%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 33 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721133128+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721133128+01'00') /Title (The FBI: a History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4100 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The FBI: a History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones?s volume makes an important, accessible and timely contribution to the literature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography of the FBI. Among its many positives, two stand out. The first is Jeffreys-Jones?s decision to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begin the book?s chronology by stressing the significance of federal law enforcement activities in racial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters during the period of southern Reconstruction after the American Civil War. The second is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision not to make J. Edgar Hoover as overwhelmingly central to the development of the Bureau as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtually all other accounts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Federal law enforcement had its origins in the effort to protect the lives of the recently freed black men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women of the south during the white supremacist terror of the early 1870s. Jeffreys-Jones ably narrates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubted contribution made by the Department of Justice to the decline of the first manifestation of the Ku )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Klux Klan and other similar groups. This was indeed a ?proud genesis?, as Jeffreys-Jones makes clear. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, he is also careful to point out the temporary and limited nature of federal success against white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terror in the south and the pernicious effect of ?race supremacists? such as the historian Charles Dunning, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the novelist Thomas Dixon and the film-maker D. W. Griffiths, in the hugely influential Birth of a Nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1915\), on the collective memory of Americans about Reconstruction. Enforcement successes against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Klansmen were written off as part of a bad government policy that had failed. Jeffreys-Jones?s account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(federal enforcement?s anti-terror origins gives valuable context to the later efforts against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(700)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 October, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300142846)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(421pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Woodiwiss)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7040 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(segregationalist crimes of the 1960s and the attempts to combat terrorist activity both before and after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attacks on American civilians in September 2001. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(FBI literature and historiography has also been too fixated on the admittedly fascinating character of its long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serving Director, J. Edgar Hoover. Most of the pre-1970s literature on Hoover was of course absurdly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adulatory and non-critical, in tune with coverage in the popular media. Since then the emphasis has been on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the man?s pursuit and consolidation of power and his lack of respect for basic human rights. As Athan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theoharis and John Stuart Cox documented so thoroughly in The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Inquisition \(1990\), nothing was beyond Hoover?s FBI: illegal wiretaps, bedroom surveillance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecution of leftists, sexual harassment, cronyism and paranoia. Hoover?s firmly established position as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of America?s most useful folk-devils, however, probably owes more to the work of Anthony Summers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a specialist in prurient accounts of the lives of the famous, in his book Official and Confidential: the Secret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Life of J. Edgar Hoover. As a result of Summers?s effective use of hearsay and innuendo many people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believe that Hoover was a cross-dressing homosexual who was blackmailed by the Mafia to keep his agency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away from organised crime control activity for decades, after being caught on camera in ?some kind of gay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity with Clyde Tolson?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 170.684 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 170.684 583.491 m 184.676 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 184.676 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Tolson was a long-term friend and colleague of Hoover.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeffreys-Jones?s book transcends the fixation on one man, emphasising the historical importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hoover?s predecessors and successors and his bosses, particularly Attorney Generals A. Mitchell Palmer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harlan Fiske Stone, Homer S. Cummings, Frank Murphy and Robert Kennedy. The evidence included in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book tends to support the case that although Hoover had many failings he reflected rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controlled more powerful social, cultural and political forces in America.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Although Jeffreys-Jones rightly spends little time on conspiracy explanations for America?s failure to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combat organised crime it is in this area that his book convinces least. There are examples of an uncritical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptance of law enforcement mythology in The FBI. On page 82, for example, Jeffreys-Jones describes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Bureau?s apprehension of Louis ?Lepke? Buchalter, a New York garment industry racketeer. Buchalter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he writes, ?presided over the nationwide elimination service known as Murder Inc?. The idea of contract )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killing across the United States being a centralised and almost corporate enterprise took hold with the press )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of the testimony against Buchalter given by a Brooklyn gangster Abe ?Kid Twist? Reles in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1940s. The big murder conspiracy idea later seized the American imagination with the publication and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success of Murder Inc. by Burton Turkus and Sid Feder in 1951. Alan A. Block, a leading historian of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organised crime, made a study of the relevant trial transcripts and extant internal documents and came to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions very different from those of Turkus, one of Buchalter?s prosecutors, and Feder, his journalist co-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author. Block writes:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What Turkus and Feder described and concluded was simply not what Reles related. For )] TJ ET BT 64.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, when Reles talked about cooperation in the Brooklyn underworld, Turkus and Feder )] TJ ET BT 64.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called it organization. When Reles talked about favors being done by one racketeer for another, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turkus and Feder wrote about orders and a smooth chain of command. When Reles talked about )] TJ ET BT 64.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the geographical mobility of various criminals, Turkus and Feder held it as proof of the national )] TJ ET BT 64.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope of the cartel. When Reles talked about the innumerable mobs that populated the New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York underworld, Turkus and Feder interpreted it as proof of the confederation of organized )] TJ ET BT 64.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crime. When Reles talked about murder using the underworld argot of contract, Turkus and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Feder concluded that murder was a real business conducted in the interest of the National Crime )] TJ ET BT 64.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Syndicate and carried out by a special group of enforcers. And finally, when Reles talked about )] TJ ET BT 64.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the shifting, changing, bickering, competitive, murderous social world of organized crime, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turkus and Feder surmised that this untidiness was only the inevitable and necessary fallout of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the consolidation of organized crime. Everything, no matter how counter-factual, led to the big )] TJ ET BT 64.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspiracy, The Organization.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.312 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.312 93.555 m 223.304 93.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The publication of Murder Inc. coincided with the televised senate committee hearings chaired by Senator )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 170.6837 583.8055 184.6757 595.6855 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 209.3117 93.8695 223.3037 105.7495 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7065 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Estes Kefauver and the beginnings of the process that gave organised crime in America an unwarranted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian ethnic identity. During the 1950s J. Edgar Hoover had little truck with the idea propagated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kefauver committee that organised crime was an alien import and that the Mafia was a centralised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation that controlled organised crime in America. Instead he testified plausibly before the committee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that organised crime in the country was a home-grown product that depended much more on localised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corruption than a nebulous national conspiracy of Italian-American gangsters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hoover?s claim that there was no such thing as a nationwide, cohesively organised crime syndicate makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him, according to Jeffreys-Jones, a voice in the chorus of Mafia denial, akin perhaps to Holocaust-denial. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The FBI then narrates the disruption of a meeting of Mafiosi in Apalachin, in upstate New York, as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?event that should have dealt a mortal blow to Mafia disbelief within the bureau? \(p. 164\). The meeting of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scores of Mafiosi, mainly from the New York/New Jersey area but some from as far away as Miami and San )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francisco, demonstrated that Italian-American gangster businessmen were capable of networking for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own mutual advantage but did not show that they were a tightly knit syndicate able to control illegal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets, such as those in gambling and drugs, as was frequently claimed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 385.964 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 385.964 597.747 m 399.956 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the early 1960s Hoover bowed to political pressure from Robert Kennedy, in particular, and sections of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the law enforcement community in general, and joined the chorus of believers in the all-powerful Mafia. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(FBI became the leading standard bearer against what it named ?La Cosa Nostra? but most people continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to call the Mafia. J. Edgar Hoover claimed that the testimony of a Mafia turncoat Valachi merely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corroborated what the FBI already knew and began to repeat the new conventional wisdom about organised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crime. In 1966, for example, he told a House Appropriations subcommittee that:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(La Cosa Nostra is the largest organization of the criminal underworld in this country, very )] TJ ET BT 64.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closely organized and strictly disciplined. They have committed every crime under the sun ... La )] TJ ET BT 64.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cosa Nostra is a criminal fraternity whose membership is Italian either by birth or national )] TJ ET BT 64.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origin, and it has been found to control major racket activities in many of our larger )] TJ ET BT 64.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolitan areas ...)] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This kind of analysis from then on dominated American organised crime control discourse. It was thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that organised crime amounted to a conspiracy of foreigners that controlled or dominated organised crime in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America. Hoover?s interpretation was embellished by the 1967 report of President Lyndon Johnson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice that recommended a complete package )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of laws to combat the Cosa Nostra?s subversion of ?the very decency and integrity that are the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cherished attributes of a free society?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.960 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.960 295.395 m 229.952 295.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These included more powers for investigative grand juries, a general witness immunity statute that would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?assure compulsion of testimony?, wiretapping and bugging laws, witness protection programmes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended prison terms for offenders occupying ?a supervisory or other management position?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 485.924 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 485.924 240.627 m 499.916 240.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 499.916 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the next )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few years a large number of organised crime control laws were passed giving federal police and prosecutors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these powers. Of these the most significant for the FBI was the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Organizations Act of 1970, making it possible, as Jeffreys-Jones writes, to prosecute Mob collectivities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without tracing responsibility to an individual? \(p.167\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The FBI, as Jeffreys-Jones narrates, did use these new powers to good effect in the 1980s and 1990s, putting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicodemo Scarfo, John Gotti and scores of other Mafiosi behind bars. However, they never demonstrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the Mafia was a centralised organisation that controlled organised crime in America. FBI investigations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have shown beyond dispute that that there were more than twenty Italian?American crime networks and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their members swore blood oaths of allegiance and used murder and intimidation to protect territory, markets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and operations. But the evidence has also shown the limits of Mafiosi power and the non-existence of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centralised national underworld power structure. James B. Jacobs, a law professor who has written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensively and favourably on federal government campaigns against Italian-American gangsters, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 385.9637 598.0615 399.9557 609.9415 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.9597 295.7095 229.9517 307.5895 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 485.9237 240.9415 499.9157 252.8215 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 7152 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged that there was little or no evidence of the existence of a ruling national commission of Mafia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bosses. ?It is best to think of Cosa Nostra?, he writes, ?as a mlange of locally based crime families, each of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which has exclusive jurisdiction in its territory?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 265.664 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 265.664 766.563 m 279.656 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The social world of organised crime is much more akin to that described by Alan Block than to the FBI-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspired world of big organisation, strict hierarchies and total control depicted in Mario Puzo?s Godfather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1969\) and reflected in Jeffreys-Jones?s book. Organised criminals can co-operate without being part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supercriminal organisations. They can do favours for one another without this being construed as giving or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking orders and following a smooth chain of command. They can be geographically mobile without this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being proof of one cartel combining with another cartel. They can also be attached to one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innumerable mobs that populate underworlds everywhere without this being proof of the confederation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organised crime. And finally, they can be part of the shifting, changing, bickering, competitive, murderous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social world of organised crime, without this untidiness being the inevitable and necessary fallout of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidation. Jeffreys-Jones refers to ?Big Crime? on page 211 but most diligent organised crime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researchers have shown that organised crime is big in extent but not in centralised organisation. Most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments, including Gordon Brown?s, follow the American example and believe that organised crime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control is just about taking out criminal organisations. Until governments can understand that the Americans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have not controlled organised crime, despite the fall of many ?Godfathers?, they will continue to fail in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts to overcome it. They need to construct policy that reduces criminal opportunity. However, this is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(currently on the agenda, particularly with regard to the war on drugs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeffreys-Jones devotes only a dozen pages to organised crime in a book that is 252 pages long and this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer has focused on these only because organised crime is a much misunderstood phenomenon and it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the specialist?s job to carp. The positives detailed earlier in this review outweigh my reservations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the author?s account of the FBI?s understanding of and efforts against organised crime. In my opinion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book is the best introductory volume on the world?s most influential law enforcement agency. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 409.683 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anthony Summers, Official and Confidential: the Secret Life of J. Edgar Hoover \(London, 1994\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(305.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.016 363.411 m 139.004 363.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 350.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan A. Block, Perspectives on Organizing Crime: Essays in Opposition \(London, 1991\), pp. 9?10.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 334.899 m 118.004 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 322.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dwight Smith, The Mafia Mystique \(London, 1975\), pp. 152?88.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 377.000 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 377.000 320.643 m 430.988 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(President?s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice, The Challenge of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crime in a Free Society \(Washington, DC, 1967\), p. 209.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 338.660 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 338.660 292.131 m 392.648 292.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 279.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The 1967 President?s Crime Commission Report: its impact 25 years later?, ed. John A. Conley )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cincinnati, 1994\), p. 107.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 191.012 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 191.012 263.619 m 245.000 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( James B. Jacobs, Gotham Unbound: How New York City was Liberated from the Grip of Organized )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crime \(New York, 1999\), p. 9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.324 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.324 235.107 m 269.312 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 210.245 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 180.339 m 154.700 180.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 177.007 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 159.227 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 159.227 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/700)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 157.833 m 322.316 157.833 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 132.856 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.456 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3677)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.800 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/histoire_sociale_social_history/v042/42.83.perras.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 265.6637 766.8775 279.6557 778.7575 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.0157 363.7255 139.0037 375.6055 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 335.2135 118.0037 347.0935 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 376.9997 320.9575 430.9877 332.8375 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 338.6597 292.4455 392.6477 304.3255 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 191.0117 263.9335 244.9997 275.8135 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.3237 235.4215 269.3117 247.3015 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 180.6535 154.6997 192.5335 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/histoire_sociale_social_history/v042/42.83.perras.html) >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 158.1475 322.3157 170.0275 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/700) >> endobj xref 0 54 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000521 00000 n 0000000603 00000 n 0000004755 00000 n 0000004864 00000 n 0000004974 00000 n 0000005083 00000 n 0000008644 00000 n 0000008772 00000 n 0000008856 00000 n 0000008947 00000 n 0000016040 00000 n 0000016070 00000 n 0000016198 00000 n 0000016234 00000 n 0000016264 00000 n 0000016391 00000 n 0000016427 00000 n 0000016525 00000 n 0000023643 00000 n 0000023673 00000 n 0000023801 00000 n 0000023837 00000 n 0000023867 00000 n 0000023995 00000 n 0000024031 00000 n 0000024061 00000 n 0000024189 00000 n 0000024225 00000 n 0000024365 00000 n 0000031570 00000 n 0000031600 00000 n 0000031728 00000 n 0000031764 00000 n 0000031891 00000 n 0000031946 00000 n 0000032073 00000 n 0000032128 00000 n 0000032256 00000 n 0000032311 00000 n 0000032439 00000 n 0000032494 00000 n 0000032622 00000 n 0000032677 00000 n 0000032805 00000 n 0000032860 00000 n 0000032987 00000 n 0000033153 00000 n 0000033281 00000 n trailer << /Size 54 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33376 %%EOF