%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818072630+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818072630+01'00') /Title (The Sciences of Homosexuality in Early Modern Europe) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4175 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Sciences of Homosexuality in Early Modern Europe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Thomas Cannon?s 1749 pamphlet )] TJ ET BT 213.668 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ancient and Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplify?d)] TJ ET BT 508.952 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author recounts a chance meeting with a ?too polish?d Pederast? who, ?attack?d upon the Head, that his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Desire was unnatural, thus wrestled in Argument; Unnatural Desire is a Contradiction in Terms; downright )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonsense. Desire is an amatory Impulse of the inmost human Parts: Are not they, however constructed, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequently impelling, Nature?? The claim that same-sex desire should be understood not as an unnatural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perversion but rather as an impulse dictated by the natural ?construction? of ?the inmost human Parts? of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desiring subject affiliates Cannon?s Pederast to the scientific commentators whose work is explored in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenneth Borris and George Rousseau?s wide-ranging collection of essays on )] TJ ET BT 407.276 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sciences of Homosexuality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Early Modern Europe)] TJ ET BT 152.336 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Though the individual essays approach this topic in different ways, many provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence to substantiate Borris?s assertion that early modern writers on the sciences \(from medicine to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(astrology, alchemy to palm-reading\) conceived of sodomitical acts as ?manifestations of corresponding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutions, temperaments, interiorities, morphologies, and sexual identities? \(p. 139\). In this respect, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific authors, however orthodox they may have been in their condemnation of same-sex sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour, posed a challenge both to their contemporaries and to ours. As Borris writes in the collection?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Introduction?,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(701)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 December, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenneth Borris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Rousseau)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415446921)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(292pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hal Gladfelder)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7312 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whereas theology and law typically engaged same-sexual relations only as a topic of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemnation and restricted the parameters of discussion accordingly, the sciences, though )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced by those views, nonetheless provided alternate modes of thought, inquiry, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation that promoted curiosity about the causes, purposes, analysis, and classification of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural phenomena \(p. 6\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such curiosity, and the deterministic implications of such disciplines as physiognomy and astrology, worked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against ? or at least sat uneasily with ? the moralistic stance of theological and legal discourse. But they also, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Borris argues, challenge the current orthodoxy of what he calls the ?acts paradigm? among historians of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexuality \(most prevalent in the 1980s and 1990s but still often taken for granted\): the notion, that is, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before a certain threshold in, say, the late nineteenth century, there were no same-sexual or deviant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities, only acts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not all the essays in )] TJ ET BT 133.676 591.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sciences of Homosexuality)] TJ ET BT 283.316 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( engage in the debate on identities and acts, and in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review I hope to reflect the diversity of concerns of the different writers whose work is included here. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken as a whole the volume does make a polemical case that historians of sexuality have focused too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusively on theology and law ? that is, on sins and crimes: )] TJ ET BT 330.992 548.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(acts)] TJ ET BT 350.324 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for which an offender could be punished. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Early modern scientific writing offers a different, corrective emphasis on etiologies, innate constitutions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical types. In advancing this case, Borris and Rousseau?s collection makes an important contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of sexuality ? as much for the questions the essays raise as for the conclusions they reach.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Borris?s ?Introduction: the prehistory of homosexuality in the early modern sciences? frames the collection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in relation to the two contentions I?ve identified: first, that an accurate understanding of early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptions of same-sex sexuality requires that we pay greater attention to the scientific discourses of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, in which a variety of theoretical perspectives and case studies were put forward; and second, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such attention will provide further evidence to challenge the validity of the ?acts paradigm? in favour of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?minoritizing? view \(Borris adopts the term from Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick\) by which deviant or dissident )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual acts are linked to ?distinctive sexual natures and hence identities? \(p. 4\). In making this double-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stranded argument Borris draws on his own earlier presentation of these ideas in )] TJ ET BT 422.276 380.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Same-Sex Desire in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Renaissance: a Sourcebook of Texts, 1470)] TJ ET BT 276.992 365.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 282.992 365.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1650 )] TJ ET BT 309.992 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York and London, 2004\), which contains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English translations of many of the texts referred to here. He shows that the early modern sciences were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grounded in a ?complexional physiology? \(p. 17\) derived primarily from Hippocratic and Galenic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandings of the body, according to which each human being has a distinctive ?complexion? based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the endlessly variable combination of hot, cold, wet and dry elements. Because the complexion is innate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(though not immutable\), this model tends towards ?constitutional determinism? \(p. 17\) and offers an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentialising theory of sexual types by which such deviant figures as the virago, the cinaedus \(a ?passive? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or sexually receptive male\), and the tribade \(a clitorally ?excessive? female\) can be explained in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexional excess or imbalance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The complexional model prevailed not just in medicine but in the affiliated sciences of physiognomy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chiromancy \(palmistry\) in which bodily features are interpreted as signs of an innate constitution or nature; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and also, perhaps less expectedly, in astrology, in which planets and stars were understood to determine or at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least powerfully influence each person?s complexional makeup. Borris here underlines a point made by P. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Maxwell-Stuart in his contribution to the volume: that if ?particular predilections for each one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of sexual behaviors? are astrally inscribed, this ?implicitly challenged notions of sexual ?sins against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature? such as sodomy, for which individuals were theologically and legally responsible on account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human free will? \(p. 167\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As this citation from Maxwell-Stuart suggests, while Borris has his own argument to make in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Introduction?, he draws much of his material from his fellow contributors? work and provides an overview )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their diverse approaches. The collection ranges from mid fifteenth-century France to eighteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, although nearly half the essays focus on sixteenth-century Italy, perhaps because a ?relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relaxed? view of sexuality allowed for greater freedom of scientific inquiry. The essays are divided into )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8504 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three groups: the first five concern medicine, the next five address ?divinatory, speculative and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sciences? such as physiognomy and astrology, and the last two deal with ?science and sapphisms? ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.842 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender imbalance here a reflection, Borris writes, of the androcentrism of the premodern sciences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The section on medicine begins with Derek Neal?s compelling discussion of Jacques Despars?s 1453 \(pub. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1498\) commentary on Avicenna?s )] TJ ET BT 201.980 739.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Canon of Medicine)] TJ ET BT 293.972 739.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Although only 1,200 words of this 2,667 page work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deal with same-sex desire and sex between men, Neal convincingly argues that these two passages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicate and enrich ?our understanding of premodern belief about sexuality? \(p. 43\) even as they reveal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how intractably alien that system of belief remains. What Despars, Latinising Avicenna, called )] TJ ET BT 491.936 696.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(alubuati)] TJ ET BT 531.944 696.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlike )] TJ ET BT 67.016 682.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sodomy)] TJ ET BT 103.676 682.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?a medical condition ... rather than a category of sin? \(p. 46\), and originates in a state of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychic ?insufficiency? which compels the man concerned to seek out and watch others like himself; he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becomes aroused through identification. Neal wrestles with the obscurity of the passages in which Despars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes this process of arousal through voyeuristic identification, and is necessarily speculative in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstruction of Despars?s psychogenic model of same-sex desire, but he provides enough evidence to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 610.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show that the )] TJ ET BT 101.012 610.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(alubuati)] TJ ET BT 141.020 610.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was, for Despars as for Avicenna, ?a discrete sexual type? whose sexual identity was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?defined by what the subject wants, by desire? \(pp. 52?3\). )] TJ ET BT 315.620 596.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alubuati)] TJ ET BT 356.960 596.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in Despars?s account is neither the result )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of bodily anomaly \(such as deformity or complexional imbalance\) nor an act of wilful perversity \(as in sin\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but a state of imaginative or psychic difference. Despars also moves away in his accounts of actual cases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 553.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from simple binarisms ? such as active/passive, male/female, insertive/receptive ? instead showing that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(premodern same-sexual behaviours were more varied and less rigidly codified than many other accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have claimed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Faith Wallis next contributes an annotated translation of Giulio Guastavini?s moralistic commentary \(pub. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1608\) on one section of the pseudo-Aristotelian )] TJ ET BT 265.652 484.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Problemata)] TJ ET BT 322.316 484.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in which the original Greek author offered an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanatory theory of why ?some men enjoy sexual intercourse when they play an active part and some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when they do not? \(p. 62; )] TJ ET BT 159.668 456.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Problemata)] TJ ET BT 216.332 456.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,4.26\). Pseudo-Aristotle briefly suggests three reasons for those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willingly take the ?passive? role: an anatomical deformity that leads the semen to gather in the ?fundament?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so that ?that part desires friction? \(p. 62\); an unnatural or effeminate constitution, so that although ?they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male this part of them has become maimed? and they ?desire to be passive? \(p. 63\); or, finally, habit ? so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that if the young man?s earliest experiences of sexual pleasure are based on sexual receptivity to other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(males, this will tend to become ingrained. The pseudo-Aristotelian model, by providing a congenital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation \(or, in the third case, a proto-psychological account of early ?imprinting?\) broke too openly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wallis suggests, with ?medieval and early modern sexual orthodoxy? and so Guastavini in his commentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responded ?defensively by insisting that those who engage in such sexual relations retain free will, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hence full moral responsibility? \(p. 57\). Wallis draws attention in her own commentary to the contortions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guastavini puts himself through to bring the earlier text into conformity with theological condemnations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same-sexual behaviour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The following chapter, by George Rousseau, concerns the forensic medical writings of Paolo Zacchia, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Quaestiones Medico-Legales)] TJ ET BT 173.660 259.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was first published in 1630 and appeared in various editions thereafter. As a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forensic scientist and frequent expert witness in legal cases ? including cases of sodomy involving )] TJ ET BT 508.280 244.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(stuprum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or anal penetration ? Zacchia differs from most of the other figures studied in this collection in working at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the intersection of legal and scientific modes of thought. In the cases Rousseau examines, Zacchia is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned to explain how medical practitioners can establish, by examining the body of the victim or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receptive partner, whether )] TJ ET BT 162.632 187.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(stuprum)] TJ ET BT 201.968 187.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has occurred. In some cases the penis of the alleged )] TJ ET BT 455.900 187.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(stuprator)] TJ ET BT 500.576 187.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed to be examined, to determine if he could have produced the injuries found on the other body; but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bulk of Zacchia?s attention is focused on the evidence of penetration on the victim?s body ? hence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rousseau?s title, ?Policing the anus?. I?m not certain from the evidence here that ?policing? in the usual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of regulating or monitoring \(that is, subjecting to social control\) was really at issue in Zacchia?s work; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather, his forensic investigations were a form of medical detective work to determine whether a crime had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been committed. Similarly, though Rousseau writes that Zacchia devised a ?system ... to detect offenders? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 87\), his examples show that Zacchia?s forensic investigations aimed only to establish that an offence had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurred ? not that the accused was the offender responsible. In any case, Rousseau establishes that Zacchia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a crucial figure in the intertwined histories of medicine and law who reined in the potentially tyrannical )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7667 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power of the law by encouraging judges ?to examine the medical evidence first before delivering guilty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(verdicts? \(p. 87\). Cri)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stian Berco follows with an excellent essay on the Spanish doctor Juan Calvo?s 1580 treatise on syphilis \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(morbo glico)] TJ ET BT 98.348 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or French disease\), which seeks to account for Calvo?s silence on the possibility of male-male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual transmission, even when such silence ?defies logic and even the daily realities of medical practice at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time? \(p. 108\). Calvo subscribed to the increasingly widely-held theory of an American etiology to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disease, but even though many of his sources among historians of the Indies had indicated that sodomy was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the greatest sin of the Hispaniolan natives? \(p. 96\) ? and even though same-sex sexual transmission was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most obvious way of accounting for the appearance of the disease among European sailors ? Calvo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substituted cannibalism for sodomy. For Calvo, the natives? cannibalism was the sign of their moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depravity, and syphilis not a physical effect but a divine punishment. Even so, he had to account for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passage of the disease from America to Europe; and because he could not permit himself, for complex social-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical reasons that Berco lucidly presents in his essay?s final section, to propose either same-sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transmission or transmission from native men to European women, Calvo devised a non-sexual pathway )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between native and European men, writing that ?the Indian men ... slept with [that is, shared the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quarters with] some soldiers, gave them the same buboes, and the latter did the same with others? \(p. 102\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The disease that began as a divine scourge of the Indians? depravity thus passed into the European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population without tainting the latter with the same sins. But as Berco points out, this non-sexual mode of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transmission still is ?suggestive of what [Calvo] silenced? \(p. 103\): even with sex kept rigorously from view, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the intimacy of shared beds, bedclothes and breath metonymically alludes to it. This is a rich and well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.234 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued essay which grounds its textual analysis in a detailed, finely drawn social landscape.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the last of the five essays on medicine, ?The strange medical silence on same-sex transmission of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pox?, Kevin Siena addresses the same problem as Berco, focusing now on English treatises on venereal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disease \(including but not limited to syphilis\) between 1660 and 1760. Even though medical discourse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?performed clear policing roles? in the period, contributing to anti-prostitution and anti-masturbation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns among others, these treatises ?rarely give any hint, still less any warnings, that men could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contract it from each other? \(p. 115\). One reason was decorum: one surgeon who did address the issue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly, John Marten, was denounced by rivals on grounds of obscenity. More important, Siena argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were ?the reticence and deceptions of patients? \(p. 119\), who had every reason to leave out self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incriminating material from the stories they told their doctors. Beyond this, most doctors subscribed to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?two-sex theory of the pox?s production? \(p. 124\), in which the womb played a crucial pathogenic role. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Siena devotes several interesting pages to a 1736 treatise by Jean Astruc, who departs from the prevailing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model by analysing instances of same-sex transmission and who offers a relatively non-moralistic theory of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?catamite? as a distinct medical category, ?on equal footing with the sexually penetrative male and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vaginally receptive female? \(p. 126\). As Siena notes, Astruc soon reverts to moral denunciation; but his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work confirms an understanding of the sodomite as a distinct kind of person.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s second part, on divinatory and other sciences, begins with Kenneth Borris on the ?physiognomer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and prototypical sexologist? Bartolommeo della Rocca, or Cocles, writing at the turn of the sixteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. In ?Sodomizing science?, Borris makes basically the same claim as in his ?Introduction?: that same-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual acts are, for early modern scientists, ?signifiers of corresponding intrinsic constitutions indicated also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by other identifiable bodily signs? \(p. 143\). Cocles presents a typology of ?cinaedi? and ?pedicators? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(receptive and insertive partners respectively\), and evinces some admiration of the cinaedi?s ?interplay of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminine and masculine traits? \(p. 147\). He holds pedicators, whose maturity and more ?masculine? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demeanour should enable them to restrain their transgressive impulses, to a different moral standard; but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Borris uses one of Cocles?s case studies to demonstrate that Cocles conceived of pedicators, too, as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?deviant sexual species? with a distinctive ?constitutional morphology? \(p. 153\). In the last part of his essay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Borris examines the antagonistic commentary of a Dominican, Patricio Tricasso, which was appended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cocles?s text in subsequent editions. Tricasso?s critique was not subtle: he called Cocles a ?filthy beast? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who pretends to abominate the vice of sodomy but really ?praises, and glorifies it? \(p. 155\). Although with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the resurgence of the Inquisition Cocles?s brand of open-minded scientific inquiry was largely suppressed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his work continued to exert a semi-underground influence for long after. While there is some repetition in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5798 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this essay of points already made, the details Borris provides of Cocles?s case studies and theoretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formulations effectively complement the more general presentation of the same themes in his ?Introduction?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. G. Maxwell-Stuart?s essay on ?Representations of same-sex love in early modern astrology? ranges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widely over periods and countries, and acts as an introduction to topics taken up in the following two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters. I have already quoted his statement of the theme that astrology posed a challenge to notions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual ?sins against nature? because of its tendency to conceive of sexual dispositions as both innate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governed by extra-human agencies. Various commentators advanced different views on the extent to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the stars determined or merely influenced human characters and actions, and the degree to which their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions might account for the generation of cinaedi, hermaphrodites, and the like. Grounded as it was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the originary work of Ptolemy, and more generally in Greco-Roman scientific and sexual assumptions, early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern astrology, Maxwell-Stuart concludes, ?varied from and hence unsettled the standard legal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theological accounts of same-sexual love? \(p. 178\). H)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Darrel Rutkin follows with a piece on the sixteenth-century astrologer Girolamo Cardano \(also cited by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maxwell-Stuart\), who achieved success with an early modern version of the celebrity horoscope. Cardano )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worked within a broadly Aristotelian-Galenic sex and gender framework, integrating this into a gendered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cosmic system according to which Mars and the sun, for example, are masculine \(and so both hot and dry\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while Venus and the moon are feminine \(and so moist and cold\). The planets and their positions at the time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of birth are decisive in defining the individual?s gender makeup. If ?the normative nature for a man is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderate masculinity and for a woman a moderate femininity? \(p. 192\), astrological influences may lead to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excessively masculine men or excessively feminine women \(which Cardano calls ?illegitimate?\) or to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculine women and feminine men \(for whom Cardano reserves the term ?unnatural? as their status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involves a reversal of gender polarities\). Rutkin examines two of Cardano?s celebrity genitures as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complementary case studies of broadly sodomitical figures: the first, referred to only as Effeminatus, is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance of unnatural sexual reversal; the second, the poet and courtier Francesco Filelfo, who \(allegedly\) not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only had sex with boys but also raped women, is an example of illegitimate sexual excess. In both cases, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rutkin shows, Cardano?s astrological practice, in which he presents the person?s sexual nature as wholly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determined by the stars, is at odds with his theoretical statements in other texts, where he contends that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(astrologers need to take into account not only geniture but also cultural and personal circumstances that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affect the ways in which innate dispositions may be expressed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guido Giglioni brings the run of three essays featuring Cardano to a conclusion with an appealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographical study of Cardano?s intriguingly conflicted representations of male same-sex love and the pains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pleasures of masculine sociability. Although he repeatedly denounced pederastic or sodomitical conduct, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he ?brought up? numerous boys in his own household, including boy musicians; and while he openly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professed his passion for music, he regarded it as a moral danger, in large part because of its association with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male youth and sensual pleasure. Love and desire for Cardano were forms of madness; and astrology as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as physiognomy confirmed that same-sex desire in particular is an innate form of moral depravity; yet he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continually surrounded himself with dissolute boy musicians and was plagued by innuendoes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accusations of sodomy. Although Giglioni?s essay does not have much to say about science as such, it offers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a fascinating portrait of an early modern subject in the grips of a profound ambivalence. T)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7780 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he second part of the book concludes with Allison Kavey?s essay on popular English alchemical texts in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century, which represent, she argues, an alternative tradition to the dominant Aristotelian model )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the natural world. Instead of a system of binaries, as in most early modern medical and other scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works, Paracelsian alchemical discourse was based on ?systems of sympathy? exemplified in the metaphor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the ?chemical marriage? \(p. 223\); and if that metaphor seems simply to reinforce Aristotelian principles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance or tension between opposites, Kavey suggests that in alchemical writing the element mercury ? often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with Ganymede ? ?hermaphroditically confounds these divisions? \(p. 223\) and in effect dissolves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the apparent difference between male and female elements into a unitary or ?shared, fluid essence? \(p. 228\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kavey does not actually discuss human same-sex desire or love; rather, she focuses on the use writers on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alchemy made of figures of gender instability and metamorphosis, including \(albeit rarely\) images of male-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male coupling, to illustrate the otherwise occult process of chemical transformation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The collection?s last two essays reflect in different ways on female same-sex relations. In the first, Winfried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schleiner offers a largely descriptive account of three narratives of the ?Intrigues of hermaphrodites and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculine females? from the English-language \(in all but title\) )] TJ ET BT 337.640 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Hermaphroditis)] TJ ET BT 431.300 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published by Edmund )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Curll in 1718. Schleiner passes over the first and third parts of this anthology, in which are found a typology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of hermaphrodites and speculation as to their origins \(derived from French and Italian sources\), to focus on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the three Italian-set tales of erotic adventure. The first concerns two friends, Diana and Isabella, who when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovered to possess ?the Members of both Sexes? have their ?masculine Instruments? cut off, so that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(live on as ?harmless old Women? \(p. 249\). The second tells of two female lovers, Margureta and Barbarissa, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first of whom is found \(by a male voyeur\) to be a tribade; the two appear to get on quite happily with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aid of some birchen rods. The third story features two women, Theodora and Amaryllis, who are neither )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hermaphrodites nor tribades but simply disappointed with men; they make use of a large and elaborate dildo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to ?facilitate Pleasure? \(p. 251\), though in time they both find men who suit them and end up happily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(married. Schleiner contends that all three tales are examples of ?xenohomophobia? \(p. 247\), which seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right, but I would have liked more detailed analysis of each, as they don?t seem to offer a straightforward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemnation of sexual deviance or dissidence, but something \(perhaps\) slyer and more unsettled.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the book?s final essay, Harriette Andreadis does not address the early modern sciences of homosexuality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but issues a call to arms for cultural historians, arguing that by losing sight of the difference between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?sexual? and the ?erotic?, and by collapsing the latter into the former, we ?postmodern? scholars and critics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have misconstrued or simply missed much of what was distinctive about romantic or affective relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between women in the early modern era. Andreadis makes use of the seventeenth-century poet Katherine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philips, about whom she has written extensively elsewhere, to highlight this distinction between the erotic ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here, the ?intense affectional relations of women with each other throughout history? \(p. 257\) ? and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual, which she limits to behaviours ?culminating in genital activity? \(p. 265, n. 10\). Andreadis?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objection to the use of ?sexual? in contemporary scholarship is predicated, then, on her own conflation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual with the genital. I would agree that we should look in early modern texts \(and indeed texts of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periods\) ?for non-genital expressions of desire as markers of same-sex eroticism? \(p. 261\), but I?m not sure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it?s important whether we label such expressions of desire ?erotic? or ?sexual? as long as we recognise their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variability. Moreover, when the essay ends with the claim that a greater ?understanding of the fluidity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eroticisms? may allow for ?more precise historical reconstructions than we have so far been able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accomplish? \(p. 264\), I was left wondering what Andreadis thinks is imprecise or wanting in the work of \(to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name a few scholars almost at random, from a range of critical orientations\) Valerie Traub, Terry Castle, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sally O?Driscoll, George Haggerty, Emma Donoghue, Susan Lanser and others, who along with Andreadis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herself have done much to reconstruct the affectional, erotic and sexual currents of early modern literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and life. I found this a thought-provoking and sometimes frustrating essay, but I was pleased that it ended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the collection on a polemical note, with an eye to new formulations and keener debates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sciences of Homosexuality in Early Modern Europe)] TJ ET BT 304.976 104.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( makes an important contribution to the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexuality and affiliated fields. It is a model of interdisciplinary and collaborative scholarship, and the essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will be of interest to students and scholars in a wide range of areas. No matter how arcane the topic, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays are all accessible in style. I have only one real fault to find with the volume: while Borris is surely )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 1893 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right to note that the androcentrism of early modern science means that greater attention was paid to male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than female same-sex sex and desire, there was much more scientific interest in the latter than this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would lead one to think. Of course no text can cover all bases; but it would have made for a stronger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection to have included new work on the science of female same-sex desire, building on \(or challenging\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the work of scholars like Traub and Thomas Laqueur \(a forgotten man in this volume, cited only by Siena\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But to lament this absence is to take nothing away from what Borris and Rousseau and their collaborators )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have produced here, which stands as a very significant addition to the history of sexuality and gender, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work that opens up new directions for research and debate in the future.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 651.439 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 633.659 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 633.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/701)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 632.265 m 322.316 632.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 607.288 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.888 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3678)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.488 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 632.5795 322.3157 644.4595 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/701) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000576 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000004885 00000 n 0000004994 00000 n 0000005104 00000 n 0000005213 00000 n 0000008774 00000 n 0000008902 00000 n 0000008986 00000 n 0000009051 00000 n 0000016416 00000 n 0000016481 00000 n 0000025038 00000 n 0000025103 00000 n 0000032823 00000 n 0000032888 00000 n 0000038739 00000 n 0000038804 00000 n 0000046637 00000 n 0000046721 00000 n 0000048667 00000 n 0000048795 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 48890 %%EOF