%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930155640+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930155640+01'00') /Title (Vanities of the Eye: Vision in Early Modern European Culture) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4729 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Vanities of the Eye: Vision in Early Modern European Culture)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The intellectual historian Martin Jay once championed the cause of ?ocular-)] TJ ET BT 398.600 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ec)] TJ ET BT 409.256 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centricity? as an alternative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mode of visual engagement.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 169.328 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 169.328 271.929 m 183.320 271.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 183.320 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The term, of course, was a play on ?ocularcentricity?, the concept that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rational power of the eye had come to dominate the nature and scope of our interactions. In recent decades, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars have often argued that a rise in visual certitude and corresponding charges of the totalising power of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision were coincident with the advent of linear perspective, and viewership techniques facilitated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(camera obscura.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 114.668 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 114.668 214.905 m 128.660 214.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 190.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vanities of the Eye: Vision in Early Modern European Culture)] TJ ET BT 347.996 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, however, Stuart Clark presents a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strikingly different story. He claims that intellectual experience during the period between the 1430s and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1670s was marked not by ocular hegemony, but intense visual crisis. In effect, the act of looking was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived by viewers as almost never straightforward, and rarely to be trusted. This early modern crisis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidence in the eye was all the more severe for its participants because it occurred within a paradigm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated by vision. This twist is of particular significance for historians because it allows ?ocular-)] TJ ET BT 513.620 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ec)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centricity? and ?ocularcentricity? to exist literally couched within each other. Clark?s latest study, then, can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be read not as a rejection of previous scholarship on the power of the eye, but rather a compelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complication of it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clark borrows both the title and subject of )] TJ ET BT 239.996 49.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vanities of the Eye)] TJ ET BT 330.320 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from a 1608 treatise by the Oxford intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(702)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 30 November, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stuart Clark)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199250134)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(420pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yvonne Gaspar)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 169.3277 272.2435 183.3197 284.1235 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 114.6677 215.2195 128.6597 227.0995 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8033 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Hakewill. Following Hakewill?s lead, Clark devotes his study to exploring the three categories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision that he identified as natural, artificial and demonic. Clark is the first, to my knowledge, to provide a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious assessment of the latter category. This should in itself mark the book as a noteworthy read for those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with understanding the complexities of visual culture. Drawing upon over two decades of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research on the intellectual history of demonology, he is perhaps in a singular position to explore this topic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At 400 pages, )] TJ ET BT 103.340 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vanities )] TJ ET BT 145.676 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weighs in at only half the size of Clark?s )] TJ ET BT 344.648 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thinking With Demons )] TJ ET BT 458.312 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1997\). However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the volume is nonetheless substantial in depth and scope. Clark builds his study thematically, weaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together examples that span much of Europe. The broad range of research encompassed within the book will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide much of further value to readers with widespread interests in early modern intellectual, religious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural history, as well as art history, and the history of science, technology and medicine.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the opening chapter)] TJ ET BT 141.656 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 147.656 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clark locates the foundation of early modern visual theory within an Aristotelian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model that privileged sight over the experience of the other senses. The doctrine of visual )] TJ ET BT 466.604 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(species )] TJ ET BT 504.260 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the expectation that seeing was a clear, rational and consistent process. However, Clark observes that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful nature of the eye rendered it particularly vulnerable to errors of misapprehension and moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corruption that betrayed ?how ambiguously sight was regarded in an already ocularcentric age? \(p. 5\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hakewill fretted, for example, that an entire catalogue of sins ranging from ?wantonness? and ?idolatry? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?contempt, envy, and witchcraft? could be traced directly to the eyes? inherent vanity \(p. 25\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the three chapters that follow, Clark describes how the categories of images identified by Hakewill were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced, experienced and manipulated in terms of visual )] TJ ET BT 314.960 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(species)] TJ ET BT 349.616 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In ?Fantasies? \(chapter 2\) he begins by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploring the impact of the viewer?s bodily state on the content of what he or she perceived. Vision might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altered somewhat predictably, for example, by the distorting effects of eye diseases such as cataracts. Clark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes, however, that sight was equally vulnerable to disturbances produced by the unsound mental condition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the observer, which could be traced to imbalances within the faculty of the imagination. As an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intermediary between the senses and the intellect, the imagination operated on distinctly visual terms. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Humoral imbalances affecting its state could result in particularly vivid delusions, such as the graphically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distorted self-perceptions entertained by melancholics and lycanthropes. Notably, these and many later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples emphasise that visual engagement was not necessarily bound to the realm of visible experience. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sight, in effect, did not require the existence of a corresponding object to be seen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In ?Prestiges? \(chapter 3\) Clark outlines the array of techniques employed by jugglers and artists to ?bind? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the eyes of their observers. He notes that although commentators sometimes associated the category of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?prestige? with artless duping, many also stressed the sophistication necessary to master such illusions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Optical effects, for example, were an important component of artificial magic because they sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emulate and extend upon spectacles produced in the natural world through the additional aid of lenses and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mathematics. In a fresh twist, Clark considers the relationship between the discovery of linear perspective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the crafts of the magician. He observes that this important artistic innovation coincided historically with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a growing vogue for natural magic \(p. 83\). As well, provocatively, Francis Bacon chose to include both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?perspective houses? and ?houses of deceits of the senses? among the specialised research centres that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(envisioned in the )] TJ ET BT 119.012 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Atlantis)] TJ ET BT 180.692 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 78\). Clark concludes that, at the very least, the geometrical construction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface drew attention to the image?s own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradoxical status, in a manner similar in effect to the deceptive handiwork of the prestige. His remarks, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, remain largely speculative on this very intriguing topic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In ?Glamours?, a chapter drawing upon his extensive previous research, Clark describes the ease with which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demons effected havoc on the visual world. In fact the devil was popularly believed to have the ability to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervene at any stage within the sequence of natural processes that constituted human vision, extending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the manipulation of )] TJ ET BT 157.340 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(species)] TJ ET BT 191.996 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( passing through the air, to the disturbance of humours within the brain. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disruptive power of these dissimulations was all the greater because the devil so often employed them to turn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality on its head. Clark notes that demonic visions provided an important framework also for accounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witchcraft. The devil might choose to generate visual doubles of the bodies of witches, for example, thereby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowing them to attend the sabbat while simultaneously appearing home in bed \(p. 144\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7677 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Significantly, within both preternatural vision, and its natural and artificial counterparts, the boundary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between image production and image perception was fundamentally blurred. Anamorphic portraits painted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by artists, for example, popped into visibility only with the proper positioning of the eye of an outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observer. The eye itself, however, might be worked over to such an extent that its very capacity for vision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was equally the product of an outside hand. Similarly, the ability to differentiate between active and passive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation became complicated, such that it was nearly impossible to tell the difference between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of looking, and that of being made to see. Calling on the voices of art historians Norman Bryson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 6?7\) and Erwin Panofsky \(pp. 85?6\), Clark stresses that the experience of vision is most fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood by considering it as a social and intellectual phenomenon. Bryson, for example, insisted that we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must consider that the entire world of social discourse entered between the mind?s eye and the picture plane. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The degree of uncertainty and potential for dissimulation within Clark?s presentation seems to endow early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern sight with something of a Machiavellian flavour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Importantly for Clark?s narrative, the ability to distinguish falsehood from reality on purely visual grounds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was fundamentally shaken within each of the categories of vision. In the second five chapters of )] TJ ET BT 498.248 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vanities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Eye)] TJ ET BT 69.668 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he demonstrates the degree to which radical uncertainty extended across diverse instances of visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience ranging from the perception of ghosts and spectres \(chapter 6\), to the prophesies of kings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapter 7\), to the dreams of the sleeping \(chapter 9\). These well-crafted examples each serve to reiterate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pervasive nature of viewerly confusion throughout the period, and draw attention to the pressing status of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images within significant topics of religious, philosophical and moral debate. In the chapter titled ?Images? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapter 5\), for example, Clark explores the contested status of graven likeness within debates sparked by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Protestant Reformation. Assessment of the power and place of visual resemblance was essential not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to deciding the kinds of paintings that could adorn the walls of churches, but more essentially the basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrity of visual content within all forms of perception. Protestants were quick to stress, for example, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the appearance of contemporary miracles could be attributed to mundane bits of priestly trickery. Anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic pamphlets exposed the theatrical hoaxes of monks and friars, whose high jinks ranged from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(application of dabs of vermillion paint to replicate stigmata, to the wonderfully contrived performance of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holy woman from Leominster who made the host appear to fly into her mouth with the aid of a hidden string )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 175\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The insecure status of visual appearance posed a danger because it was able to prompt viewers to mistake )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the false for the true. More disturbingly for theologians, perhaps, the confusion surrounding the propagation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of images and the reliability of their perception was capable of causing viewers to dismiss spiritual truth as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feigned apparition. This possibility was raised, for example, by the Zwinglian commentator, Ludwig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laveter, who observed that the Apostles? recognition of their own surprise and fear at the miracles they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnessed caused them to cast into temporary doubt even the status of the Resurrection \(p. 211\). Clark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes it clear that the profound ambiguity surrounding visual experience was remarkably at play in setting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the terms of such high stakes doctrinal debates as the status of miracles, the existence of Purgatory, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice of Mass and the reality of transubstantiation. The challenge of resolving these deeply polarising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions was in part compounded by the optical status of the involved images, which resisted easy answer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The degree to which religious and philosophical problems hinged on visual dilemmas that lacked a clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solution left not only individual viewers but whole institutions of thought deeply vulnerable to their very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(core. In ?Seemings? \(chapter 8\) Clark turns readers? attention to the deep challenge to ocular coherence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented by the rise of philosophical scepticism beginning in the mid 16th century. Sceptics rejected the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aristotelian model of visible )] TJ ET BT 174.680 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(species)] TJ ET BT 209.336 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and in so doing sought to undermine the veridical nature of all human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception. Pyrrhonists, for example, inspired by their Greek predecessors, argued that differentiating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between true and false visual experience was an impossible and thus moot project. These sceptics concluded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that viewers must abandon claims to judgement, thereby limiting their assessment of the world to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison of perceptual differences \(p. 270\). This brand of radical uncertainty was viewed as a threat by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics and Protestants alike. In ?Dreams? \(chapter 9\) Clark argues that Pyrrhonist-style doubt was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplified in queries posed by Montaigne and Descartes challenging the viewer?s ability accurately to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguish between sleep and waking consciousness. Although ultimately supporting different kinds of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 5472 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophical conclusions, Clark notes that both projects were alike in that they demanded a ?radical calling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into question of assumptions about the truth, certainty, and objectivity of sensory knowledge? \(p. 301\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final chapter, titled ?Signs?, Clark argues that the uniquely precarious experience of early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visual culture came to an end precisely because it coincided with a distinct set of philosophical concerns and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious beliefs that had themselves shifted in focus. By the latter half of the 17th century, the challenge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posed by sceptics had been absorbed into the projects of philosophers such as Hobbes and Descartes for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom questioning the status of information gleaned through the eyes remained an essential part of engaging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with reality, but no longer posed a devastating challenge to it. Interest in the special power of optics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective to generate and distort images became similarly integrated into the broader pursuit of natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy. By this period as well, secular explanations of dreams and hallucinations replaced theories that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presupposed the direct involvement of the devil in daily human affairs \(p. 329\). Clark observes that even as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?de-rationalized? vision drew to a close, the new formulations that replaced it continued to grapple with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar questions \(p. 331\). Strands of continuity can be traced, for example, in the mixture of suspicion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delight with which 18th-century popular culture embraced magic lanterns and other optical wonders.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interestingly, the field of visual culture, from which Clark?s recent book in part draws, has itself undergone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a kind of crisis of confidence since its inception in the 1990s. In the decade that followed, many scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved away from specifically visual concerns, or returned to more traditional ones, often questioning the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject?s continued relevance as a hybrid area of research. Approaching the topic of visual experience as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relative latecomer, Clark has much to add. )] TJ ET BT 240.308 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vanities of the Eye )] TJ ET BT 333.632 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers readers a taste of the unexpected and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fruitful complexities to be gained by turning a serious eye to the historical questions of sight.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is very happy to accept this review and does not wish to add any comments to it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.451 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 409.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Jay, )] TJ ET BT 121.676 409.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Downcast Eyes: the Denigration of Vision in Twentieth Century French Thought)] TJ ET BT 64.016 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Berkeley, Calif., 1994\), p. 591.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 217.328 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 217.328 394.179 m 271.316 394.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 381.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen M. Straker, ?The eye made ?other?: Drer, Kepler, and the mechanization of light and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision?, in )] TJ ET BT 120.020 367.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Science, Technology and Culture in Historical Perspective)] TJ ET BT 402.320 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Louis A. Knafla \(Calgary, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1976\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 351.411 m 149.000 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 326.549 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 312.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 298.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2007/jun/02/featuresreviews.guardianreview5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 296.643 m 418.628 296.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 421.628 298.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 293.311 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 275.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 275.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/702)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 274.137 m 322.316 274.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 249.160 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 234.760 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3679)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.360 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2007/jun/02/featuresreviews.guardianreview5)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 217.3277 394.4935 271.3157 406.3735 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 351.7255 148.9997 363.6055 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 296.9575 418.6277 308.8375 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2007/jun/02/featuresreviews.guardianreview5) >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 274.4515 322.3157 286.3315 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/702) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000563 00000 n 0000000659 00000 n 0000005440 00000 n 0000005549 00000 n 0000005659 00000 n 0000005768 00000 n 0000009329 00000 n 0000009457 00000 n 0000009541 00000 n 0000009570 00000 n 0000009698 00000 n 0000009734 00000 n 0000009763 00000 n 0000009891 00000 n 0000009927 00000 n 0000009992 00000 n 0000018078 00000 n 0000018143 00000 n 0000025873 00000 n 0000025978 00000 n 0000031503 00000 n 0000031631 00000 n 0000031686 00000 n 0000031813 00000 n 0000031868 00000 n 0000031995 00000 n 0000032122 00000 n 0000032250 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32345 %%EOF