%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 30 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 54 0 R 59 0 R 67 0 R 72 0 R 86 0 R 88 0 R 110 0 R ] /Count 13 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141026031648+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141026031648+00'00') /Title (Irish Freedom: the History of Nationalism in Ireland) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4596 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Irish Freedom: the History of Nationalism in Ireland)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having extensively written on radical republicanism in 20th-century Ireland, Richard English approaches the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject of Irish nationalism with expertise. His latest book, )] TJ ET BT 319.664 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Freedom: the History of Nationalism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ireland)] TJ ET BT 69.344 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, follows closely on both his acclaimed study of the IRA, )] TJ ET BT 345.656 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Armed Struggle)] TJ ET BT 421.316 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2003\), and a sophisticated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thematic biography, )] TJ ET BT 133.004 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ernie O?Malley: IRA Intellectual)] TJ ET BT 293.972 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1998\). Coming in the Irish peace process?s wake )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Freedom?s)] TJ ET BT 113.672 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( formidable 625 pages arrive at a time when the air surrounding contested Irish histories is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning again to clear. Richard English?s ambition in his new study is to consolidate the most up-to-date )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research summarised in an impressively eclectic 40 page bibliography. In coming to a better understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of what nationalism in Ireland means his stated objective is to marry the historian?s analytical precision to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social scientist?s practice of formulating general theory. Beyond this Richard English writes in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction, ?one of my hopes is that this book may provoke fruitful disagreement, debate and reflection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning Irish and wider nationalist politics? \(p. 10\). Wisely this remark is prefaced by ?I cannot expect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers always to agree with my arguments?. Given that in Ireland and Britain the legitimisation of nations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and states has long been contested it is unlikely this or any book on nationalism is going to receive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consensual endorsement. And while Richard English?s combative approach forces reconsiderations about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what nationalism in Ireland might mean, equally, on almost every page, )] TJ ET BT 381.308 87.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Freedom)] TJ ET BT 450.296 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provokes critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaction in response to the methodologies employed to force those same reconsiderations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(704)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 30 November, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard English)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781405041898)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(640pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Regan)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7941 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The immediate question confronting students of nationalism in Ireland is how many nations are there to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studied? And once identified, how can they be examined satisfactorily? Without doubt these are deceptively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenging problems, and the all too common response has been to treat ?Irish nationalism? as monolithic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or sometimes monochromic where the separatist constitutional and physical-force traditions are seen as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(joint conveyors of a singular ideology. Most commentators, Richard English among them, now argue this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wholly inadequate. The chief objection to any monolithic nationalism is that it cannot adequately deal with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the diverse and competitive nationalisms present in Ireland. Among these it should be recognised is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unionist strain of British nationalism, which in the 20th century concentrated in the north-east of the island, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inside the historic province of Ulster. There are further distinctions needing identification. For example, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern and northern strains of Irish separatist nationalism, which in the 20th century constituted very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separate, and, arguably, antithetical ideologies. But despite these rudimentary observations there persists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, a tendency when treating ?nationalism in Ireland? to focus almost exclusively on what can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly identified as ?separatist nationalism? \(here this encompasses extreme militarist-republicanism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(federalism and home rule nationalism inside the Union, as well as two separate southern and northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variants\), as opposed to ?unionist nationalism? in its many forms \(pan-British nationalism across the islands, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and after 1801, across the new Union including a southern Irish unionism, and a more familiar ?survivalist? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ulster unionism\). Beyond these the historian is obliged to make careful adjustments for the protean qualities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of nationalism. Unionist nationalism, whether in Belfast or Dublin, meant very different things on the eve of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Great War in 1914 than it had at the time of the first home rule crisis in 1885 or would again after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998 Belfast agreement. In Richard English?s approach to ?)] TJ ET BT 322.292 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the history of nationalism in Ireland?)] TJ ET BT 501.968 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualifications offered he imagines his subject to be ?separatist nationalism?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To assuage the concerns of theorists of nationalism unfamiliar with the nuances of Irish practices it should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be pointed out that in the vernacular ?nationalist? is generally \(and inaccurately\) used with reference to ?one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community? in Ireland, but Richard English risks introducing a confusion when he refers to unionists as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?non-nationalist community on the island? \(p. 453, see also p. 9, p. 368\). This is never fully explained in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Freedom)] TJ ET BT 103.004 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but elsewhere English has argued, ?it is the asymmetry rather than the symmetry which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking when one pays serious consideration to unionism and nationalism in modern Ireland?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contemporary unionism, English has contended, ?does not represent an alternative ethnic or religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism, but argues for the reasonableness \(indeed, the necessity\) of maintaining Northern Ireland?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place within the multi-national, multi-faith, multi-ethnic UK state.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 357.332 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 357.332 357.651 m 371.324 357.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 371.324 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The not infrequent appeals of Ulster?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unionists to a Protestant British national identity originating in the 17th century militates against this kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument. Moreover, it is argued in this review to study ?nationalists? in Ireland, meaning ?separatists?, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the same as writing ?the history of nationalism in Ireland?. Some may say this observation amounts to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(semantic quibble. However, in a book spanning a millennium, and the last 200 years in considerable detail, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to relegate British nationalisms to a minor position in Ireland is to obfuscate a vital force and context, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gives separatist nationalism its meaning. It may also be to capitulate to a particular separatist idea of who are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and are not ?true? nationalists or an equally particular unionist assertion that they are British citizens not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British nationalists. Therefore the interpretative problem Richard English?s narrow definition of ?Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism? generates may be very great indeed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout Richard English?s focus is fixed on one historical community, and while not completely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignoring unionist identity in its British context he is not much concerned to discuss it. The term ?British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism? is used only once in this book, and is overlooked in the index \(p. 369\). What is presented, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore, is a synthesis of recent writing on separatist nationalism along the way pointing out the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inconsistencies, ironies, and absurdities to be found in its ideology. And Richard English takes this didactic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role seriously. His is a work of public history concerned with the ?dismantling of popular myths?. Among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them, ?the exceptional awfulness of the Cromwellian episode, [and] the ruthlessness of the Penal Laws? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(448\). Others, perhaps less ?popular?, include the argument that the Great Famine was a product of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberate British genocide \(p. 163, p. 449\), and the recurring diversion that the oppression of Northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland?s Catholics found equivalence with the victims of the Nazis, Afro-Americans in the southern states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the US or those who suffered under apartheid in South Africa \(p. 376, p. 450, p. 366, p. 83\). That these )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 357.3317 357.9655 371.3237 369.8455 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8260 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other polemics should receive a repost from the academy is no doubt what they richly deserve. But by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pitching so much of the analysis against this level of argument there is a danger that the subtleties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separatist nationalism or any nationalism will be obscured.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, this is a formidable book of impressive scope and resource. Richard English sets himself to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing ?an historical tale? for the reader, and providing a general theory of nationalism derived from Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences applying as his major themes ?power?, ?community?, and ?struggle?. It should be said that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while )] TJ ET BT 63.680 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Freedom)] TJ ET BT 132.668 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is presented as a history, arguably, its method is not always historical. Deployment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devices such as, ?[t]he next act in our drama? indicates this is a self-conscious literary enterprise \(p. 260\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And much of the ?story? is advanced through short studies of the individual psychologies of Edmund Burke, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maria Edgeworth, Theobald Wolfe Tone, Daniel O?Connell, Charles Stewart Parnell, Patrick Pearse, among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, who are used to articulate the national identities of their time. Engaging though this is the approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginalises social forces not easily explained within biographical portraiture; for example, colonisation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernisation, industrialisation, and economics, demography, and communal belief systems. The linking of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual psychologies into a historical narrative is also reminiscent of ?revisionist? writings from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s, and these are perhaps a significant if unarticulated influence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History as a branch of literature, as well as the enactment and understanding of history as ?drama?, are ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly redolent of Conor Cruise O?Brien?s writing from the 1970s. It is impossible to read )] TJ ET BT 497.300 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Freedom)] TJ ET BT 77.336 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and this is not intended as a negative criticism, without being continually reminded of Cruise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Brien. In particular two aspects of Cruise O?Brien?s thinking on historical understanding are summoned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from an earlier historiography. The first is his belief, ?[p]oliticians are like other people in being the products )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ? history, which is generally unknowable and unknown?. The second, that history ?in most times and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places will be an inspirational myth, designed to unify the nation and inspire it with a sense of pride in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own past?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.340 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.340 457.443 m 99.332 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 99.332 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Responses to these ideas greatly influenced history writing in Ireland in the last four decades. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arguably, they polarised the historical community into those who wished to undermine the ?inspirational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myth? \(?arch-revisionists?\) or to modify it \(?southern nationalists?\) or defend the )] TJ ET BT 427.616 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(status quo)] TJ ET BT 476.624 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( whatever the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences \(?traditional nationalists?\). All of these rival narratives placed strains on empirical method )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where they sought to privilege or refute one nationalist ideology or another.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romanticism, Cruise O?Brien believed, in ?Irish literary-history? inspired nationalism through the mingling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes of predestination, blood sacrifice, martyrdom, and tragic failures. In a deeply reflective essay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in 1975, ?An unhelpful intersection?, Cruise O?Brien argued: ?The area where literature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics overlap has, then, to be regarded with suspicion ? [i]t is suffused with romanticism, which in politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tends in the direction of fascism?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 195.992 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 195.992 317.139 m 209.984 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 209.984 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For Cruise O?Brien then some strains of this ?literary-history? if not at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the very root of Irish terrorism fostered its acceptance. It also happened to be the stuff they taught children in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish schools, and here W. B. Yeats was identified as the chief ?literary-Fenian? inspiring the living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generations to join the martyred dead. This interpretation still retains its attraction for those privileging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural before material explanations for the recent Irish crisis, and I still think it would be unwise to dismiss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it outright. However, the corollary of Cruise O?Brien?s thinking was a converse helpful intersection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermining the myths giving succour to physical-force republicanism in the 1970s and after. ?These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versions have been taught, and therefore can be untaught?, Cruise O?Brien reflected at the time, and he went )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on to make his own inestimable contribution to that project.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 320.672 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 320.672 203.091 m 334.664 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 334.664 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In 1975 he called this ?eradicating the tragic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heroic mode?, which was to be directed almost exclusively against the historical foundations of republican-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism in Ireland at some cost to the meaningful understanding of them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Any major study of nationalism in Ireland cannot claim immunity from these contexts. It follows therefore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that what is of particular interest in )] TJ ET BT 204.992 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Freedom)] TJ ET BT 273.980 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the method, which distils a theory of nationalism from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of nationalism. And mattering greatly is the makeup of the synthesis from which the theory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately is derived. For that part of the ?story? where he is not expert Richard English must trust to others. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What, however, may better illuminate the method employed is an examination of the period and the sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with which Richard English is most familiar. Therefore, it is of interest when Richard English writes on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins of the ?Irish Revolution?.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.3397 457.7575 99.3317 469.6375 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 195.9917 317.4535 209.9837 329.3335 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 320.6717 203.4055 334.6637 215.2855 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7013 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And so the celebrated Revolutionary turbulence of 1916?23 ? the famous story of rebellions and killings and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisonment and adventure and dreams ? turns out on close inspection to have been an aberration from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normal, milder path of Irish nationalism. The Revolution was a deviation, necessary or otherwise, from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar and stable path of constitutional democracy \(p. 327\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By August 1914, in response to the home rule act \(1912\), British constitutional democracy had conjured into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence two private armies in Ireland. Irish unionists with Tory support created the Ulster Volunteer Force )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(UVF\), and imported German rifles to arm it. A rival body similarly equipped, the Irish Volunteers, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soon controlled by the Irish parliamentary nationalist party. These events grimly pointed toward the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1801 United Kingdom?s first civil war, which the Great War?s outbreak postponed, but did not avert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indefinitely as the events of 1920?2 later demonstrated. What Richard English juxtaposes are Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionism and a determined, Whiggish, interpretation of British constitutional advancement. And this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starkly demonstrates an elemental problem to be found elsewhere in this study. It is fully impossible to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand Irish separatist nationalism under the Union, without comprehending the failures of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unionist nationalism for ultimately, it is contended here, they are of a piece when studying nationalism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Critical to this argument is an understanding of the British constitution?s development from the 17th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, its travails and successes, and its slow collapse in Ireland after 1912. The British constitution?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advances in 19th-century Ireland recorded Catholic emancipation, educational, land, and local government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforms, and an expanding franchise. But British nationalism produced no viable answer and the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution no adequate mechanism to deal with separatist aspirations buoyed by burgeoning democracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the flowering of the national idea. The frustrations and delays associated with devolved home rule after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1885, followed by partition and government sanctioned repression \(provided by the ?Black and Tans? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other special police forces in 1920?2\), and a coerced settlement in 1922, identify the failures of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution to defend the rights of Irish subjects against the interests of the state. Both before and after 1914, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militarist loyalism and militarist republicanism were responses to the power vacuum the crumbling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution had created. Studied in isolation, with the assumption of British constitutional stability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhere in the background, separatist nationalism?s violence appears deviant and perhaps the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unnecessary indulgence Richard English suggests. Studied within the wider constitutional context of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United Kingdom a richer, more plausible, view equally may emerge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roundly this argues for the United Kingdom being a more appropriate unit for interpretation for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalisms in Ireland, alongside, perhaps, a comparative analysis of identities in England, Scotland, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales. And this observation opens two promising vistas, not one. For when we study separatist nationalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we are studying not alone something of Ireland, but the failed variant of British nationalism too. That, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be suggested, is a worthwhile proposition from both British and Irish perspectives. But this does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answer the question why any study of nationalism in Ireland would confine itself to one historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community, and the limits of the island itself? In part the answer to this is located in the historical method )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted. John Hutchinson observes historians of Ireland, as elsewhere, too often are ?methodologically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist? taking as their unit of analysis their preferred nation or nation state.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.628 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.628 219.603 m 429.620 219.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 429.620 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Cumulatively this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach may distort historical writing more particularly where the community of historians, their journals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associations, and conferences are not alone expressions of professionalisation, but nationalisation too. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smaller the country arguably the greater the problem this is likely to be. Richard English?s conception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?nationalism in Ireland?, the methodology employed, and the geographical context in which it is for the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part deployed, provide examples of methodological nationalism albeit one employed by an avowed non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist: ?This book ? is written by someone who is not, in fact, a nationalist of any variety or nation? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10\). The adoption of a nationalist interpretative model is therefore all the more fascinating for this revelation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not that Richard English is unaware of these problems as he identifies in an unusually barbed footnote.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 415.6277 219.9175 429.6197 231.7975 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 6849 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It might ? seem rather avoidant for a scholar as rigorous and intelligent as David Miller to stress )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the beneficent aspects of nationality, and then to refuse engagement with that part of the United )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingdom in which it has displayed its most cruel nature: ?The Northern Irish raise special )] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems when British national identity is being discussed, and since I could not hope to do )] TJ ET BT 64.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justice to these problems I shall simply set them to one side? \(D. Millar, )] TJ ET BT 412.664 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On Nationality)] TJ ET BT 64.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995\), p. 173\) \(n. 94, p. 549\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conversely, British nationalism raises similar problems for students of Irish national identities. The ready )] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solution in both cases too often is merely to acknowledge the problem before conveniently moving on. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of course is an argument for a ?new? British history encompassing the ?British isles? or the ?Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archipelago? as preferred, which contemporary historians of Ireland as well as political scientists have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctant to engage. But quite apart from this, Richard English?s response to David Miller indicates an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitude unreceptive to nationalism as a positive force within society. And while this is a wholly justified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position throughout )] TJ ET BT 131.360 589.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Freedom)] TJ ET BT 200.348 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the reader is reminded that the weight of the historian?s criticism is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directed toward one community, one set of mythologies, and one historical ?tale?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This does not suggest )] TJ ET BT 140.684 548.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Freedom)] TJ ET BT 209.672 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an anti-nationalist rant. It is not. Richard English goes far to achieve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance in his approach as when he critiques Ulster unionism in Northern Ireland. And in fairness to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work it does attempt to acknowledge wider British contexts. Nevertheless, his fixation with the rhetoric of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extreme separatism sometimes excuses observations, which do not advance his critique. ??Marxist? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?homosexual? have not been among the most common terms used by Irish nationalists to describe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves?, Richard English tells us, ?yet Connolly, Pearse, and Casement were three of the founding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fathers of 1916? \(p. 263\). Following on from this level of analysis the language employed is needlessly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reductive. A case in point is the use of ?zealous? and ?zealot? promiscuously applied to wide ranging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities and nationalists of different pallor: ?[f]or nationalist zealot [John] O?Leary emphatically was?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?[D. P.] Moran was a talented if myopic zealot?, ?[z]ealous Irish nationalists required Irish names?, ?[w]as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Gaelic zealot necessarily more Irish than, say, a Protestant with little attachment to the ideas and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images of the Gael?, and, ?while long-term preparation by zealots such as old-Fenian Tom Clarke?, and so, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unprofitably, we might continue \(p. 183, p. 237, p. 258, p. 260, p. 261. See also, p. 153, p. 443, p. 475\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some nationalists are fanatical, but the repeated use of ?zealot?? even perhaps when applied to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(redoubtable Rev. Dr Ian Paisley ? is analytically lazy if not dismissive of individual textures and situations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such analysis because of its cumulative force \(even where tempered by balanced conclusions\) is weighed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against separatist nationalism. But even apparently fair minded conclusions require close inspection. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period 1919?22, which witnessed the IRA?s military campaign against the British crown in Ireland, Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English asks the question: ?Was this brutality legitimate?? His answer appears a model of even handedness:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yes, said the republicans, and this has been the traditional nationalist view. Again, however, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some qualifications might perhaps be mentioned. It was not the case that IRA violence was )] TJ ET BT 64.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimated through popular mandate \(it simply was not\), nor even that it was particularly )] TJ ET BT 64.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular among the wider population \(p. 291\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the last forty years few issues have exercised modern political historians in Ireland more than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy of revolutionary republican violence. And with an eye to contemporary events the violence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1919?21 has been of enhanced importance because it resulted in state formation led by armed republicans. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard English is quite correct to identify that no plebiscite was held explicitly on the IRA?s armed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle in 1919?21, and such was likely not as popular as propagandists claimed it to be. But neither were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these matters quite as simple as he suggests. His interpretation would be more convincing had he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged the urban and rural council elections held respectively in January and June 1920. Conducted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under proportional representation the elections disadvantaged the big party winners of the 1918 general )] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 43 0 R 46 0 R 49 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 7482 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election: the unionists in north east Ulster, and Sinn Fein almost everywhere else. Local electoral rolls also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favoured property, the middle classes, and stronger farmers. In January Sinn Fein won 550 seats, Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(394, unionists 355, constitutional nationalists 238, Independents 161, and municipal reformers 108.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 511.328 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 511.328 766.563 m 525.320 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 525.320 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(June electorate was three times larger, and in many counties Labour and Sinn Fein ran joint ?Republican? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(candidates. ?The election?, Michael Laffan reports, ?resulted in a Sinn Fein landslide?. He continues:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the provinces of Munster, and Connacht every single county council member was a member )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Sinn Fein or the Labour Party. The Unionists lost control of Tyrone, and the )] TJ ET BT 445.652 686.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Belfast )] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Newsletter)] TJ ET BT 115.352 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( described the result as the most severe blow which the Unionists of the country had )] TJ ET BT 64.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever sustained.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 135.332 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 135.332 657.027 m 149.324 657.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The historian of the IRA Peter Hart writes, ?[r]evolutionary casualties between January and March ? [1920] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were three times those of the preceding three months. They doubled, then tripled again over the next six )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(months?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 77.684 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 77.684 590.259 m 91.676 590.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 91.676 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Was in 1920 a vote for Sinn Fein and Labour tacit endorsement of rapidly spreading republican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence too? Whatever the answer, both local elections must first be acknowledged before any assumption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be made about the relationship between republican violence and the absence of legitimacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where extremes of separatist nationalist behaviour are concerned an unfamiliar, sometimes implausible, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture is presented in )] TJ ET BT 142.664 522.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Freedom)] TJ ET BT 211.652 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. ?In the 1930s?, comments Richard English, ?the pro-Treatyite wing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish nationalism spawned a quasi-fascist movement ? the Blueshirts ? which long remained effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forgotten, but which a newer generation of scholars )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 284.288 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 284.288 492.723 m 298.280 492.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 298.280 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has thankfully now restored to our memory? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336\). Though some in Irish party politics would dearly wish it were so, very few would agree that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blueshirts disappeared from popular far less academic memories. But this alleged amnesia takes on greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance later in the light of the statement, ?in 1933 the ACA \(Army Comrades Association, later the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blueshirts\) claimed to possess around 100,000 members? \(p.337\). Here ?claimed? is the operative word. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with similar paramilitary groupings elsewhere at the time it was not unheard to exaggerate membership for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda. But the generation of scholars whom Richard English applauds have busied themselves using )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sales of badges, muster returns, and police surveillance reports to flesh out a more realistic account. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources place ACA membership at less than 20,000 in early 1933, rising to at most 47,000 in April 1934, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following the adoption of female and juvenile sections. The active \(turning out to parade\) membership was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely a still formidable 11,500 prior to the Blueshirts? division in September 1934, when the organisation all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but evaporated.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 107.996 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 107.996 335.907 m 127.988 335.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a country the size of the Free State 100,000 shirted ?quasi-fascists? indicates significant mobilisation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the exaggerated membership statistic Richard English identifies may prejudice perceptions of southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish society. Again, this is not incidental to the developing argument:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It might be embarrassing to acknowledge that nationalist Ireland backed fascism in Spain during )] TJ ET BT 64.016 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1936?9, and that it largely stood aside in the Second World War fight against Hitler, but this )] TJ ET BT 64.016 215.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the essential reality and its explanation is evident enough. A conservative Catholic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism had been dominant in Revolutionary Ireland, and so the struggle in Spain ? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpreted by many as one involving godless communism versus the Faith ? was easy enough )] TJ ET BT 64.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to read \(p. 338\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is the case many Catholics supported the ?Nationalist? military coup against the Spanish Republic?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratically elected government for the reasons Richard English indicates. And some volunteers went to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fight alongside Franco?s forces with former Blueshirt leader General Eoin O?Duffy. However, if we take the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish Free State?s government as being in someway representative of ?nationalist Ireland?, then we have to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledge that following other liberal democracies, including Britain and France, it too observed a strict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-intervention policy during Spain?s civil war. The same government, led by Eamon de Valera, was re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elected in 1937, and again in 1938, which may suggest ?nationalist Ireland?s? support for Francoist Spain )] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 511.3277 766.8775 525.3197 778.7575 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 135.3317 657.3415 149.3237 669.2215 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 77.6837 590.5735 91.6757 602.4535 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 284.2877 493.0375 298.2797 504.9175 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 107.9957 336.2215 127.9877 348.1015 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 57 0 R ] /Contents 55 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Length 6624 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was qualified, complicated by national interests, and did not amount to backing ?fascism in Spain?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alternatively, it could be argued, as many on the left have done since, that non-intervention supported the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francoist rebels by cutting supplies to the Spanish Republic?s defenders. That, however, is not Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English?s argument. And such an interpretation would have to take account of the Irish government?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspirations for a policy of neutrality during the late 1930s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Responses to the Spanish war were more complex than Richard English allows, and a tendency to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternatively oversimplify or to exaggerate only lends to distorted interpretation the effect of which finds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression in the sentence: ?Eoin O?Duffy?s crusade reflected nationalist Ireland?s broad, Francoist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instincts? \(p. 339\). That only 700 volunteers followed O?Duffy to Spain may give pause for reflection here. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So too must the fact that tens of thousands of Spanish citizens were murdered in cold blood by Franco?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime in the four decades after 1936. Had Irish separatist nationalists shared any such ?instincts?, likely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these would have found expression in their own civil wars after 1919 or more directly in the republican-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blueshirt faction fights of the early 1930s. This was not the case. It is the relatively low level of violence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ability of Irish communities to regulate themselves, which is of greater significance in this period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard English?s analogy seems still more inappropriate if the enduring success of southern Ireland?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal-democracy, as he identifies elsewhere, is juxtaposed with Spain?s cataclysm.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is the attrition of this kind of analysis, which matters greatly. And Richard English determines to draw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further parallels between continental fascism and separatist nationalism in Ireland as when he writes: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given that some Irish nationalists have identified their own communal suffering \(at the hands of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain and of Northern Irish unionists\) with that of the victims of Nazism there is some irony ? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and no little disgrace ? in the fact that the IRA colluded with Hitler at a time when unionists )] TJ ET BT 64.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(such as future Northern Ireland Prime Ministers Terrence O?Neill and James Chichester-Clark\) )] TJ ET BT 64.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and future victims of republican violence \(such as Lord Mountbatten and Airey Neave\) were )] TJ ET BT 64.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighting against him.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nor was it just the ongoing IRA which displayed such instincts. Many Irish nationalists )] TJ ET BT 64.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(including Maud Gonne and Dan Breen\) were sympathetic to the Nazis, and numerous other )] TJ ET BT 64.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish nationalists were clearly anti-Jewish in their thinking. Northern nationalist politician )] TJ ET BT 64.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malachy Conlon had distasteful views of this kind ? and nor was he a trivial figure \(p. 340\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is no doubting that the IRA collaborated with the Nazis, and many other separatists supported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany during the war. However, this, along with Irish support for Franco, and Irish wartime neutrality is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented as a moral issue, and this invites the question: what is a moral argument doing in a historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Before attempting to answer the last question it seems necessary to outline why historians resist the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(application of moral argument to historical analysis. The first objection is that moral arguments offer nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is of historical value. To say the IRA, no more than the supporters of France?s Vichy regime or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of the German SS were a ?disgrace? for supporting Hitler tells us nothing of why these people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acted in the way that they did. What such statements do tell us is something about the moral judgements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the writer, but this is irrelevant unless it is proposed that contemporary values are to be transposed to past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies when interpreting those societies. The Nazi regime, as nearly all will admit, poses particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems for the historian because of the enormity of the Holocaust, which overshadows the decade before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1945.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 61.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 61.016 128.835 m 81.008 128.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 81.008 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, we cannot interpret the actions of people with any reference to that event before it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happened or otherwise was understood to have happened. But comparisons with the Nazis often confuse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these fundamental principles of historical interpretation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For these and other historiographical reasons the IRA?s relationship with the Nazis, as with other nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups, is difficult to unpack objectively. That, however, is the historian?s unforgiving burden. Nevertheless, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 56 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 61.0157 129.1495 81.0077 141.0295 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 62 0 R 65 0 R ] /Contents 60 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Length 7811 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the decision to make the connection between fighting the Nazis with the opponents and victims of )] TJ ET BT 507.296 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(future)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republican violence is Richard English?s, and this reveals something important about his historical thinking. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English conceives the struggle against militarist-republicanism and fascism as a continuum where he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests there is some kind of equivalence and connection between fighting the Nazis in the 1940s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighting republicans after 1970. Historically speaking this has to be unsatisfactory. But then Richard English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not engaged in making a historical argument here. For him the Second World War provided, ?the moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperative to engage in an anti-Nazi war? \(p. 330\), and in this, in both the IRA and the independent Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state, separatist nationalism was found wanting. It must be observed that satisfying though this conclusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be for some ?the essential reality? was again more complex, and measurably more interesting.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clearly Richard English sees nothing wrong with moralising about the past, and one may suspect many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general readers \(and a few historians besides\) will sympathise with his sentiments. Alternatively, it should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be argued in 1939 the only imperative that really mattered was the imperative to survive. This conditioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses to threats, and subsequently created alliances. For Britain initially this meant standing alone, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for occupied France both collaboration and resistance. For ire it meant neutrality. As for the IRA?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaboration with the Nazis this had been prefigured in 1912?4, when first the UVF, and then the National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Volunteers enlisted German help to import arms into Ireland. That the IRA was committed to Nazi ideology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as opposed to a strategic alliance is debatable although there is incontrovertible evidence some individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(converted to National Socialism. But at least one of the leading Nazi collaborators in the 1940s Frank Ryan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Richard English identifies, fought against Franco in Spain, and his biography, if nothing else, might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest further inquiry into IRA ?interests? alongside the separatist?s ?disgrace?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Had in 1939 the primary threat come alone from the Soviet army sweeping westwards instead of the Nazis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then different alliances might have been created. What would become the Cold War after 1945 just as easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have begun in 1940, with the liberal democracies allied with the fascist powers against a Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invasion. Arguably, elements of this counterfactual alignment were anticipated during the Spanish Civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War, with some western governments preferring to see the fascists triumph there against the ?Reds?. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(real Cold War western powers supported \(and installed\) fascistic dictatorships in South and Central America, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and propped-up the anti-communist apartheid regime in South Africa. The mundane point of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unavoidable diversion is that alongside national interests there is no absolute morality in international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations. It is of course not ?wrong? to interpret war against Irish militarist republicanism as the extension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the war against fascism or as indeed an extended conflict between ?good? and ?evil?. It is just not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So why then do it? Cruise O?Brien offered a clue from 1981 when he wrote, ?those who want to oppose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascism in Ireland will start opposing it where it is really to be found: at the heart of the Republican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Movement?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 94.340 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 94.340 288.627 m 114.332 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 114.332 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The equation of fascism with extreme \(and here not-so-extreme\) separatist nationalism is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hangover from political interpretations framed in the war between militarist republicanism and the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state in Ireland after 1970. In that extraordinary context it suited some commentators to explain ?Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence? in terms of Irish irrationality of which the extreme nationalism of the Provisionals blithely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approved of by some was but one expression. To adapt Cruise O?Brien?s favourite Maoist analogy of ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(water and the fish? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 127.988 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 127.988 217.347 m 147.980 217.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 147.980 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Richard English casts his net far and wide covering ?conservative Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism? by suggesting it has supported \(and may again\) many more ?green fascists? than has in fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been the case.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout Richard English?s extended essay runs the thread of a barely concealed moral argument, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeks to undermine rather than to understand mainstream separatism. There is no doubt that much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentary is measured, sometimes impartial with flashes of insight occasionally illuminating the text. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although it is also true his attempts at balance for balance?s sake sometimes appear schematic. But lurking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amid the interpretation there labours an obsession that separatist nationalism primarily should be understood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the agent of mobilised Catholicism predisposed to extreme acts and extreme ideas. ?In overwhelming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(composition, in terms of many of the goals pursued, in terms of the vision of what made the nation special, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in terms of identifying what you are not \(Protestant, atheistic\)?, Richard English tells us, ?in all these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways and despite rhetorical non-sectarianism, Irish nationalism has been deeply Catholic? \(p. 442\). In part )] TJ ET endstream endobj 61 0 obj [59 0 R /Fit] endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 94.3397 288.9415 114.3317 300.8215 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 64 0 obj [59 0 R /Fit] endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 127.9877 217.6615 147.9797 229.5415 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 70 0 R ] /Contents 68 0 R >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Length 7993 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measure he is of course undoubtedly and unsurprisingly correct and one might feel willing to agree with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more of what he says if the interpretation were impartially laid out: but it is not. For example, ?rhetorical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-sectarianism? implies \(it is never quite made clear\) separatist nationalism is inherently sectarian. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a case to be made here, but it needs careful handling.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Levelled against diverse communities over two centuries ?rhetorical non-sectarianism? is another broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stroke. It has to be accepted elements of Irish separatists plainly were confessional, and sometimes overtly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sectarian and xenophobic in their outlook. It is also true similar prejudices are common to all nationalisms in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different degrees, which demand careful measurement. It is therefore useful to examine Richard English?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissection of separatist nationalism and Catholicism, and in this respect the 1916 Easter week rebellion is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instructive. The ?Rising?, Richard English emphatically tells us, ?was a Catholic affair? \(p. 267\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Catholicism was evident during the week itself?, he observes, ?the rebels recited the Rosary in the General )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Post Office ? during the Rising and were attended by Catholic priests? \(p. 274\). From this he extrapolates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebels? religious observance turned rebellion into something interpreted as ?a moving and excluding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intertwining of religion with politics, in an expressly Catholic version? \(p. 274\). But can the rebellion be so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described? It is true the event?s later memorialisation borrowed heavily from Roman Catholic ritual, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard English identifies. But this also should warn against crude teleologies of the rebellion as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression of one religious faith. The Irish Republican Brotherhood, which planned and executed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion, was governed by a secular constitution, and within its ranks there were to be found ?free thinkers?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(atheists, Jews, and some Protestants. Richard English insists the rebellion was a ?Catholic affair?, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternatively it was a ?political event? \(p. 273\), all to deny its republican dimensions. And that seems to me )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be a revision too far on the strength of both the evidence and argument presented. In his exegesis English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes no reference to that part of the rebel?s Proclamation stating: ?The Republic guarantees religious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil liberty, equal rights and equal opportunities to all its citizens?. Viewed retrospectively through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of the independent Irish state these aspirations may appear naive, but nothing is presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporting an assumption they were merely rhetorical in 1916.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard English, if I understand him correctly, is trying to look at sectarianism in wider contexts than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?event?. It can be argued, though Richard English does not do so explicitly, that )] TJ ET BT 420.968 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(any)] TJ ET BT 438.296 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( drive towards self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determination would bring separatist and unionist nationalisms into a sectarian conflict across Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland, concentrating inside Ulster. Moving toward national self-determination, therefore, came with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analogous sectarian price: ?In time, the cost of this [Easter 1916] was to be felt in north-east Ireland where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the largest concentration of Protestants lived? \(p. 275\). That mobilised separatist nationalism held within it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the inescapable logic of sectarian violence seems to me a good argument, if not a historical fact. But this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only part of a picture, which requires viewing in its full panorama. If it is to be accepted that any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilisation of separatist nationalism inevitably would lead to the alienation of Protestant unionists or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worse, then the converse argument has also to be acknowledged. British nationalism used religion to hold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland \(or part of it\) within the Union often alienating Catholic communities in the process. Again Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English is alive to some of this when he notes, ?[i]f the Catholic Ireland defined itself as the nation, then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historically the process had also worked the other way, as a Protestant Britain had effectively defined itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in exclusive ways too?. But we are left at a loss to know what those ?exclusive ways? were or what their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications for separatist nationalism might have been. Citing Peter Hart?s )] TJ ET BT 400.988 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The IRA and its Enemies)] TJ ET BT 519.644 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1998\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Fearghal McGarry?s biography )] TJ ET BT 207.968 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eoin O?Duffy)] TJ ET BT 274.964 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2005\), Richard English continues: ?Thus it was that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1919?21 IRA \(and their enemies\) on occasion exhibited an ugly sectarianism of word and deed? \(p. 296\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fearghal McGarry for his part identifies among other things crude sectarian appeals to Ulster Catholics to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support Eoin O?Duffy?s auctioneering business in 1920. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 308.648 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 308.648 158.067 m 328.640 158.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 328.640 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Peter Hart unpeels the layers of a more violent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sectarian culture in west county Cork. But if ?Catholic? sectarianism is to be an integral ?part of the story? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Richard English protests then something more is required than citing two monographs relating to one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short period. As for the sectarianism of IRA?s enemies \(which appears to be an afterthought\) this goes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unarticulated and therefore unreferenced.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is at issue here is not that separatists exhibited sectarian behaviour, but the limited confines in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is explored and explained. So we may find some agreement with Richard English when he writes, ?what )] TJ ET endstream endobj 69 0 obj [67 0 R /Fit] endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 308.6477 158.3815 328.6397 170.2615 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 75 0 R 78 0 R 81 0 R 84 0 R ] /Contents 73 0 R >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Length 8207 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we find is a nationalist rhetoric and vision of non-sectarian inclusiveness, complemented by a frequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough sectarianism on the ground? \(pp. 442?3\). But the frequency and intensity of separatist sectarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture is not explained by the evidence he adduces. Had Richard English dug deeper, and sifted through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finer mesh no doubt more evidence of Catholic sectarianism could have been found. But no amount of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence would resolve the methodological problem of forensically examining one community on one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(island, while not adequately addressing its context. Instead what English appears to be doing is rebuking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those separatists who would still claim their inheritance goes untarnished by religious prejudice. Denials like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, I think, may be dismissed in a few pages, but here it has become a book-length project. And the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disproportionate response encourages English into adopting some uncomfortable contortions as for example )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he writes: ?Many northern Protestants thought the [1920?2] IRA in the south to be engaged in what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might now be termed the ethnic cleansing of Protestants there? \(p. 315\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Applying the term ?ethnic cleansing? to 1920s southern Ireland is hotly contested in the literature and so the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision to do so has to be significant. To describe a thought or an event in the 1920s using a coinage from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1990s Balkans? conflicts is of course an anachronism, and a very confusing one at that. The only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional historian seriously to suggest the term?s valid application, Peter Hart, in 2006 disassociated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself from it, ?I have never argued that ?ethnic cleansing? took place in Cork or elsewhere in the 1920s - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in fact, quite the opposite?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.000 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.000 554.979 m 183.992 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 183.992 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Contradicting this in 1996, and again 2003, Peter Hart wrote: ?Similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns of what might be termed ?ethnic cleansing? were waged in parts of King?s and Queen?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Counties, South Tipperary, Leitrim, Mayo, Limerick, Westmeath, Louth and Cork?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 437.312 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 437.312 526.467 m 457.304 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 457.304 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Excusing Hart for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the moment, Richard English suggests that we should consider the interpretation of unserious historians. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, Eoin Harris in 2005 writing on ?what happened to Protestants in the South between 1911 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1980?, claimed, ?the ethnic cleansing of 50,000 [Protestant] farmers, shopkeepers and artisans in 1921?; or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Reverend Ian Paisley writing in 1999 on the same subject: ?what are the real facts [in the Republic]? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More than 75 years of ethnic cleansing?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 228.968 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 228.968 455.187 m 248.960 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 248.960 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Use of ahistorical and emotive conceptualisations ? even where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributed to a third party or to nobody ? serve to normalise them in the historical narrative where they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not carefully qualified. For some the historian?s endorsement alone will legitimise these terms ensuring that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they become a kind of historical ?truth?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 227.648 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 227.648 412.419 m 247.640 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 247.640 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Richard English is not wrong to suggest some people ?might? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apply the term ?ethnic cleansing? to southern experiences in 1920, but only because some people ?might? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say anything.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following an extended quotation, which concludes, ?maintenance of local power by the dominant majority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in each state [north and south after 1920] was not softened by respect for the freedom of individuals or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissident minorities?, Richard English continues, ?this situation continued for many years, creating both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smugness and a hierarchy of communities in each jurisdiction? \(p. 349\). Following this English quotes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein during Wittgenstein?s visit to Ireland in the late 1940s. ?I would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much prefer to see a child educated by a decent Protestant pastor than a greasy Roman Catholic priest?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote the philosopher, ?[w]hen I look at the faces of the clergy here in Dublin, it seems to me that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant ministers look less smug than the Roman priests?. The historical information contained in that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statement amounts to little more than to Wittgenstein?s preference for Protestant over Catholic kindergartens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving us to query what the quotation?s precise function is in the text? In the same paragraph Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English goes on to quote as a ?nationalist? with ?republican sympathies?, the writer Sean O?Faolain. ?[I]t is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a matter of common knowledge to those who care to enquire, or even observe?, wrote O?Faolain, ?that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant in the south has as little chance of getting his fair share of public appointments as the Catholic in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the north?. The implication is that as a ?nationalist? O?Faolain?s commentary may be taken as unprejudiced. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But O?Faolain?s assertion that there was equivalence in the treatment of minorities north and south goes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unqualified by Richard English leaving a misleading interpretation hanging in the wind. Some might agree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with O?Faolain?s statement, but in any historical treatment, moreover one arguing for Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism?s ?rhetorical non-sectarianism?, it surely begs careful critical evaluation. It is the interpretation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the existence of historical information that gives it value. Allowing contested evidence, here in the form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of opinion, to speak for itself represents not alone the abandonment of the author?s responsibility to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader, but examples too a rejection of historical method.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 74 0 obj [72 0 R /Fit] endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 76 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 163.9997 555.2935 183.9917 567.1735 ] >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 77 0 obj [72 0 R /Fit] endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 79 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 437.3117 526.7815 457.3037 538.6615 ] >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 80 0 obj [72 0 R /Fit] endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 82 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 228.9677 455.5015 248.9597 467.3815 ] >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 83 0 obj [72 0 R /Fit] endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 85 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 227.6477 412.7335 247.6397 424.6135 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 87 0 R >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Length 7798 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The besetting problem of )] TJ ET BT 158.000 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Freedom)] TJ ET BT 226.988 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is overstatement and simplification in its case against separatist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism explained as essentially Catholic, exclusionary, and sectarian. It remains indisputable that from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late 18th-century mobilised separatist nationalism contained within it a strong Catholic ethos, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes equated the ?Irish nation? exclusively with the ?Catholic people?. This, many will agree, is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsurprising observation, but to reduce separatism to an expression of Catholic identity runs the risk of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(missing the textures of a complex phenomenon as well as the non-Catholics whom Richard English does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always identify as such. From the beginning of the 19th century it is true the Catholic Church provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures and leadership around which separatist nationalism eventually mobilised. Here the Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church often filled socio-political roles reneged on by the British state. But the sectarian organisation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish society was also an inheritance of the conquests and settlements of the 17th century, and one would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shocked not to find sectarianism expressed in later political life because it remained integral in muted form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the realities of daily life. The function of the failed Protestant reformation in Ireland, as with colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plantations, the establishment of a Protestant ascendancy, and Ireland?s inclusion under the 1801 Union, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were initiatives to protect Britain?s strategic defence interests, which lasted to the conclusion of the Cold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War. Religious conformity for the confessional British state, was one among many strategic tools used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protect Britain from the danger of a hostile Ireland, and beyond it a hostile Europe. Sectarianism was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore integral to making and keeping Ireland ?British?, and was also to be part of the attempt to reverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those policies. It is a truism of modern Irish history that religious discrimination associated with anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unionism is unintelligible without a meaningful appreciation of pro-Union sectarianism. And so a balanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to these issues demands consideration of the relationships existing between competing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalisms and religions right across the United Kingdom. But since )] TJ ET BT 374.336 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Freedom)] TJ ET BT 443.324 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is conceived as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodologically ?Irish? project it cannot do justice to the problem, and Richard English therefore chooses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply to set it to one side.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arguably, the major historiographical problem confronted when addressing Irish sectarianism is not proving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it existed \(that is incontestable\), but rather to avoid using it as a weapon in contemporary ideological battles. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If separatism was a form of mobilised Catholicism then it follows its republican ideology was merely a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veneer covering uglier sectarian intentions. Richard English concludes the reality contradicted the rhetoric, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and where proved correct this does more than almost any other argument to undermine a hitherto dominant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of history, which has legitimised all shades of republicanism in Ireland. Almost any other, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is, except the argument Irish republicanism was essentially non-democratic, and contains within it a fascistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impulse. A significant problem for the historian addressing these concepts is the necessity to transcend their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(application in present centred arguments against the Provisional IRA. And, moreover, to see sectarianism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republicanism, and democracy in their historical context, rather than through the distorting lens of the recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northern Ireland conflict. Where this has not happened it has often led to what can be understood as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Ulsterisation? of the Irish historical landscape the corollary of which is a more pessimistic interpretation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Ireland than is warranted. This may go some way toward explaining why some academic historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been anxious to draw loose analogies between Ireland in the 1920s and Balkan massacres in our own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, and why others have stretched to accommodate this interpretation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whilst Irish republicanism was a reaction to Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 295.316 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien rgime)] TJ ET BT 363.632 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(monarchy, aristocracy, and privilege )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connected to faith\), it reflected too in its later constitutional objectives some of the reforming aspirations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late Victorian and Edwardian British state. The republican aspiration toward religious tolerance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coincided under the Union with the decline of institutionalised discrimination against non-conformists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics included. But Irish republicanism went further in the desire to dismantle the trappings of monarchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and empire and the patronage system associated with this. Meanwhile experience of government reforms, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local democracy, and the political diminution of the minor-aristocracy had brought 19th-century Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closer to norms of British governance. These also helped inculcate a British political culture in Ireland to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which separatist republican thought was not immune. The models of political institutions after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence, as has been long observed, were often innovations after British traditions. Not least among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them an unarmed police force, the Garda Siochana \(the Irish ?boys in blue? being much closer to British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(norms than the paramilitary Royal Irish Constabulary before 1922 or the Royal Ulster Constabulary after\). )] TJ ET endstream endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 90 0 R 92 0 R 94 0 R 96 0 R 98 0 R 100 0 R 102 0 R 104 0 R 106 0 R 108 0 R ] /Contents 89 0 R >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Length 9050 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whilst Catholicism infused separatist nationalism in Ireland it is also true a pervasive British constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture enveloped it, which after 1922 helped set southern Irish democracy apart from Iberia, and most of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rest of Europe. Again Richard English recognises some of this as a ?sweet irony ? left by an opponent so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long denounced as appalling evil?, but he too is very willing to see separatist political culture as something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exotic opposing British norms and values. His raw instinct is to look toward ?fascistic? Spain rather than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burgeoning British democracy to explain the separatists? political culture. And in this context among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most striking omissions of the book is any attempt to discuss the consensus politics emerging under a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional republicanism, where separatists successfully accessed power. These successful separatists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might then be best and most profitably be understood as the Union?s lost Britons rather than as essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic nationalists, which surely is too easy a reduction as Richard English has it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Northern Ireland, where the British constitution has recently recovered lost ground, again separatist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalists ? among them the potent strain found in the Provisional IRA ? have made accommodations with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British unionist nationalism as Martin McGuinness and Ian Paisley?s metaphorical embrace bears testament. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And this suggests that )] TJ ET BT 142.688 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inter)] TJ ET BT 165.356 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-nationalist relations are in no small measure determined by the health of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution under which they exist. Alongside these recent developments the theories of sectarianism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusivism Richard English advances could usefully have been tested against the experiences of Poles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lithuanians, Russians, and Nigerians, to name some of the migrants and settlers transforming the island )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the mid-1990s. But about these ?new? Irish there is not a word in this history of nationalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In making the case weighted against separatist nationalism Richard English exaggerates in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermine older interpretations. On many issues there is a lot to agree with, but the excesses and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oversimplifications he indulges ultimately detract from his argument?s force. One of the major achievements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of so called ?revisionist? historical writing in recent decades has been its articulation of diversities teasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out the subtleties of Irish identities. Where Richard English addresses separatist nationalism he abandons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that innovation in favour of a crude analysis replete with generalities, and unfounded assumption. Terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as ?sectarianism?, ?ethnic cleansing?, ?anti-Semitism?, and not least ?nationalism? are employed not as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytical categories to be rigorously tested, but rather as moralising projectiles thrown in all directions, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aimed only in one. The approach owes its debts to a historiographical mode framed in response to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northern Ireland crisis, and the threat from resurgent separatism carried within it. That war thankfully is now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over. With its passing should go too the moral imperative to see any species of nationalism as something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily to be undermined, rather than understood.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.147 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard English, ?The same people with different relatives? Modern scholarship, unionists and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish nation?, in )] TJ ET BT 142.676 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Unionism in Modern Ireland: New Perspectives on Politics and Culture)] TJ ET BT 488.324 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Richard )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English and Graham Walker \(Basingstoke, 1996\), p. 230. For the proposition Unionism rests on the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept of citizenship inside the union not nationalism \(?There is no such thing as the British nation. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are only British citizens?.\), which English cites in support of his analysis see Arthur Aughey, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Unionism and self-determination?, in )] TJ ET BT 251.660 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Northern Ireland Question: Myth and Reality)] TJ ET BT 490.976 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Patrick )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Roche and Brian Barton \(Aldershot, 1991\), p. 6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 306.320 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 306.320 206.595 m 360.308 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conor Cruise O?Brien, ?An unhealthy intersection?, )] TJ ET BT 318.644 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Review)] TJ ET BT 377.636 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2, 16 \(1975\), 5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 457.628 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 457.628 192.339 m 511.616 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ibid, 7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 97.688 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 97.688 178.083 m 151.676 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 165.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ibid, 7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 97.688 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 97.688 163.827 m 151.676 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 150.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Hutchinson, ?Irish nationalism?, in )] TJ ET BT 261.008 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of Modern Irish History)] TJ ET BT 436.664 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. D. G. Boyce and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan O?Day \(London, 1996\), p. 101.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 241.652 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 241.652 135.315 m 295.640 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Laffan, )] TJ ET BT 144.320 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Resurrection of Ireland: the Sinn Fein Party 1916?1923)] TJ ET BT 435.632 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1999\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(327.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.016 106.803 m 139.004 106.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 93.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ibid, p. 329.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 121.688 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 121.688 92.547 m 175.676 92.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 79.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Hart, )] TJ ET BT 119.000 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The IRA at War 1916 ?1923)] TJ ET BT 254.660 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2003\), p. 71.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 363.308 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 363.308 78.291 m 417.296 78.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 65.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The historians cited are Mike Cronin, Fearghal McGarry, R. A. Stradling, and John M. Regan.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 516.956 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 516.956 64.035 m 556.952 64.035 l S BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 49.779 m 78.008 49.779 l S endstream endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 91 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 306.3197 206.9095 360.3077 218.7895 ] >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 93 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 457.6277 192.6535 511.6157 204.5335 ] >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 95 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 97.6877 178.3975 151.6757 190.2775 ] >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 97 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 97.6877 164.1415 151.6757 176.0215 ] >> endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 99 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 241.6517 135.6295 295.6397 147.5095 ] >> endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 101 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.0157 107.1175 139.0037 118.9975 ] >> endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 39 0 R >> endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 103 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 121.6877 92.8615 175.6757 104.7415 ] >> endobj 103 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 42 0 R >> endobj 104 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 105 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 363.3077 78.6055 417.2957 90.4855 ] >> endobj 105 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 45 0 R >> endobj 106 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 107 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 516.9557 64.3495 556.9517 76.2295 ] >> endobj 107 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 48 0 R >> endobj 108 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 109 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 50.0935 78.0077 61.9735 ] >> endobj 109 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 48 0 R >> endobj 110 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 112 0 R 114 0 R 116 0 R 118 0 R 120 0 R 122 0 R 124 0 R 126 0 R 128 0 R 130 0 R 132 0 R ] /Contents 111 0 R >> endobj 111 0 obj << /Length 8074 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mike Cronin writes, ?This figure [100,000] is misleading as the actual peak of Blueshirt membership )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is less than half of this. The figure ? is General O?Duffy?s own estimate of the membership and must )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be seen in the context of a politician exaggerating the importance of his own organisation?. John M. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regan, )] TJ ET BT 100.676 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish Counter-Revolution)] TJ ET BT 242.672 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 1999\), pp. 329 ?32; pp. 354 ?5; Mike Cronin, )] TJ ET BT 509.996 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Blueshirts and Irish Politics)] TJ ET BT 199.028 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 1997\), p. 113, pp 114 ?7; Fearghal McGarry, )] TJ ET BT 463.988 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Politics and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Spanish Civil War)] TJ ET BT 169.688 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cork, 1999\), p. 34.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.680 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 267.680 723.795 m 327.668 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In January 2005, Irish President Mary McAleese, a Roman Catholic from Northern Ireland, during a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(live radio interview in advance of attending a commemoration at Auschwitz concentration camp, said )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Nazis that: ?They gave to their children an irrational hatred of Jews in the same way that people )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Northern Ireland transmitted to their children an irrational hatred, for example, of Catholics, in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same way that people give to their children an outrageous and irrational hatred of those who are of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different colour and all of those things?? President McAleese later apologised for her failure to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention Protestants as victims of hatred in Northern Ireland. )] TJ ET BT 357.980 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Times)] TJ ET BT 412.316 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 29 January 2005.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 500.636 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 500.636 624.003 m 560.624 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 611.146 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conor Cruise O?Brien, ?Blueshirts and Quislings?, )] TJ ET BT 312.668 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Magill)] TJ ET BT 344.672 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(14 June 1981\), 25.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 443.660 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 443.660 609.747 m 503.648 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Conor Cruise O?Brien, )] TJ ET BT 198.332 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(States of Ireland)] TJ ET BT 277.664 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 1972\), pp. 281?303.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.320 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.320 595.491 m 480.308 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 582.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fearghal McGarry, )] TJ ET BT 158.984 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eoin O?Duffy: a Self-Made Hero)] TJ ET BT 318.956 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2005\), p. 44.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 427.604 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 427.604 581.235 m 487.592 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Times)] TJ ET BT 118.352 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 28 June 2006.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 191.348 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 191.348 566.979 m 251.336 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 554.122 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Hart, ?The Protestant experience of revolution in southern Ireland?, in )] TJ ET BT 431.600 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Unionism in Modern )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ireland)] TJ ET BT 99.344 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. 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Hart is a professional historian and would not use the words )] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("ethnic cleansing" lightly.? 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