%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 30 0 R 46 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819054139+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819054139+01'00') /Title (Women's Work in the Eighteenth Century) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3198 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Women's Work in the Eighteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Work in the 18th century has long been neglected by historians, who have focused instead on other aspects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of economic life: notably consumption, but also on the legal structures of inheritance and marriage which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped working lives over the life cycle. So we can identify the legal differences and similarities between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th-century Brittany and Britain. Inheritance was partible in Brittany, in theory equally divided among all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children, although the eldest male generally got the dwelling house. Britain employed a mixture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(708)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 December, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Isabelle Baudino)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacques Carr)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ccile Rvauger)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754635727)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(48.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nancy Locklin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754658191)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amy Erickson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6070 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primogeniture for land and partibility for movable goods, although there was always much greater freedom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the testator than in France. From the age of 21 in Britain and 25 in Brittany a woman, like a man, was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(free agent for all legal purposes \(buying and selling, contracting, suing\). But upon marriage the rights of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Breton woman and the British \(especially the English or Welsh\) woman diverged: in Brittany a married )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman retained her dowry and her inheritance from her parents, and all property acquired after marriage \(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after one year of marriage, to test its viability\) was held in community, administered by her husband; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereas Britain had complete coverture, whereby the husband took absolute possession of all or almost all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his wife's property, with no grace period. Upon widowhood, the Breton woman enjoyed the community )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property after her husband's debts were paid, in addition to the property she had retained throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage, whereas the British woman was not legally entitled to anything \(although in practice she usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(got most of her husband's estate\). In the event of marital breakdown, separation was possible in Brittany, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely difficult in Britain.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.336 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.336 638.259 m 185.336 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 188.336 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 202.328 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This brief summary suggests some of the ways in which working lives must have been structured by the law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the different regions. Nancy Locklin cautions \(p. 91\) that separation cases in Brittany were 'rare', pointing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the fact that the region of Tregor in the northwest had only 160 applications in a 25-year period. Compare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that with England, where 160 cases in 25 years in a single small agricultural area would have been an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inconceivably large number. Nearly 70 percent of the Breton applications were made on the basis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husband's brutality, but in England a husband's brutality was not even a legal ground for separation unless it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were accompanied by adultery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most people received something by way of inheritance; most people got married and so experienced the law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of marital property; a very large minority of people were widowed and experienced a property division at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that point; a relative handful of people went through the legal process of marital separation. All of these are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic events over the life-cycle. But it is work that is the most universal economic activity of all, and yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work is the aspect of people's economic lives about which historians know least. Partly this is a source )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem: the laws governing inheritance and marriage are readily available in published texts, and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implementation is fairly readily apparent in wills and inventories and marriage contracts, sources which are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally well-catalogued and clearly written. The evidence on work, on the other hand, must be sought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead in the more sprawling, more complicated sources of court cases and guild records and tax registers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The type of work which appears in the historical record was overwhelmingly remunerative, whether that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paid labour or entrepreneurial. Unpaid work on behalf of the family is virtually unquantifiable in centuries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the 20th, although it certainly deserves analysis in other ways. But early modern women's work was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not restricted to unpaid domestic work, and the records show substantial numbers both in paid labour and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(running their own shops and businesses. The Breton married woman had a more clearly defined right to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade than the British woman. Unusually for Europe, she could trade as a merchant without her husband's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorisation, whereas elsewhere his permission was required. Throughout Europe, these provisions for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(married women traders which created legal exceptions to the normal marital property laws were related to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concernes over debt liability, and not to any conception of the rights or needs of married women. But no one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knows what difference it made in practice that the husband's authorisation was not needed in Brittany, or if it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made any difference, because the research has not yet been done outside of Brittany.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 179.3357 638.5735 185.3357 650.4535 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/ericksona.html#1) >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7163 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Locklin has produced a well-researched, clearly written, thorough analysis of women's work in Brittany. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grapples with the big questions: the sexual division of labour and its causes; whether women had a work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity; the relationship between levels of pay, occupational status, and work identity; and longstanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical assumptions that only poor women worked, because they had to, whereas prosperous women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merely served as bridges between fathers and sons in family trades. She shows a multitude of women ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single, married and widowed ? in a range of occupations: bakers, merchants, midwives, but most of all in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('selling and sewing' \(p. 63\). She recognises the significance of her conclusions: 'it would surprise no one that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poorer people had to combine incomes in order to survive ... But I find that this marriage pattern exists even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among artisans and shopkeepers in Brittany. Among these middling sorts, it was not unusual to find a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchant or tradeswoman, literate and in possession of guild membership, married to a lawyer or craftsman' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 140\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The aim of )] TJ ET BT 89.672 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invisible Woman)] TJ ET BT 191.660 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is similar: to show that not only current preconceptions but also the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('contemporary perception of the range of women's employments did not correspond to what it really was: far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from being employed exclusively in domestic and pseudo-domestic tasks, working women were also found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(... in supervisory and professional jobs' \(p. 2\). The first section, 'Women in the Domestic Sphere', focuses on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle and upper-class households, and includes essays on the new profession of housekeeper \(Gilly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lehmann\), the representation of housework in the press \(Marie-Claire Rouyer-Daney\), needlework and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminism in literature \(Christine Hivet\), and governesses to the nobility \(Sophie Loussouarn\), all of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are interesting and, to the best of my knowledge, the first detailed forays into their subjects.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section, 'Women in Male Strongholds', opens with an essay on the Scottish Highlands \(Marie-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hlne Thvenot-Totems\), which is not about work, but about male writers' perceptions of women's work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and appears to be completely innocent of either source criticism or any recent research on actual Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women. Unfortunately, this is also the only chapter to focus on Scotland in the collection. The section picks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up a little with a review of women in the army based on secondary work \(Guyonne Leduc\), and hospital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nurses based on primary research \(Jacques Carr\). The final two contributions to this section, on women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freemasonry \(Ccile Rvauger\) and in urban communities \(Deborah Simonton\), are the most comparative in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book, mentioning Scottish \(and, in Simonton's case, Irish\), as well as English towns, and looking at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French case. Otherwise, 'Britain' is used in the book and the essay titles as a synonym for 'England', and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for 'London'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section, 'Women and the Cultural Scene', offers chapters on actresses over the century \(Sverine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lancia\), the female characters of Elizabeth Inchbald in the 1780s and 1790s \(Angela J. Smallwood\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional musicians \(Pierre Dubois\), the publishing phenomenon of the Lee sisters \(Marion Marceau\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and images of street-sellers \(Baudino\). Inexplicably, the only illustrations in the book were given to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article on the Scottish Highlands, rather than to these much more interesting and deserving essays which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have profited by them. )] TJ ET BT 178.664 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invisible Woman)] TJ ET BT 280.652 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( doesn't promise anything more than 'aspects' of women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work, and the essays are tasters ? interesting glimpses of occupations which may have meant survival or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even wealth to their practitioners, but which will never comprise more than tiny fractions of all women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaged in remunerative work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Locklin's approach, by contrast, is systematic: she assesses all the women she can find in the various guilds, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in different types of tax records \(which included many more occupations than the guilds, and many more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women than the guild records\), and in court rolls. She negotiates the intricacies over time of changing guild )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulations \(which ones admitted women when, and on what terms\) in the Breton cities of Nantes, Rennes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quimper, and Brest. This exercise usefully illustrates the variability of guild control of trade within a single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(region, let alone within a single country.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One factor that clearly distinguishes Brittany from other parts of Europe is its high number of female-headed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(households. It is usually thought that female-headed households were more common in urban areas than in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rural ones, due to the greater economic opportunities open to women in cities and towns. Local studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest that on average 13-15 percent of rural households were headed by women, and nearly 20 percent of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8730 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban households.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.336 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.336 795.075 m 131.336 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 134.336 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 148.328 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) But Brittany reverses this pattern: the incidence of female headship was higher in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rural areas than in urban ones, and in seven of the 11 locations studied more than 20 percent \(and up to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(third\) of households were headed by a woman. There were also high proportions of single women, rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than widows, among the household heads, perhaps reflecting the relatively egalitarian Breton inheritance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the depth of her documentary investigation and her regional focus, Locklin's study calls to mind Sheilagh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ogilvie's )] TJ ET BT 79.844 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Bitter Living)] TJ ET BT 151.184 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2003\) on Wrttemberg, and Pamela Sharpe's )] TJ ET BT 375.968 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Adapting to Capitalism)] TJ ET BT 487.988 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1996\) on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Essex. It is odd that neither of these appear in Locklin's bibliography. Her conclusions are more optimistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than either Ogilvie's or Sharpe's. She rightly draws attention to the 'ingenuity and persistence' \(p. 47\) shown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by women in the market who had less access to resources and training than their brothers. Most importantly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Locklin's Brittany confirms the earlier German and English work establishing the ubiquity of women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remunerative labour in early modern Europe, whether that be paid or entrepreneurial.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In all three areas women were concentrated in the food and textile sectors. In Brittany these sectors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounted for between two thirds and three quarters of all women. The concomitant of that observation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be merely than men were concentrated in the building and transport sectors ? and, of course, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educated professional sector. What is interesting is the particular divisions of labour within the sectors, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the differences in those divisions over time and place. In 1749 in Nantes, the largest town in Britanny with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps 55,000 people, all of the clockmakers, masons and carpenters were male, while all the )] TJ ET BT 490.244 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lingres)] TJ ET BT 528.908 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 535.904 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 535.904 528.723 m 541.904 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 544.904 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), hairdressers and )] TJ ET BT 124.652 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(marchandes de mode)] TJ ET BT 226.628 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were female. The only one of these six occupations in mid-18th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century London \(with three quarters of a million people\) which matched this exclusive gender profile was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the masons. Women were clockmakers and carpenters, and men were linen drapers, tailors, sold women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clothes and dressed hair.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.984 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.984 471.699 m 161.984 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 164.984 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 178.976 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Whether these differences were due to the difference in size of city or to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural differences is as yet unclear. Thanks to Locklin, we know that in Nantes, one third of the innkeepers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and mercers, and half of the whole-cloth merchants and fish vendors, were women. Something like the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have been true of London and of other cities, but the intensive research required to find out has not yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been undertaken. Two recent theses on the northern Netherlands show similarly high levels of female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity in the commercial world and in the textile industry.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 323.324 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 323.324 400.419 m 329.324 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 332.324 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 346.316 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Locklin devotes an extended discussion to the intersections of work, sexuality and honour for women, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how accusations of sexual impropriety could be used against a commercial rival for financial advantage \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(115-31\), the evidence for which is found in court records. Such accusations against single or otherwise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent women occurred in Brittany?s two largest cities, Nantes and Rennes \(population c.100,000\) on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(average between two and five times per year. For purposes of comparison, recall the frequency of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applications for marital separation, which averaged more than six per year in rural, sparsely populated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tregor region. Not that there is any necessary connection between the two types of case, but if the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurrence of separation is described as rare, then accusations of sexual impropriety, while more frequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than we might wish, must also be pretty unusual in fact. And significantly, the number of convictions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these cases appears to have been much smaller than the number of accusations \(p. 121, note 28\). Locklin is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eminently sensible in her conclusions: 'Women had to be careful about their social conduct in a way that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men did not. But it would be foolish to conclude from this that women could never enjoy social lives outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the home' \(p. 131\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both books struggle with the apparent contradiction between patriarchal legal and economic structures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which attempted to control women's labour, property, and reputation to a much greater extent than they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempted to control men's labour, reputation and property, and evidence of women not merely entering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour market and the public sphere, but not infrequently doing so successfully and on a long-term basis. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors of )] TJ ET BT 104.336 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invisible Woman)] TJ ET BT 206.324 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offer as evidence of the invisibility of the professional woman that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women were not represented as writers or painters or actors \(p. 5\). But the recent exhibition at the National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portrait Gallery, 'Brilliant Women: 18th-century Bluestockings', brought together a large number of rarely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen but significant pictures. Portraits of the artists Mary Moser and Angelica Kauffmann, the 'milkwoman' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poet Ann Yearsley, the scholar Elizabeth Carter, historian Catherine Macaulay, and writers Hannah More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Mary Wollstonecraft, among others, all represented the tools of their professions. The mythologised but )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 125.3357 795.3895 131.3357 807.2695 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/ericksona.html#2) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 535.9037 529.0375 541.9037 540.9175 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/ericksona.html#3) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 155.9837 472.0135 161.9837 483.8935 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/ericksona.html#4) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 323.3237 400.7335 329.3237 412.6135 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/ericksona.html#5) >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 9201 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nonetheless real group portrait of the 'nine living muses' \(painted in 1777, and subsequently etched and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engraved for reproduction, so relatively widely seen\) also represented these women as the possessors of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artistic skills.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.020 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.020 766.563 m 108.020 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 111.020 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET BT 125.012 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) As Locklin might have pointed out, some women carved out a space to create and were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both lauded and attacked for it. These were of course only the most prominent women, and only those in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bluestocking circle. But thousands of women took more mundane public roles. The matron of St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bartholomew's Hospital in London, who in 1771 supervised more than 100 sisters, nurses, servants, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(porters \()] TJ ET BT 74.336 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Invisible Woman)] TJ ET BT 155.324 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 94\), like her predecessors and successors in the job, was seen daily by hundreds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of people in her official capacity, albeit she was not \(as far as I know\) represented for posterity in a portrait.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dubois's study of London musicians articulates a recurring problem in the study of women's work: one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('comes up against the difficulty of having a clear picture of the concrete reality of this work. One is soon led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to tackle the question in terms of representations, as most primary sources tend to obliterate the practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(details which might enable one to build up a clearer idea ? of the material, practical and technical aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the profession, beyond the common stereotypes of the period' \(p. 160\). The same applies to many, many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trades across Europe, from the humblest \(the )] TJ ET BT 251.972 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fripiers)] TJ ET BT 287.312 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the Nantes junk dealers' guild, for example\), through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the hospital matrons, to the most elite \(noble governesses, say\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But it is not only female occupations about which historians know so little: not a great deal is known about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male occupations either. The qualifications often appended to discussions of women's work ? that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely unskilled, insecure, seasonal, and part-time ? probably also applied to most men's work. Both of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these books are part of the project leading towards a fully gendered view of the early modern economy and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fully gendered account of work and identity. The essays in )] TJ ET BT 318.296 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invisible Woman)] TJ ET BT 420.284 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offer pointers and ideas for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future research. Locklin's study provides impressive evidence of the extent of remunerative work among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Breton women at all social levels and also at all stages of their lives. \(The female occupational cycle may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been less affected by the familial cycle in the early modern period than it would become in later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries.\) The process of understanding develops through a dual process of highlighting the presence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in economic activities traditionally thought of as 'male', like farming or business, and at the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time restoring traditionally female pursuits like housekeeping and needlework to the status of economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 366.915 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have summarized Nancy Locklin's chapter on the law here for Brittany. For more detailed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of the legal comparisons between Britain and the continent, see A. L. Erickson, 'The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marital economy in comparative perspective', in )] TJ ET BT 297.800 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Marital Economy in Scandinavia and Britain )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1400?1900)] TJ ET BT 118.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Ashgate, 2005\), ed. Maria Agren and A. L. Erickson.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 380.288 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 380.288 292.131 m 434.276 292.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 437.276 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9])] TJ ET BT 48.816 279.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most detailed discussion of female headship is Sheilagh Ogilvie, )] TJ ET BT 398.324 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Bitter Living: Women, Markets )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Social Capital in Early Modern Germany)] TJ ET BT 284.672 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2003\), pp. 219?24.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 422.648 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 422.648 263.619 m 476.636 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 479.636 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10])] TJ ET BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lingre)] TJ ET BT 101.348 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is translated by Locklin as linen draper, which does not work for England, where the drapers' )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guilds represented large-scale cloth merchants. Since the descriptions of a)] TJ ET BT 418.604 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( lingre)] TJ ET BT 455.600 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('s work appear to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been closer to that of a seamstress, she should perhaps be identified as the equivalent of a tailor.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 206.595 m 118.004 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 121.004 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11])] TJ ET BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For further information on women clockmakers, see A. L. Erickson, 'Married women's occupations in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century London', )] TJ ET BT 202.484 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Continuity & Change)] TJ ET BT 305.828 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 23 \(2008\), 267?307.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 409.148 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 409.148 178.083 m 463.136 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 466.136 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([12])] TJ ET BT 48.816 165.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Danielle van den Heuvel, )] TJ ET BT 188.984 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women and Entrepreneurship: Female Traders in the Northern )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Netherlands, c.1580?1815)] TJ ET BT 191.012 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Aksant, 2007\) and 'Partners in marriage and business? Guilds and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family economy in urban food markets in the Dutch Republic', )] TJ ET BT 367.808 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Continuity & Change)] TJ ET BT 471.152 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 23 \(2008\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(217?236, and Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk, 'Cooperating couples? Dutch textile workers, family )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour and the "industrious revolution", c. 1600?1800', )] TJ ET BT 329.948 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Continuity & Change)] TJ ET BT 433.292 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 23 \(2008\), 209?216.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 92.547 m 118.004 92.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 121.004 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([13])] TJ ET BT 48.816 79.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Elizabeth Eger and Lucy Peltz, )] TJ ET BT 236.312 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brilliant Women)] TJ ET BT 315.980 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(National Portrait Gallery, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 479.288 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 479.288 78.291 m 533.276 78.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 536.276 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([14])] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 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