 49 0 R 65 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930132909+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930132909+01'00') /Title (Gladstone: God and Politics) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4591 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Gladstone: God and Politics)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After two substantial volumes of biography, and numerous shorter and related studies, Richard Shannon has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again returned to the life of William Ewart Gladstone. This new work is not apparently intended as a simple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distillation of his )] TJ ET BT 118.364 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone: Peel?s Inheritor)] TJ ET BT 253.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1982\) and )] TJ ET BT 311.336 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone: Heroic Minister)] TJ ET BT 444.656 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1999\). Rather, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone)] TJ ET BT 83.348 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(: God and Politics)] TJ ET BT 171.680 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( claims a different purpose. Historians did not, it seems, read Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shannon?s earlier volumes closely enough. They were defeated by his admittedly ?too dense? style \(p. xxiv\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deceived by the emphasis on content, not contention. John Morley remained unvanquished; Colin Matthew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Roy Jenkins unconverted. Professor Shannon has again been compelled to bring light to the darkness. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His arguments, he tells us, have been more sharply focused. Contention has been brought to the fore.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A new 550 page study of a subject to whom the author has already devoted some 1,400 pages requires )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justification beyond clarification and elucidation of the earlier work, not least because of the new volume?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hefty 80 \(hardback\) price. What of those who have read Professor Shannon?s earlier works? Is )] TJ ET BT 497.216 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics)] TJ ET BT 70.688 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( value for money? General readers are the avowed audience, but it is likely to be practicing historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their students who will find their way through this lengthy, densely researched, fascinating, and deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frustrating volume. The former group ? and hopefully some of the latter ? will of course have read the earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books. They will find little new to justify the commitment of either time or treasure. This is not to say that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God and Politics)] TJ ET BT 115.352 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is unimportant or should be ignored: quite the contrary. Its portrait of Gladstone commands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(698)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 October, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Shannon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781847252029)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(80.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(575pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hambledon Continuum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colin Barr)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6376 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention and respect, although not necessarily consent. But those who have read )] TJ ET BT 423.284 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peel?s Inheritor)] TJ ET BT 501.608 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heroic Minister)] TJ ET BT 111.008 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will, with one or two exceptions, find little new in the present volume)] TJ ET BT 448.652 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is, however, not a little that is old, including some of the words. Professor Shannon often simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recycles. Compare, for example, the following passages:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This curious vision of the Most High attending to the state of Gladstone?s vocal chords and to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the microclimate of the West Midlands for the ulterior benefit of the cause of Irish Home rule is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a striking specimen of the sheer cosmic faith in his assignment which sustained and energized )] TJ ET BT 64.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.676 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.676 659.283 m 129.668 659.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 610.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This vision of the most High attending to the state of Gladstone?s vocal chords and to the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(microclimate of the West Midlands for the ulterior benefit of the cause of Irish Home Rule, with )] TJ ET BT 64.016 581.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to the sanctified question of the East, is a striking illustration of the sheer cosmic faith )] TJ ET BT 64.016 567.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his assignment from on High that sustained and energized Gladstone \(p. 405\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 529.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first passage was picked out and criticised by E. F. Biagini in his )] TJ ET BT 369.320 529.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 459.980 529.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( review of )] TJ ET BT 511.628 529.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heroic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Minister)] TJ ET BT 74.684 515.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Perhaps its re-appearance was more defiance than inertia. The same cannot be said of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 500.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instances of the pervasive recycling that disfigures )] TJ ET BT 279.632 500.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God and Politics)] TJ ET BT 360.968 500.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Take another ? paragraph length ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 486.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, chosen at random:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Was this [the cabinet?s refusal to dissolve parliament in 1894] the great refusal of Liberalism? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 434.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Was a golden opportunity let slip to retrieve the party?s situation after the defeat of the second )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Home Rule Bill? Gladstone ever after, rather naturally, insisted so. A brilliant insight had come )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon him, comparable, in his view, to his insight in August 1876 on the ?virtuous passion? of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the masses about the question of the East. Indeed, Gladstone would go further. His insight in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 377.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1894 was not, as was the case in 1876, simply a discernment that public opinion had risen to a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain height needful for a given work. It was something much more profound, to be ranked )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along with his insights as to the 1853 budget, the Irish Church question in 1868, and Home Rule )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Ireland. For Gladstone the ?desire for a dissolution of Parliament in the beginning of 1894, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 320.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the immediate determination of the issue then raised between the two Houses of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament? was elevated into the fourth of the series of supreme moments of political juncture, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his career, when his providentially inspired appreciation of the general situation and its result )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his insight into the facts of particular eras generated in his mind a conviction that the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 263.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materials existed for forming a public opinion and directing it to a particular end. For Gladstone )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was a play for very high stakes indeed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 260.312 248.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 260.312 247.395 m 274.304 247.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 198.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Was this [the cabinet?s refusal to dissolve parliament in 1894] the Great Refusal of Liberalism? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 184.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Was a golden opportunity let slip to retrieve the party?s fortunes after the failure of the second )] TJ ET BT 64.016 170.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Home Rule Bill? Gladstone ever after, rather naturally, insisted so. A brilliant insight had come )] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon him, comparable, in his view, to his insight in August 1876 into the ?virtuous passion? of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the masses about the question of the East. Indeed, Gladstone would go further. His insight in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 127.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1894 was not, as was the case in 1876, simply a discernment that public opinion had risen to a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain height needful for a given work. It was something much more profound, to be ranked )] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along with his insights as to the 1853 budget, the Irish Church question in 1868, and Home Rule )] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Ireland in 1886. For Gladstone the ?desire for a dissolution of Parliament in the beginning of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 70.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1894, and the immediate determination of the issue then raised between the two Houses of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.6757 659.5975 129.6677 671.4775 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 260.3117 247.7095 274.3037 259.5895 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 6560 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament? was elevated into the fourth of the series of supreme moments of political juncture )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his career, when his providentially inspired appreciation of the general situation and its result, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his insight into the facts of particular eras, generated in his mind a conviction that the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materials existed for forming a public opinion and directing it to a particular end \(p. 458\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Shannon is concerned to differentiate his account of Gladstone from those of his competitors, old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and new. Morley comes in for an inevitable bashing: for his omissions, for his distortions, for his lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the legacy of Peel, and thus to Gladstone as an ?authoritarian exponent of executive prerogative? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. xv\), for his image of Gladstone as political pilgrim, for failing to understand the damage Gladstone did to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own party, and to Ireland, and finally for his failure to comprehend \(as a secularist\) and grapple with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(under orders\) Gladstone?s sense of being God?s chosen instrument in the fallen world of politics. Morley?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unforgivably successful and sunlit portrait of the Grand Old Man has remained, Professor Shannon tells us, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?)] TJ ET BT 57.008 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fons et origo)] TJ ET BT 117.680 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of what must be called the standard or orthodox tradition? \(p. xiii\) of Gladstone?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical image.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Little has changed since: Matthew and Jenkins ?stand formidably in the tradition inherited from Morley? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(xx\). Matthew is praised for his ?classic powers?, and for much of his reading of Gladstone, which earns the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?reader?s entire confidence.? But the compliment is quickly qualified: ?The very impeccable worthiness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Matthew?s text in such matters [such as his account of the Oxford mind and the Treasury mind] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems indeed to convey a corresponding impeccable worthiness on the part of its subject? \(p. xx\). This will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not do: Gladstone?s flaws and failures \(the ?marks of the beast?, p. xx\) found little place in Matthew?s work. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As for Jenkins, his study was marked by ?winning readability? \(p. xx\), but otherwise followed Matthew ? a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fair but hardly novel observation. Both men?s Gladstone was marked by their own ?liberal-left political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasion? \(p. xx\) ? ?a version of Gladstone as prophet and forerunner not only of New Liberalism but of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Labour also? \(p. xxii\). And the flaws run deeper than that: Jenkins displays ?a certain shallowness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding? \(p. xxiii\); Matthew is guilty of ?muddled thinking? \(p. xxi\) and ignorance: his apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misunderstanding of the Home Rule precedents \(principally Sweden-Norway\) was ?bizarre?, so much so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?one?s confidence in Professor Matthew?s historical judgment is decidedly dented? \(p. xxiv\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the introduction there is an unpleasant sense of settling scores in a graveyard. Not everything is about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past, however. Scottish devolution comes in for a bashing, although as usual it is Gladstone who takes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blow. But this too is old ground, albeit not )] TJ ET BT 240.368 349.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heroic Minister)] TJ ET BT 317.360 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Compare the following passages:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone?s proposals of 1886 still hold the field?, Professor Matthew reminds us, ?as the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means of constitutional reorganisation of the United Kingdom.? Indeed, and alas, they do: as the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present embarrassments of the current ?party of progress? on the ?West Lothian? issue testify.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 515.912 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 515.912 281.139 m 529.904 281.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 206.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Gladstone?s proposals still hold the field?, he [Matthew] insisted in 1995, ?as the means of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional reorganisation of the United Kingdom.? Indeed, and alas, Gladstone?s proposals )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do still hold the field, as the embarrassments of the present ?party of progress? on the ?West )] TJ ET BT 64.016 163.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lothian? issue testify \(p. xxiv\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 124.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Shannon is concerned to portray the Gladstone ?beast? \(a favourite description\) not as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 110.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?domesticated? \(Jenkins\), or ?decently concealed? \(Matthew\), but as the untamed animal he was: a religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 96.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fanatic let loose on an unsuspecting party with disastrous consequences for it, and for the United Kingdom. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To that end, he recalls from ?historical limbo? various ?witnesses? ? usually Whiggish, invariably hostile ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 67.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?in the Gladstone case? \(p. xviii\). The legal imagery is instructive, and in Professor Shannon?s court there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 53.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no right against self-incrimination: the chief witness for the prosecution is Gladstone himself. But as a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 515.9117 281.4535 529.9037 293.3335 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 8921 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Christian of evangelical background, Gladstone?s critical introspection must be as suspect as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another politician?s self-praise. To continue Professor?s Shannon?s legal metaphor, letting Gladstone speak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for himself may not quite be suborning perjury, but neither is it the best method of historical adjudication. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nor is the judge impartial; as Agatha Ramm noted of )] TJ ET BT 291.992 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peel?s Inheritor)] TJ ET BT 370.316 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?one is tempted to say that by the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he [Shannon] has come to dislike the diarist as much as the diarist seems to dislike himself?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 477.644 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 477.644 738.051 m 491.636 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a difficult book to review: nearly everything has been said before because, well, nearly everything )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been said before. Professor Shannon clearly does not like his subject, but Ramm, Walter Arnstein and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others noted that long ago )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.672 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.672 683.283 m 175.664 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 175.664 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; in 2001, Bruce Kinzer wondered how Shannon could bear even to complete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heroic Minister)] TJ ET BT 111.008 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 114.008 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 114.008 669.027 m 128.000 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 128.000 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Affection is no requirement for biography ? how else studies of Hitler or Stalin? ? but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Shannon?s visceral distaste for his subject permeates and disfigures the text. At least some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sneers earlier critics noted have gone: the ?With his first budget he launched his myth as the keeper of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian financial conscience? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 188.300 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 188.300 626.259 m 202.292 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 202.292 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( criticised by Arnstein, has become ?With his first budget Gladstone had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(launched his reputation as the keeper of the Victorian financial conscience? \(p. 88\). Still, Gladstone does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speak to crowds, he ?harangues? them \(e.g. p. 309\), or makes a ?manipulative foray among the populace? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(163\); he does not hold an incorrect or impractical view of Irish Home Rule, but suffers from ?delusions? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(409\); he is not stubborn, nor committed, nor even blinkered, but is rather possessed of a ?God-driven style of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vanity? \(p. 398\), a ?God-driven obstinacy? and ?God-driven stubbornness? \(p. 352\); he is not simply self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confident, but ?imbued manically with overweening-self confidence? \(p. xxv\), and so on. Even domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tragedy is turned to sinister account: George Lyttleton?s suicide is termed \(probably correctly\) an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?inescapable finding?. ?But then the Guardian Life Assurance people took an interest. Then Gladstone, after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspecting the fatal site, persuaded himself after all that it was an accident? \(p. 273\). The reader is left to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draw the obvious conclusion ? but surely a Christian horror of suicide is more plausible an explanation than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the implicit suggestion of greed? What praise there is, is tempered. Gladstone?s proposals to end the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crimean War by offering reasonable terms to Russia are described as ?golden words of wisdom, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extraordinarily perspicacious.? But, of course, ?Their effect was spoiled by a note of dogmatic zealotry? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(101\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Shannon does his own case a disservice. It is one thing to provide a more nuanced, critical portrait )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than Morley, Jenkins, or even Matthew; this is reasonable and perhaps desirable. The neutral reader, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, is more likely to react against Shannon?s invective than be convinced by it. Professor Shannon is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the same position as Lord Clarendon thought the Liberal Party of the mid-1860s was: there seems ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determination to distrust him [Gladstone], and to find fault with whatever he does or does not do? \(quoted on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 210\). It is the unexpected achievement of )] TJ ET BT 247.304 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God and Politics)] TJ ET BT 328.640 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to turn Gladstone into a victim who commands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our sympathy. It is difficult to believe that this was the author?s intention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the promise of its title, suggestive of relatively recent biographical re-evaluations such as Roland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarti?s )] TJ ET BT 69.680 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mazzini: A Life for the Religion of Politics)] TJ ET BT 274.028 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1997\), )] TJ ET BT 315.020 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God and Politics)] TJ ET BT 396.356 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is very much a traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political biography. The subject is high politics, considered chronologically and in great detail. When the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deity appears, it is in passing: a remark about Gladstone?s sense of vocation, or a sneer at his taste for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theological reflection \(e.g)] TJ ET BT 157.652 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 160.652 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( p. 173\). Bishop Butler is mentioned occasionally, receiving some four entries in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the index to Laura Thistlethwayte?s seven, but neither the bishop?s thought nor his acolyte?s understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of it are examined in detail; Gladstone?s late work on Butler?s )] TJ ET BT 336.968 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Analogy)] TJ ET BT 376.964 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( receives only passing mention, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although Leslie Stephens? hostile review earns a favourable paragraph \(p. 470\). This is all perfectly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defensible, but it is not placing religion at the centre of an account of Gladstone?s life. In short, in )] TJ ET BT 506.612 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics)] TJ ET BT 70.688 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( there is rather a lot of politics, but not so much of God.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is unfortunate, because Professor Shannon is absolutely correct about the centrality of faith to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone?s character and political behaviour. He is also right that Morley?s biography did not, and perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not, fully reflect that. It is difficult enough to understand Gladstone, but utterly impossible without a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close attention to his religion. Shannon carefully points out Gladstone?s own sense of special election, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providence, and of vocation. But this is not sufficient: it is not enough to simply state that Gladstone thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was in some peculiar way God?s agent on earth. Different Victorians understood God differently. What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was Gladstone?s understanding? What was the content of his ?doctrinal conservatism? \(p. 181\)? How did it )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 477.6437 738.3655 491.6357 750.2455 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 161.6717 683.5975 175.6637 695.4775 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 114.0077 669.3415 127.9997 681.2215 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 188.2997 626.5735 202.2917 638.4535 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 44 0 R 47 0 R ] /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 8228 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop, and with what consequences? What did he mean by vocation? By providence? Why did he revere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butler, or enjoy talking about hell? There is something odd about Professor Shannon?s emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone?s religion, as it appears only to account for Gladstone?s otherwise inexplicable fanaticism; he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes no effort to understand it, nor does he seem to recognise that it was by no means unique unto the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grand Old Man \(GOM\). Religion is not so much an interpretive tool for Professor Shannon as a stick with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which to beat Gladstone. \(This animus leads him astray in other areas: the assertion that in the early 1870s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?Nonconformists, being unable to dominate religious provision in schools, wanted religion kept out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schools? \(p. 228\) is a gross distortion.\) It is not of course necessary that Professor Shannon share ? or even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathise with ? Gladstone?s faith. But it is necessary that he understand it. For that, curiosity seems the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary first step. Even Lord Hartington ? whom Professor Shannon admires ? reputedly took the trouble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to ask his private secretary what transubstantiation was.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A number of historians, including Agatha Ramm, Boyd Hilton, E. F. Biagini, and David Bebbington \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even Colin Matthew\) have been more inquisitive, with striking results. Bebbington?s )] TJ ET BT 444.992 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Mind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone: Religion, Home, and Politics)] TJ ET BT 229.340 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2004\) in particular demonstrated the extraordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fruitfulness of such an approach. He struck out beyond the Diaries and political correspondence that are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shannon?s mtier and revealed an almost entirely new Gladstone. Above all, he takes his subject?s faith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seriously, and interrogates its content in light of the GOM?s political behaviour. For example, Bebbington )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that Gladstone?s increasing emphasis on the Incarnation informed \(and explains\) much of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent political journey by modifying his understanding of human nature and human dignity. Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shannon, of course, is free to disagree with this interpretation. Instead, he ignores it completely. In the select )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography, Bebbington?s book is relegated to the section on ?Literary and Intellectual Interests?; it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears not to have been cited even once in )] TJ ET BT 245.624 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God and Politics?s)] TJ ET BT 337.628 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( some 1,700 endnotes. There was time: )] TJ ET BT 527.936 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mind of Gladstone)] TJ ET BT 124.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( appeared in 2004, and Professor Shannon has certainly been kept abreast of current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship. In the preface, he regrets that his attention was drawn too late to Jenny West?s \(not ?Jean? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shannon gives it\) article on the Gladstone-Laura Thistlethwayte relationship to include its findings in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present book. No doubt West?s attack on one aspect of what she calls the continuing ?protection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone?s reputation? by the likes of Colin Matthew was congenial.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 370.640 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 370.640 412.419 m 384.632 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 384.632 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Perhaps it is just Bebbington that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Shannon objects to: his )] TJ ET BT 197.012 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(William Ewart Gladstone: Faith and Politics in Victorian Britain)] TJ ET BT 511.040 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Grand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rapids, MI, 1993\) does not even qualify for the select bibliography, despite the fact that Professor Shannon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewed it.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 90.668 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 90.668 369.651 m 104.660 369.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God and Politics)] TJ ET BT 128.348 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Professor Shannon seems no more interested in popular Liberalism than he was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heroic Minister)] TJ ET BT 111.008 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The oddly inert and easily manipulated party out of doors is largely portrayed as a kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drug to which Gladstone became increasingly addicted. There is some truth to this, and attention is correctly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn to more than one condescending or illiberal remark about the people. But Gladstone was more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply a demagogue \(although he could be that, too\): he had a genuine and enduring connection based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than oratory with a large and enthusiastic section of the population. As E. F. Biagini has at different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times pointed out, issues as diverse as retrenchment and Home Rule bound popular Liberalism to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?People?s William?. This is important, because it is one of Professor Shannon?s central arguments that ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal Gladstone was never a Gladstonian Liberal? \(p. xiii\). His point is that Gladstone never really fit in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own party \(or the Reform Club\), hardly ever consulted it, and had little loyalty to it. When the interests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the party clashed with his own sense of what was right, the party came off second best. This was partly an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inheritance from Peel?s executive style, partly the result of the GOM?s direct line to the Almighty. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed a tempting argument: it certainly helps explain Gladstone?s maddening behaviour from 1874?8, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1886. It is also true that Gladstone at times sought to use elections as a way of chastising elements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own party.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But Professor Shannon?s view of that party is very much the view from Westminster. If Gladstone was such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a poor Liberal, how could he lead the party without serious rival for so many years? If the Liberal Party was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(co-extensive with the parliamentary party it is hard to see how he could without manipulation on a heroic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale on the one hand and supine malleability on the other. In fact, the Liberals were an unstable coalition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporating Nonconformist artisans as much as often anti-clerical parliamentary Whigs; Irish Catholics in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 43 0 obj [41 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 370.6397 412.7335 384.6317 424.6135 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj [41 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 90.6677 369.9655 104.6597 381.8455 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R ] /Contents 50 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Length 9089 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncomfortable alliance with Scots ultra-Protestants. Gladstone?s political genius was that he was able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(command the loyalty of a larger portion of this coalition than any of his potential successors. That much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that support was found out of doors did nothing to diminish its power. If Gladstone could not offer the party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perfect unity except in special circumstances, he could still regularly provide the closest thing to it; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hartington might indeed have better suited the parliamentary party, but both he and it knew that he would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickly become a general with few troops. Gladstone was more of a Liberal \(and more of a politician at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sub-heroic level\) than Professor Shannon seems to allow; certainly this is more likely than that the Liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party was so stupid ? or so weak ? as to harbour a cuckoo in its nest for nearly 30 years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both the introduction and the book itself conclude with what must be Professor Shannon?s most striking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim: the tragedy of Gladstone?s Home Rule plan was not that its failure fatally alienated Ireland, but rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that his stubborn, God-driven unwillingness to accept something less proved a catastrophe to both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal Party and to Ireland itself. This is an interesting and challenging argument. Shannon points out that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1881 Gladstone determinedly and apparently perversely frustrated nearly every measure of Irish reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that had a chance of pacifying the island, not least tenant purchase. \(Although Gladstone insisted in the face )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Whig opposition that franchise reform be extended on an equal basis to Ireland.\) By offering such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generous terms, he made it impossible for the Irish to settle for anything less. This is important, because to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Shannon Home Rule ? at least as Gladstone envisioned it ? was simply impossible: the party was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not ready for it, and did not want it; the vexed problem of representation \(West Lothian )] TJ ET BT 456.284 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(avant la lettre)] TJ ET BT 523.616 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left unresolved, and was perhaps irresolvable; and there was anyway no chance that it would pass the House )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Lords. Worse, Gladstone was unprepared to accept anything less than the text of his own bill, thus making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compromise impossible. He wrecked his party and lost Ireland for nothing. But how accurate is this? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly the Liberal Party lost some elections, but it won a famous victory in 1906 with Home Rule still on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its agenda. And much of popular Liberalism was and remained emphatic in support of Irish self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determination. As for Ireland, would local government in the 1880s really have prevented 1916 or partition? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ambitions of Irish nationalism were not artificially inflamed by an over-generous Gladstone. Still, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument has some merit: perhaps incremental reform would have reached a better solution in a more placid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climate. Perhaps by being kind to Ireland Gladstone was really being cruel. Perhaps. But as Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shannon admits, such speculations are necessarily counter-factual.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Shannon?s previous portraits of Gladstone have been seen in some quarters as quintessentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tory. The pervasive hostility makes this plausible, but not quite right. Rather, he seems to be in the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position as were the Whiggish sectors of the parliamentary Liberal Party. They were perplexed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone, whom they did not much like, and embarrassed by his piety, which they did not understand. Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they found to their frustration that they could not manage without him. What Richard Shannon has again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written is not a Tory history, but rather a Whig interpretation of Liberal history in general and William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ewart Gladstone in particular.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Publisher has asked Reviews in History to draw to the attention of readers that since this review was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written a paperback version costing 25 has been published.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 212.355 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 181.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Shannon, )] TJ ET BT 126.020 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone: Heroic Minister 1865?98 )] TJ ET BT 307.340 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1999\) p. 478.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 418.664 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 418.664 180.339 m 472.652 180.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 167.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shannon, )] TJ ET BT 112.016 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone: Heroic Minister)] TJ ET BT 245.336 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 559.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 284.336 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 284.336 166.083 m 338.324 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 153.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Shannon, ?Matthew?s Gladstone?, )] TJ ET BT 246.992 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parliamentary History)] TJ ET BT 355.988 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 15 \(1996\) 250.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 432.980 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 432.980 151.827 m 486.968 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Ramm, review of R. Shannon, )] TJ ET BT 227.336 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone)] TJ ET BT 276.668 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(: Peel?s Inheritor 1809?65)] TJ ET BT 406.988 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1982\) in)] TJ ET BT 497.648 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 190.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 99 \(1984\), 838.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 270.008 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 270.008 123.315 m 323.996 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. Arnstein, review of Shannon, )] TJ ET BT 225.320 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone: Peel?s Inheritor)] TJ ET BT 359.972 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in )] TJ ET BT 375.308 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Journal of Modern History)] TJ ET BT 525.968 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 57 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1985\) 730-732.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.004 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.004 94.803 m 195.992 94.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B. Kinzer, review of Shannon, )] TJ ET BT 216.320 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone)] TJ ET BT 265.652 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(: Heroic Minister 1865?98)] TJ ET BT 394.640 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in )] TJ ET BT 412.976 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Studies)] TJ ET BT 495.980 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 43 \(2001\) )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(541?3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 96.344 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 96.344 66.291 m 150.332 66.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 53.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shannon, )] TJ ET BT 112.016 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone: Peel?s Inheritor 1809?65)] TJ ET BT 291.668 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1999\) p. 272.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 405.992 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 405.992 52.035 m 459.980 52.035 l S endstream endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 418.6637 180.6535 472.6517 192.5335 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 284.3357 166.3975 338.3237 178.2775 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 432.9797 152.1415 486.9677 164.0215 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 270.0077 123.6295 323.9957 135.5095 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.0037 95.1175 195.9917 106.9975 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 96.3437 66.6055 150.3317 78.4855 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 405.9917 52.3495 459.9797 64.2295 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 38 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R ] /Contents 66 0 R >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Length 2559 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. West, ?Gladstone and Laura Thistlethwayte, 1865-75?, )] TJ ET BT 342.296 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Research)] TJ ET BT 438.620 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 80 \(2007\), 368?92, 392.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 780.819 m 118.004 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Shannon, review of D. 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