%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150425071253+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150425071253+01'00') /Title (Russia?s Troubled Century) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4334 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Russia?s Troubled Century)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many ways Russia is the touchstone of the twentieth century. Most of the main features of our troubled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age have impinged on it more heavily than any other single country. In terms of events the holocaust; two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world wars; revolution; civil war; the collapse of empire \(twice\); autocratic tyranny; pitiless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucratically organised terror; and the cold war have left scar upon scar. It has been deeply affected by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communism; Fascism and anti-Semitism \(of a home grown variety as well as the international struggle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against it\); dictatorship; the command economy and its over-rapid dissolution which has sent the country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a so far unstoppable downward economic and political spiral. Disasters, part natural, part manmade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have piled one on the other - famines, earthquakes, drought. At the same time the country was modernised. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over a hundred nationalities and linguistic groups with ways of life ranging from yurt-dwelling nomads of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the desert to igloo builders of the Arctic, have been subjected to often modest but nonetheless transforming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels of education, health care and economic opportunity in widespread industrial enterprises such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(railways, power grids, mines and factories. For a third of the century Russia achieved superpower status and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly rising living standards; basic education, housing and healthcare for all; and a modicum of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic security with full employment and the virtual elimination of absolute poverty. A dramatic struggle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has taken place between transforming and resistant cultural forces, primarily between ?scientific? atheism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and religion. Despite everything a brilliant intelligentsia artistic and scientific tradition survived within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official, unofficial and migr channels, from the philosopher Solov?ev \(who died in the first year of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(71)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 May, 1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Service)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780674403475)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(688pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane: The Penguin Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Read)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7841 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century\) and Tolstoy through the Silver Age and avant-garde of the early Soviet years \(Blok, Belyi, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mayakovsky, Kandinsky, Chagall, Stravinsky, Eisenstein, Pavlov, Timiriazev\) through the years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalinism \(Mandel?shtam, Bulgakov, Gorky, Pasternak, Kapitsa, Shostakovitch\) to the last Soviet and post )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet years \(Sakharov, Solzhenitsyn, Brodsky, Voznesensky, Kozintsev, Tarkovsky\). New areas of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellence emerged. In games and sports such as soccer, ice-skating, athletics and chess world super stars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged. Today basketball and ice hockey players remain among the most bankable of Russian exports. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Excellence of performance in orchestral music \(Rostropovich\), ballet \(Plisetskaya\), film \(Cherkassov, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smokhtunovskii\) and theatre \(Vysotskii\) won world wide acclaim as did the achievements of space )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engineers and cosmonauts, notably Yuri Gagarin. Hundreds more famous names could be added. One should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not forget the millions of more humble achievers who contributed to the building and staffing of schools, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hospitals and other enterprises, not to mention the successive generations of )] TJ ET BT 401.300 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(babushki)] TJ ET BT 444.632 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( who kept church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rituals \(and much else\) functioning. Then there are the millions of Soviet Army soldiers, like Gorbachev?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(father, who fought his way from south Russia via Kiev to the Carpathians in pursuit of the Nazis, virtually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(losing touch with his family for three years in the process. Recounting the achievements of ordinary people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the face of such terrible events could go on forever. Could any single volume capture the disasters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements, colour, paradoxes and drama of Russia?s twentieth century? How could a historian deal with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tremendous selectivity needed to produce a manageable account? More specifically, how does Robert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Service?s volume face up to and deal with such a challenge?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Very reasonably, the author chooses to focus on the central political arena and the system that emerged after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1917, making up what he calls, in a chemical metaphor, the Soviet compound which forms the basis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet system in that while there may be important changes of relationship between the components the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basic substance remains the same. The virtue of the approach is that it allows Service to meditate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expound on the political leadership of Soviet and post-Soviet Russia, areas in which he feels particularly at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home and in which he has great expertise. Lenin is presented as a tough, determined, complex, highly-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligent but also devious person. While one might argue with some of the details, especially that Lenin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was even more driven by destiny than the author allows, the picture is less caricatural and more nuanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than other recent portrayals. Unfortunately, Service?s format does not allow him to linger long over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversial points, or even to suggest which points are more arguable than others. As a result, Service?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own views stand unchallenged in the text. One might differ from him in saying that, vital though they were, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the April Theses themselves were not necessarily a clarion call for immediate revolution nor did they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide the framework for an instant transition to socialism. \(p.47\) Indeed, one of the theses mysteriously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(announces ?it is not our task )] TJ ET BT 173.336 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(immediately)] TJ ET BT 231.992 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to "introduce" socialism.? However, on most crucial aspects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary period one can only applaud Service?s judgement. In particular, he points out that a basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption of Lenin?s Bolshevism was the unwavering growth of support and he could not cope with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure to materialise. He is also right to castigate the non-Bolsheviks for their suicidal boycott at the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congress of Soviets and for pointing out the gap between popular revolutionary ambitions \(e.g. peace, bread, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land, all power to the soviets\) and Lenin?s more distant utopian aspirations to a classless, conflict-free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society to be achieved at any cost, including civil war which was, in essence, an extension of class struggle. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through these crucial experiences and events the basic Soviet compound emerged - a monopoly of power in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the hands of a one-ideology party; subordination of legal and constitutional propriety to political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convenience; and expropriation of large segments of the economy. \(p.123\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By comparison, Stalin ?drastically rearranged and reinforced the compound of the Soviet order? by ending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural and religious compromise and by ?crudifying? politics and hyper-centralising administrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions, \(p.169\) In other words, Stalin builds something distinctive which is, none the less, rooted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lenin?s practice. To back this up Service continues, as he perhaps must in many cases given his format, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply to tell us what transpired rather than to argue it. Certain features, for example, Stalin?s ?personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degeneracy? \(p.174\) and Radzinsky?s account of his second wife?s suicide - according to which she died as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a protest against collectivisation and Stalin?s flirtations with other women \(p.195\) - are treated as axioms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than points which need to be proven by evidence. The same is more or less true of the sketch of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin?s character. He is said to have ?always been a solitary fellow? \(p.195\) and ?a prickly character? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although some sources point to his gregariousness and sociability, at least in his earlier years. None the less, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7966 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the big issues Service is a very reliable guide who, unlike others, does not assume that, since many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin?s actions were loathsome, every evil rumour or theory about him must be true. Service dismisses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view that the famine of 1932-3 was deliberately targeted at the Ukraine as a form of genocide \(p.202\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminds us that, despite the opening of the archives, the case for Stalin?s complicity in Kirov?s murder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains ?not proven? \(p.214\); and presents, by the standards of the last decade or so, fairly ?modest? totals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for deaths during the terror, that is 1.5 million for the years 1937-8 \(p.222\) and a prison camp population of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.9 million in 1939. This does not, of course, mean that Service is ?softer? on Stalin than those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calculate impossibly high figures for his victims, rather he is more scholarly in basing his conclusions on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best available evidence. In fact, Service goes almost as far as any of Stalin?s critics in granting him few, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any, positive characteristics or achievements. He is indubitably right to compare the Stalin leadership to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gang \(p.241\) and is very sound in arguing that though the term ?totalitarian? ?fails to encapsulate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictions within this extremely nasty and orderly but also extremely chaotic reality?, particularly since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it implies ?totality in practice as well as intent?, none of the suggested alternatives ?better describes either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the messiness of real Soviet conditions or the basic structure or intent of power in the USSR?. However, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not to say that one can assume that Stalin had ?designs on Eastern Europe? \(p.269\) nor that he might not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have deserved a little more credit than he is given for conducting war-time military and foreign policy. Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to grant this makes it hard to understand the grudging respect many allied observers and negotiators, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill included, accorded him for his grasp of the situation in its larger and more detailed aspects. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, the presentation of war-time decision making, in which generals had to speak their minds and were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely respected for it by Stalin \(p.265\) and accounts of Stalin, even in the post-war period, having to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manoeuvre clumsily into position to undertake policy changes raises questions. Why is it that, right to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last, Stalin has to set up a Presidium and seven-man Bureau to circumvent Molotov, Beria and others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.327\), if it is correct to say that Stalin?s associates even in the Politburo needing ?an unswerving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obedience to the whim of the leader? and that they could ?never safely object to a line of policy which Stalin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had already approved.?? \(p.252\) Perhaps we do not fully have the evidence yet to answer this conundrum of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an apparently limitless power which, on one hand, was able to consign the wife of a key colleague, Molotov, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the camps or bring about the execution of Politburo member Voznesensky but, on the other, still had to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finessed through constraining bureaucratic channels and cultural restrictors which required a conformity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the dominant discourse and the main themes of ideology which was less than automatic. Dictator )] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though he undoubtedly was, Stalin could not simply snap his fingers and say ?off with his \(or her\) head?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the great pleasures of Service?s account is the life which he manages to breathe into the late, pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perestroika, Soviet years. While Khrushchev provides ready potential for colourful anecdote the ensuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?years of stagnation? do not. Yet Service is undoubtedly right in seeing them as crucial in preparing the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for transformation and collapse. While being obviously aware of the heroism of dissenters - who, as Service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out, were described by the regime as ?other thinkers? in their preferred Russian term - it is to legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?dissidents? such as the writer Soloukhin and ?bards? such as Vysotsky and Galich that Service turns to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate the hidden tensions of society, sagely reminding us that ?Marxism-Leninism had never been the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world view of most citizens? \(p.418\). He puts his finger right on a crucial point when he tells us that even in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Khrushchev years the children of the elite ?did not give a fig for the Party Programme? rather they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hankered for jeans and pop music. ?The language of Marxism-Leninism was used by them in furtherance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their careers? but ?the worm had entered the apple; the offspring of the nomenklatura despised the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology?. \(p.370\) Perhaps less judiciously this also provides the opportunity for the first of numerous digs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Gorbachev who is, in part, presented as a naive, provincial ?Marxist-Leninist? without fully teasing out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the implications of Gorbachev?s early reformism in making his version of the ideology very different from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of the leadership, especially after the traumatic invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. This is surprising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since Service makes good use of little known sources like the writings of Dubcek?s colleague Zdenek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mlynar, whose friendship with Gorbachev goes back to their student days in the early 1950s. From 1968 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onwards, as has become very clear during the anniversary last year, a growing Czech-style reformist group )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed - practically undetected by most western political analysts at the time - within the grey conformity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the party. So, rather than being conservative, potential reformers like Gorbachev, Iakovlev and Burlatsky )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were as unimpressed by the Brezhnevites as the less political members of their generation within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nomenklatura. Recognition of this would perhaps help produce a more consistent view of Gorbachev. While )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7568 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generously recognising the extent of Gorbachev?s achievement - ?great was the work of his hands? - and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stating quite correctly that the outcome was ?the unwilled result of his activity as it developed? \(p.484\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he may well have overestimated the innate attractiveness of his ideas \(p.464\), Service suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gorbachev was a reluctant reformer. At no point, however, did he go back on \(as opposed to slow down\) the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforms in the USSR or Eastern Europe. Indeed, he came miraculously close to success and had the Union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Treaty been signed as planned instead of the clumsy coup of 1991 throwing the process off the rails a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different future )] TJ ET BT 109.988 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(might)] TJ ET BT 137.324 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have emerged. It would make more sense to see Gorbachev as a thoroughly committed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformer. On a British talk show appearance with Clive Anderson a few years ago, he was asked what one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thing he would change about Russian history. He instantly replied that he wished there had been no October )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution! Astonishing words for a former General Secretary of the CPSU and hardly compatible with any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of him as, ultimately, a closet Leninist.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the political centre and the key personalities are the main focus of Service?s attention, there are many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other noteworthy aspects of the volume. The treatment of nationality issues is exemplary in that the balance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved between centre and periphery is about right. The author keeps an eye on the minorities but does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fall into the trap of overestimating their significance as many post-Soviet accounts have done. One might, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, dispute whether such a good balance had been maintained in other important areas. In particular, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign policy and linkages with the outside world in the broader sense are dealt with unevenly. There is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasonable account of the origins of the cold war but only two lines on Vietnam, for example. Service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentions the shop window effect of the media and increasing foreign travel in and out of the USSR making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more and more Soviet citizens aware of the more prosperous elements of capitalist societies. As a result a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of a ?normal? modern life - free access to information, travel, more consumer goods, better living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions - which was not emerging in the USSR during the ?years of stagnation was built up. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this crucial impact of dtente in undermining the system is not made as explicit as the more prevalent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps more questionable view, that it was the final Reaganite confrontation with the USSR which laid the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundations for collapse. Arguably, the ?second cold war? aided the reactionaries in clinging on to power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer than they might otherwise have done and encouraged them to turn the clock back.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One other area could also perhaps have been dealt with more consistently. In the key statement in which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puts forward the central importance of politics, Service also mentions that the political ambitions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre were frequently being thwarted. \(p.xxxiii\) Considerable attention is given to the social and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment and there are some excellent chapters on, to take the best example, the nature and texture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyday Soviet life in the 1930s. \(Chapter 12\) and frequent references to the survival of religion and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeals of nationalism. Given the originality and expertise with which these points are made it might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been preferable to elaborate on them rather than on the more familiar central political narrative. After all to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spend more time on Soviet politics, ambitions and institutions rather than the forces frustrating those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitions is to focus on what has disappeared rather than on what has endured - the long-suffering people of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia and their extraordinary survival cultures.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally two points which probably arise from personal preference as much as anything else. First, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendency to state rather than debate, while understandable in a narrative history of such scope, could have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been modified more than it was to at least alert the reader to alternative view points. While this is done for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some issues, such as the terror, elsewhere it is not. For instance, major arguments about late tsarism are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elided and the presentation of Tsarist Russia?s wartime problems ignores the work of Norman Stone. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, though the volume is very lively and readable, there is, at times, an evenness of tone which can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see great events passed over without their drama being captured. The 1905 revolution, February and October )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1917, the German occupation and the holocaust are all mentioned and significant points are made about all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of them but the human drama is played down. Similarly, there is an evenness about lists of causes which are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given without the more important being clearly distinguished from those which are less so. This may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because, by and large, much more time is spent on consequences than causes, of Stalinism, for instance. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are several chapters on its features but much less explicit analysis of how it came about.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are, however, relatively minor issues. Service has produced an excellent account of Russia?s troubled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Although other books have appeared recently this is the most thoroughly post-Soviet account in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2138 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaking with cold war stereotypes of Lenin and Stalin in the interests of presenting them more firmly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their Russian context; incorporating the best of recent Russian memoirs and scholarship \(for example, that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oleg Khlevniuk on the 1930s\); looking at the post war period as one in which the seeds of collapse were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(germinating and presenting a brilliant account of post-Soviet dilemmas and problems - making it certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the best place to go to orientate oneself in the current confusion presided over by the farcical figure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yeltsin and his Second Empire style cronyism. The volume is a splendid achievement drawing on a wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of classical and recent sources. It is a great tribute to the country under scrutiny. One can do no better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than to conclude with Service?s own final words: ? "Russia" has not stopped changing all this century. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be idle to assume that her record in astounding herself, her neighbours and the world has come to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end.? \(p.553\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 622.927 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 605.147 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 605.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/71)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 603.753 m 316.316 603.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 578.776 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 564.376 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/723)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.976 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 604.0675 316.3157 615.9475 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/71) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000535 00000 n 0000000617 00000 n 0000005003 00000 n 0000005112 00000 n 0000005222 00000 n 0000005331 00000 n 0000008892 00000 n 0000009020 00000 n 0000009104 00000 n 0000009169 00000 n 0000017063 00000 n 0000017128 00000 n 0000025147 00000 n 0000025212 00000 n 0000032833 00000 n 0000032917 00000 n 0000035108 00000 n 0000035236 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35330 %%EOF