%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150725200507+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150725200507+01'00') /Title (Ireland?s Magdalen Laundries and the Nation?s Architecture of Containment) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2881 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ireland?s Magdalen Laundries and the Nation?s Architecture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Containment)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James M. Smith?s book)] TJ ET BT 148.688 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, Ireland?s Magdalen Laundries and the Nation?s Architecture of Containment)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2007\) fills a significant gap in research about the Magdalen laundries and their impact on Irish society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frances Finnegan?s)] TJ ET BT 128.996 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Do Penance or Perish)] TJ ET BT 238.976 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2001\) has also tackled the subject, but her study is confined to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Good Shepherd asylums that operated in Ireland. As well being an overview of laundries run by various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious orders, Smith?s monograph also positions the Magdalen laundries within a variety of discourses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that overlap and interconnect, including religion, politics, sexuality and the arts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(707)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 December, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James M. Smith)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780268041274)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(312pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paula Murphy)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7621 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smith divides his book into two main sections. The first concerns the background to the laundries and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broken up into two chapters that deal with the 19th and 20th centuries respectively. A further four chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make up the second section of the book, which analyses artistic representations of the laundries in art, film )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and drama. As most of the artistic representations that Smith discusses offer retrospective perspectives on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these institutions the end result is a roughly chronological structure. In his preface, Smith sets out the three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary objectives of this account and analysis of the laundries. He wishes to portray the history of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions as intimately connected with the politics of the nation state, to evaluate the recent artistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of them, and to extend a challenge to the nation to acknowledge responsibility and proffer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(redress.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author rejects the assumption that this book can be called a history of the asylums. Indeed, a central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument in the book and one that is largely justified by its second section is that ?the Magdalen laundry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exists in the public mind chiefly at the level of )] TJ ET BT 260.000 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(story)] TJ ET BT 284.000 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(cultural representation and survivor testimony\) rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than history \(archival records and documentation\)? \(p. xvi-xvii\). The reason for this state of affairs is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refusal of religious orders to open their archives for scholarly research. As a result of this refusal, many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factual ambiguities remain about the numbers and origins of Magdalen inmates after 1900 as well as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duration of their stays. Smith?s argument in relation to the impossibility of comprehensive scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research in this area is well-founded and convincingly argued. However, it does create ambiguities in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categorisation of this research; ambiguities which pose questions about how this book should be analysed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and evaluated. If it is not a history, should it be judged as literary criticism or as cultural studies? In fact it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relates to all of these categories. Smith makes the limitations of his research work to his advantage, using the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factual information available about the laundries and allowing it to reverberate with political, legislative and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social history over two centuries, showing that the laundries were situated at the nexus of a variety of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures in Ireland, and validating his multi-disciplinary perspective. It emerges from Smith?s study that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only do these structures shed light on the laundries, but that an understanding of the laundries also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides insights into Irish society and the creation of its identity. Such cross-pollination is the hallmark of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovative multi-disciplinary research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction consists of a discussion of the Carrigan Report \(1931\). This report was compiled by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Committee on the Criminal Law Amendment Acts and Juvenile Prostitution, which played a significant role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the creation of the Criminal Law Amendment Act \(1935\). The committee reported a general fall in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morality that was linked to an increase in the number of children born out of wedlock and uncovered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of sexual crimes committed against women and children \(p. 6\). The report formed an unsavoury )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture that contradicted the prevailing image of the fledgling Irish State, which meant that the report?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(findings were regarded as unsuitable for public dissemination. However, the state did take legislative action )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the basis of this report. The Criminal Law Amendment Bill placed a total ban on contraception, replacing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the previous legislation that allowed for ?exceptional circumstances? \(p. 9\). The separate Dance Halls Bill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also published as a bastion against one of the perceived sites of vice and immorality. Smith argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the Carrigan Report?s political reception ? first the suppression of the report, then the legislative response ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established a precedent for church-state management of sociosexual controversies, proscribing visible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifestations of ?sexual immorality? while failing to address, or choosing to ignore, the social realities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attending them? \(p. 4\). Smith is correct to give particular attention to this committee and the bills and acts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it influenced. Although the reaction to and effects of the Carrigan committee?s work deserves particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus, placing it before the chapter on the 19th century creates a rupture in the chronology of the book that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have been avoided had it been placed within the second chapter on the 20th century. More specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information on the Dance Halls Act and how it changed the extant circumstances of dance halls around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country would add another useful dimension to Smith?s overview of Irish society at this time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first Magdalen asylum opened in 1767 on Leeson Street in Dublin. The institutions took their name )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the biblical Mary Magdalen, for the example of atonement and spiritual renewal she showed. Initially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at least, they were run by lay-women. Smith notes, as others have, that such institutions were not exclusively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic. However, the Catholic institutions are notable for their longevity, the final laundry closing only in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1990s. The author aligns the increasing involvement of religious orders in such asylums from the 1840s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7690 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onwards with a rise in their participation in various institutions including orphanages and homes from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elderly and mentally ill. His meticulous research and his consultation of a wide variety of source material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unearths a number of interesting facts. Before 1900, approximately 40% of inmates volunteered to enter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these institutions, and many appeared to leave and re-enter with relative ease. By the end of the century, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested that inmates were staying for longer periods. These women appeared to be thought of as falling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into one of two groups ? ?fallen? women and women who entered as a ?preventative? measure: those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were charged with moral vice and those who were in danger of this. Smith analyses the psychology of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchies within the asylum very well. He observes how institutions further distinguished the inmates by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifying what stage they were at in relation to salvation, and cites documentary evidence for these stages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being marked by differences in attire. Thus, he notes ?Reaching death in a state of spiritual grace, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(securing physical freedom, provides the rational for this structure? \(p. 40\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is in the second chapter on the 20th century that Smith fully develops his argument about Ireland?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?architecture of containment? \(p. 46\). Smith reveals that the state?s reliance on the Church for the provision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of institutionalised care led to a two-tiered system being put in place. Expectant mothers who were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(married often entered into mother and baby homes. On giving birth, the mother might be sent to a Magdalen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asylum and the baby to an industrial school. Quoting from an interview with the Sisters of Mercy in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Galway Magdalen asylum in the 1950s, Smith draws attention to the alarming phenomenon of young women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being transferred from an industrial school to a Magdalen asylum, as a ?preventative? measure against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impurity. Such transferrals are justified by the Sister in question because the young women are regarded as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?backward? and needing ?special care? \(p. 44\). Scathing of the state?s role in these institutions, an ?active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agent and willing partner? \(p. 51\), Smith points out how it ignored its responsibility to citizens by failing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervene legislatively or financially, not even providing capitation grants for the inmates, and continuing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard the asylums as private, charitable institutions in which it had no role to play. Moreover, the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceased contributing to the upkeep of industrial school pupils at 16 and to transfer them beyond such schools )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to another institution was an illegal practice, of which, Smith asserts, the Department of Education was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always aware \(p. 73\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The same chapter recounts shocking stories about mothers who committed infanticide during this period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the outrageous response of the medical and legal systems, which is characterized by the same sexism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and suppression as is the running of the laundries. Young women who were remanded in custody were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another group who found themselves subjected to Magdalen asylums. Rather than send such women to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison, The Criminal Justice Act allowed them to be sent to an asylum. Once again, Smith points out the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexist double standard at play. It had been suggested that young men on remand should be sent to St. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick?s institution beside Mountjoy prison, a suggestion that was rejected because it would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible to separate them from convicted prisoners. Although this was also the case in St. Mary?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Magdalen asylum, no such objection was raised \(p. 67\). This asylum on Sean MacDermot Street became a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remand home for young women, with allusions to its previous existence as a Magdalen laundry tellingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absent from official records.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drawing on Richard Kearney, Mary Robinson and Paul Riceour, Smith defines the 1990s as a period in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which a ?new national narrative? is created, which ?reinscribes those victimized by Ireland?s official story? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 89\). In the second section of the book, Smith goes on to assess the various art forms that contributed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this new narrative in detail. He begins with Patricia Burke Brogan?s play )] TJ ET BT 387.632 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eclipsed )] TJ ET BT 431.960 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1992\), which is based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author?s personal experience in the 1960s and deals also, to a lesser extent, with her later play )] TJ ET BT 505.916 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Glass at Samhain)] TJ ET BT 118.688 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2002\). Smith regards Burke?s play as the template for other Magdalen narratives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishing tropes common in other representations \(p. 92\) although these tropes are not explicitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified. )] TJ ET BT 86.012 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eclipsed)] TJ ET BT 127.340 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( stages its central dramatic conflict between two nuns: Mother Victoria and Sister )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virginia. Victoria upholds the patriarchal order and observes a strict hierarchical authority, preaching a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctrine of ?blind obedience? \(p. 100\). Virginia, on the other hand, feels sorry for the inmates, questions the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goodness of her work, and vainly agitates for better conditions for the inmates. The character Rosa leads the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience on their journey into the asylum, as an adoptee in search of information about her biological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parents, while Nellie-Nora represents those who became institutionalised and detached from the outside )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6976 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world. According to Smith, identifying with Rosa?s modern perspective means that the audience must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?acknowledge their complicity in effecting and then effacing this aspect of the nation?s history? \(p. 96\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smith?s view, the four documentaries that have dealt with Magdalen laundries also demand that their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audiences acknowledge and redress the injustices of the past. )] TJ ET BT 329.948 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sex in a Cold Climate)] TJ ET BT 435.284 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1994\), the Channel 4 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production, will be familiar to many Irish readers. Smith also sheds light on a further three documentaries: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Washing Away the Stain)] TJ ET BT 151.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1993\), )] TJ ET BT 192.008 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les Blanchisseuses de Magdalen)] TJ ET BT 350.324 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1998\) and the )] TJ ET BT 426.308 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(60 Minutes)] TJ ET BT 479.972 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( programme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The Magdalen Laundries? \(1999\). Admitting bafflement as to why Irish television neither made nor aired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any of these documentaries, despite dealing with other Church-state scandals in documentary mode, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial schools, Smith provides an enlightening analysis of how these four documentaries are structured, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced and presented, and the interpretive affects of these decisions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In common with Peter Mullan?s film )] TJ ET BT 214.676 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Magdalene Sisters)] TJ ET BT 324.668 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Smith criticizes the media?s response to these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentaries which ?ignore[s] the larger social structures that simultaneously victimized many of Ireland?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female religious? \(p. 132\). Smith?s assessment of Mullan?s film situates it in relation to the available )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical evidence about the Magdalen laundries and also the contemporary context of its reception. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context was framed by the clerical sexual abuse scandals in Europe and America. In Ireland, a year after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(film premiered, it was revealed that in 1993, the Sisters of Our Lady of Charity, who ran the High Park )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Magdalen Asylum, received a licence to exhume bodies of inmates that had been anonymously buried. 133 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains were licensed: 155 remains were exhumed, cremated and reburied. Smith?s analysis of )] TJ ET BT 494.912 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Magdalene Sisters)] TJ ET BT 123.008 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( assesses the manner in which Mullan draws on history by using several cultural artefacts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the film, such as archival footage and a photograph, and goes on to analyse its uneasy relationship to fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fiction concluding that ?his film reveals how both communities of women ? the sinners and the saintly ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operate in relation to external national, societal, and familial forces? \(p. 158\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter of Smith?s book deals with visual representations of the Magdalen laundries: Diane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fenster?s art installation, Gerard Mannix Flynn?s extallation and the memoral plaque in Dublin?s St. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen?s Green, the last two going some small way towards filling the need for ?official commemorations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate monuments and memorials? \(p. 184\). In the preface to this book, Smith candidly relates how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult it is to ?separate academic detachment and personal indignation? \(p. xix\). In )] TJ ET BT 444.272 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ireland?s Magdalen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Laundries and the Nation?s Architecture of Containment)] TJ ET BT 308.024 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( he achieves a balance between these often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicting forces. Smith?s book is scholarly in its research and writing, and offers many insights in to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Magdalen asylums and their cultural representations. His indignation is restrained, and he allows the facts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speak for themselves. The topic of this book is fascinating, its execution is excellent, and its contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland?s social and cultural history is essential. In the overall conclusion to the book, Smith relates several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific actions which should be taken to provide redress to the inmates of Magdalen asylums. These include )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an apology from the state; an apology from the religious orders involved \(only the Sisters of Mercy has so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far comprehensively apologised\) and the ability to apply to the Residential Institutions Redress Board )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(impossible because the institutions are regarded as ?private?\). Finally, he requests the opening of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious orders? archival records. It is only then that the work of history in relation to the Magdalen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laundries, which has made significant progress in this book, can finally be completed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 199.759 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 181.979 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 181.979 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/707)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 180.585 m 322.316 180.585 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 155.608 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 141.208 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3684)] TJ ET BT 34.016 126.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 180.8995 322.3157 192.7795 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/707) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000576 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000003591 00000 n 0000003700 00000 n 0000003810 00000 n 0000003919 00000 n 0000007480 00000 n 0000007608 00000 n 0000007692 00000 n 0000007757 00000 n 0000015431 00000 n 0000015496 00000 n 0000023239 00000 n 0000023323 00000 n 0000030352 00000 n 0000030480 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30575 %%EOF