%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722175638+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722175638+01'00') /Title (Gallipoli: Attack from the Sea) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4139 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Gallipoli: Attack from the Sea)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a book whose coverage is not confined to its title. That is, it tells us about more than just the naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspect of 1915?s attack on Gallipoli. There are chapters here about how the campaign was initiated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, about the ill-starred military landings at Cape Helles and Anzac Cove, about the failed attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop the operation in the south of the peninsula and then to initiate a whole new endeavour at Anzac and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Suvla, and about the melancholy decision to abandon the campaign. \(The last of these includes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional, if witless, lament that the British had not executed the invasion with the degree of expertise they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoted to calling the whole thing off.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But it must be said that it is in the chapters on strictly naval matters which intersperse these, and especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those which deal with the German and British submarine campaigns at Gallipoli, that the book achieves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some sort of a scholarly standard. It may be noted that the longest chapter in the book, of 38 pages, is called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Submarines take control of the Sea of Marmara?. Here is related how, between May 1915 and the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the year, a succession of British underwater vessels penetrated through the Dardanelles waters and engaged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in attacks on Turkish vessels in the Sea of Marmara. So, from 19 May to 7 June, the submarine Ell spent its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time in the Sea of Marmara under the command of Eric Nasmith, sinking supply ships, taking photographs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Constantinople harbour, threatening the rail line which conveyed Turkish troops and supplies to the front, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and avoiding the devoted attempts of enemy destroyers and submarines to halt its rampage. For this Nasmith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(705)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 December, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victor Rudenno)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300124408)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(338pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trevor Wilson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5749 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received the Victoria Cross. This saga of submarines in the Dardanelles constitutes a good adventure story. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But as history its importance is trivial. The British, in so far as they had developed any clear ideas about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what they were hoping to achieve at Gallipoli, had gone there to open the route to Constantinople, which by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painful experience they discovered could only be accomplished ? if then ? by conquering territory. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tale which, in just under half his chapters, Rudenno endeavours to tell. But his mastery here is altogether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less adequate than in the naval sections.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are a few political and military stories worth telling about the Gallipoli operation, far removed though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they may be from the real war \(which, it needs to be stressed, was being fought of necessity against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany, not Turkey, and in Western Europe, not the Dardanelles\). Most of those stories concern the matter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the campaign?s inauguration. The British decision to launch any activity there was made tentatively, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asquith?s War Council on 13 January 1915. It was a decision to undertake a \(purely naval\) attack to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?bombard and take? the Gallipoli peninsular, ?with Constantinople as its objective?. The War Council was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sub-committee of the British cabinet designed to deal just with matters relating to the great conflict in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe had become involved. Its overwhelming concern was the war in France and Belgium, where matters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had not been going as well as hoped. Long military agonies had been occupying the War Council?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberations on that occasion. Then, late in the exhausting day, the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill, raised a naval matter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Plans were emerging, Churchill told his colleagues, for a purely naval assault at Gallipoli. It would sail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the defences in the narrow Dardanelles channel and appear before Constantinople, an event which it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was assumed would promptly cause Turkey to throw in the towel. \(The presence in the Sea of Marmara of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two German battle-cruisers, one of greater size and fire-power than anything the British were planning to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(send there, was not considered deserving of attention.\) The War Council, not surprisingly, sat up and took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notice. No one was talking about sending troops, which was what the war in France and Belgium was all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about. And, as the War Minister Lord Kitchener sagely observed, if the naval assault at the Dardanelles did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not succeed, the fleet could always sail away with nothing lost.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet from this slender basis, large decisions would flow. None of the fundamental questions had been asked. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What objectives actually were the British planning to assault? And could they be taken only by a naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force? If not, how many troops would be required, and would such a number ? and the appropriate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ammunition ? be available? \(It may be noted that, speaking generally in January, Kitchener ? while claiming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have no troops available for Gallipoli ? had said that 150,000 would be needed to secure a victory there. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But when a few months later he actually launched the attack, having realised that the navy would never get )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through and forgetting his wisdom that the attempt should therefore be abandoned, he provided only half )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that number.\) So an operation was being undertaken with no serious consideration of what were manifestly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important matters. Thereby the scene was set for an expedition which possessed beggarly opportunity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieving any objectives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But one will look in vain for any analysis of the inception of Gallipoli in Rudenno?s book. The author?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precarious knowledge of the basic political facts of the period is revealed early on, when Lloyd George, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of only three references to him, is described as ?prime minister?. If one asks what post is attributed to H. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. Asquith, the actual prime minister, it is not possible to answer. Asquith?s name is wholly absent from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 3186 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Out of this unhappy state of disorder, no clear narrative emerges about who originated the Gallipoli )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign or how its method of commission was first planned and then subjected to startling changes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Likewise, the issue of what the operation might reasonably be expected to achieve remains unanswered. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Initially, Rudenno?s ?Conclusion? seems to be telling us that Gallipoli was a glorious opportunity which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went to waste: ?perhaps one of the few strategic ideas of the First World War which, if successful, could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have led to a shortening of the conflict?. But the more he ponders it, the more the improbability of a glorious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victory against Turkey, and one sparing the Allies the need to succeed on the Western Front, establishes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.562 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself. He asks: ?But)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a land-based victory ever plausible?? and answers:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The combination of a lack of space, a lack of men and materials, weakened navy support, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult terrain and a determined enemy meant that, with the loss of surprise after the first naval )] TJ ET BT 64.016 603.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bombardment, no victory was possible unless an overwhelming force was sent to the peninsula, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 589.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that was never going to happen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 550.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This collection of reasons for failure is rather a jumble, but it gets a good deal nearer the truth than many a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse by the ?if only? school of historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 510.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Meantime?, Rudenno?s ?Conclusion? goes, ?thirteen Allied submarines had managed to complete twenty-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seven successful passages through the Dardanelles?. With that he is back where he wants to be, summarising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 481.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British naval achievements of no significance but ? at least to him, and to readers of like inclination ? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great satisfaction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.461 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 422.479 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 404.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 404.699 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/705)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 403.305 m 322.316 403.305 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 378.328 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.928 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3682)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.528 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 403.6195 322.3157 415.4995 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/705) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000526 00000 n 0000000608 00000 n 0000004799 00000 n 0000004908 00000 n 0000005018 00000 n 0000005127 00000 n 0000008688 00000 n 0000008816 00000 n 0000008900 00000 n 0000008965 00000 n 0000014767 00000 n 0000014851 00000 n 0000018090 00000 n 0000018218 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 18313 %%EOF