%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417171507+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417171507+01'00') /Title (Vietnam: Explaining America?s Lost War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3958 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Vietnam: Explaining America?s Lost War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1990, immediately after UN Security Council Resolution 678 provided authorisation for the use of force )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to expel the Iraqi military from Kuwait President George H. W. Bush said in a news conference:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 235.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In our country, I know that there are fears about another Vietnam. Let me assure you, should )] TJ ET BT 64.016 220.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military action be required, this will not be another Vietnam. This will not be a protracted, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 206.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn out war?.if there must be war, we will not permit our troops to have their hands tied )] TJ ET BT 64.016 192.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind their backs. And I pledge to you: There will not be another murky ending. If one )] TJ ET BT 64.016 178.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American soldier has to go into battle, that soldier will have enough force behind him to win )] TJ ET BT 64.016 163.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and then get out as soon as possible?.I will never ? ever ? agree to a halfway effort.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 462.908 163.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 462.908 162.393 m 476.900 162.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 125.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bush?s implication that the American defeat in Vietnam was somehow self-inflicted ? that in the absence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the artificial constraints with which the United States had saddled itself in Vietnam the war would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?winnable? ? is curious because it conforms less to the academic wisdom on the war then prevailing ? that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?orthodox school? ? than to that of a much smaller body of commentators who held a rather different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view: the ?revisionist school?. Gary Hess?s new book is a survey of the scholarship on the Vietnam War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which pits this revisionist historiography \(the so-called ?winnable? war tradition\) against the more numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(711)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 January, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gary Hess)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781405125284)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(232pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiley-Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malden, MA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Horwood)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 462.9077 162.7075 476.8997 174.5875 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 6870 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodox historiography \(the ?unwinnable? war tradition\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The outcome of the 1991 Gulf War restored the American belief in the efficacy of military force as a tool of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign policy that had been shaken by the Vietnam War and set the stage for a rematch with Saddam )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hussein in 2003, the consequences of which are still with us. Those parallels which are ? rightly or wrongly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? drawn between the current counter-insurgency campaign in Iraq and the earlier conflict in Southeast Asia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlight the fact that, as Hess says, ?the lessons of Vietnam continue to inform discourse on foreign policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions? \(p. x\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While there are limitations imposed by the format of Hess?s book it is, on balance, an enormously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulating volume which usefully organises the literature on thematic lines and clarifies the battle lines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the orthodox and revisionist schools. Hess finds that the historiography of the Vietnam War departs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the ?traditional model? of historical appreciation of the United States? wars. Normally, as in say the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish-American War or the First World War, an orthodox interpretation has emerged which rationalises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American involvement in the conflict. This is followed by a revisionist critique which suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American involvement is somehow illegitimate. There has then emerged a post-revisionist synthesis which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has ?most often? reaffirmed the justification for the war, but has extended the scope of the analysis ?by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporation of the most compelling revisionist arguments? \(p. 207\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the case of Vietnam, however, the roles are reversed. Far from supporting American involvement in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vietnam the orthodox interpretation asserts that this involvement was a mistake and doomed to failure \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwinnable war tradition\), while the revisionists find merit in the American cause and believe that success )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a possibility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hess is clear that his own work lies within the orthodox tradition of Vietnam historiography, but he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expresses sympathy towards what he sees as an understandable revisionist effort to rationalise American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacrifice. Many revisionists will reject the implication that this is what they are trying to do ? along with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accusation that they are no less wrong for it ? as condescending. Similarly, those who, since the war, have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that it was winnable, and was not won because of the irresolution of politicians and the evaporation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of support fostered by the media, will find equally condescending Hess?s view that, ?This rewriting of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vietnam War which argues for the plausibility of a retrospective ?victory? is reminiscent of the way that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other peoples [like the South after the American Civil or Germany after the First World War] have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciled themselves to military defeat? \(p. 13-4\). However, Hess does see merit in aspects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionist case beyond mere sympathy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter one Hess sets out the broad shape of the revisionist and orthodox schools, and in the ensuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters he examines their contrasting perspectives on seven key issues. On the fundamental issue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether Vietnam was a necessary or mistaken war Hess gives almost equal honours to the two sides of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate with the orthodox school just squeaking by on points. Hess finds the orthodox view that containment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy had become globalised to the point where the United States was unable to shed ?peripheral? interests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Vietnam more appreciative of the realities on the ground in Southeast Asia, the limits of American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power worldwide, and the dangers of a policy based on ?credibility?, than the ideas put forward by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionists. He finds the revisionist view that the war was necessary because there was an international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communist conspiracy which, if not resisted in Vietnam, would have negative consequences that would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extend far beyond Southeast Asia, as wrong in retrospect as it seemed to the doves at the time. However, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agrees with the revisionists that the abandonment of South Vietnam to communism ?remains difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagine, within the context of domestic and international politics in the early 1960s? \(p. 46\). Thus for Hess )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the revisionist view that the war was necessary is wrong in international terms, but more realistic in domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms than the orthodox view that it was wholly unnecessary. Furthermore, the revisionist perspective on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessity of the war is at least an accurate reflection of what the international situation seemed to be for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal protagonists at the time and we can, therefore, at least have some sympathy with how they arrived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at their view.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Again on the Vietnam decisions of Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson between 1961 and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7169 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1965 Hess shows that there is, at least to some extent, a meeting of minds between revisionists and orthodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars because both believe that Vietnam should not have been an American war. Orthodox scholars argue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that American intervention could have, and should have, been avoided by a timely decision to withdraw ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed some of them believe that Kennedy had actually taken such a decision before his death, though there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems scant hard evidence for this ? or to negotiate with the communists, which they see as a reasonable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy alternative for the United States.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revisionists, of course, reject the view that South Vietnam could be abandoned by the United States, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they also disagree with the decision to Americanize the war. Their case hangs on the assertion that South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vietnam was actually winning the war in 1961, but the United States failed to appreciate its success and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(build on it, thus snatching defeat from the jaws of victory ? for the revisionists the first of a number of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American ?lost victories? in Vietnam. Instead, say the revisionists, the United States chose to interfere in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South Vietnamese politics in such a way as to make Americanization inevitable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Hess points out counter-factual, or as he puts it ?if-only? history, is a feature of historical writing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vietnam and he suggests it is most prominent with regard to the period, 1961?1965. The revisionists are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguing that if certain variables like US recognition of South Vietnamese progress are changed the war could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been won, but of course we do not know for sure that it would have been won because things simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not turn out like that ? this is the dilemma of counter-factual history, and as Hess points out if we posit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one change then all variables are equally subject to the possibility of change. The orthodox school, of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has an advantage here because its fundamental argument is that Vietnam was unwinnable, and of course it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was lost; no variables need to be changed to achieve the historical result. Thus, it might be said that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodox school avoids the counter-factual dilemma by not indulging in the practice, but while they may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less culpable in this respect, even orthodox scholars sometimes engage in their own what-ifs, for example: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?if only? Kennedy had withdrawn and ?if only? Kennedy had negotiated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters four and five deal with the period of United States escalation in Vietnam between 1965 and 1968. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revisionists are critical of the manner in which the war was fought, but they do not necessarily agree on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate prescription for victory. On the one hand, some of them argue that the United States war effort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was hampered by adherence to ill-founded concepts of limited war such that it violated certain fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military principles. If a more conventional ?Clausewitizian? strategy had been adopted, they say, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prospects for an American victory would have been much better. Other revisionists, like Andrew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Krepinevich in )] TJ ET BT 108.668 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Army and Vietnam)] TJ ET BT 219.656 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1986\) argue the reverse: that US military commanders refused to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accept the war for what it was: an insurgency, and adopted the ?big unit? attritional strategy that they found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychologically attractive rather than a low-intensity counter-insurgency strategy which would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more appropriate both to the circumstances in which the United States found itself in Vietnam and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical limitations of American power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To both strands of the military revisionist argument orthodox scholars counter that the kind of strategy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted by the United States is irrelevant because whatever it was it would be in support of a regime that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was fundamentally unsound and thus doomed to fail. Revisionists would respond that a\) the South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vietnamese government was not as weak as the orthodox scholars would have it ? or at least not always that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weak ? and b\) that in any case security must come before political reform.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter six Hess deals with the revisionist argument that the media undercut popular support for the war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here he argues that the balance of scholarship shows that the media was not biased against the United States, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed it was generally supportive, and that the war weariness that eventually sapped the American effort in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vietnam would probably have happened anyway, with or without the new medium of television. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consequently, the revisionist view that the media was biased towards the doves merely makes ?the Media a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?scapegoat? for the shortcomings of the policies of the nation?s civilian and military leaders? \(p. 152\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The evidence that the media was broadly supportive of the United States cause is compelling, and it did not ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with some notable exceptions like the shooting of a Viet Cong prisoner by South Vietnamese Police Chief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nguyen Loc Loan during the Tet Offensive ? show the graphic images of popular memory to the American )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7615 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public. However, it is perhaps also possible to speculate that an integrated American war effort that included )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conscious use of the media as a propaganda tool on the home front might have limited the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disenchantment of the American public enabling the United States to sustain its war effort in Vietnam for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer. Certainly, as a result of its perceived view of the media in Vietnam the United States government and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(armed forces pursued a much more manipulative policy towards the media in the 1991 and 2003 Gulf Wars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the extraordinarily permissive one they operated in the Vietnam era. Of course, whether the ability to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustain the American war effort longer would have been desirable is another matter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Few would now question that the Tet offensive was a communist defeat in battlefield terms, but a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communist victory in political terms. Revisionists believe that it represents another lost victory because the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magnitude of the defeat suffered by the communists was such that it could ? if suitably exploited ? have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided a springboard for a successful conclusion of the United States campaign in Vietnam. For Hess, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, this is an overestimate of the magnitude of the US/South Vietnamese success at Tet, which cannot, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the view of Ronald H. Spector in )] TJ ET BT 207.668 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(After Tet: The Bloodiest year in Vietnam)] TJ ET BT 402.992 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1993\) compensate for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?chronic problems? that beset the South Vietnamese Army and government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(President Richard Nixon was elected ostensibly as an anti-war candidate. Nixon reasoned that this would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitably require the withdrawal of American troops and negotiation with the communists, but this did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily add up to American defeat. He set about a final effort to win the war, or at least achieve a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position of strength from which to negotiate. Capitalising on the permissive post-Tet pacification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment Nixon and his advisers put in place a series of initiatives which, according to the revisionists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulted in yet another lost victory, because Congress was no longer prepared to continue its support for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South Vietnam. According to Hess, the revisionists are on to something here when they point to the progress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made by the United States and South Vietnam in this period, but it remains hard to see how this could have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been translated into anything that genuinely constituted victory, and if that is the case it remains reasonable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to question whether ?the final bargain to end US warfare was worth four years of continued sacrifice of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American and Vietnamese lives? \(p. 204\), especially when one considers that the agreement settled on in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1973 probably could have been achieved back in 1969. However, while it seems true that Nixon and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kissinger engaged in special pleading about their own roles in the ending of the Vietnam War, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comments do at least raise questions about alternative definitions of victory that may not yet have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adequately explored by those who subscribe to the unwinnable war tradition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps one of the weaknesses of Hess?s book is that such a literature survey is obliged to report on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantitative occurrence of this or that interpretation of events and there is little scope for detailed analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the texts surveyed. This has the effect of appearing to suggest that the revisionists must be wrong because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they are in the minority. For example, in chapter four Hess says that the argument that the war was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional one hinges on the extent to which the war was directed from North Vietnam and he reports that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the majority of orthodox scholarship maintains that it was indigenous to South Vietnam, at least at the start. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This indeed is the preponderant interpretation, but this reviewer finds a different interpretation of exactly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same evidence rather more persuasive. In this view, while the majority of the Viet Cong may have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southerners, while the National Liberation Front \(NLF\) was a southern organisation, while senior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communists in the South may have, from time to time, developed views that ran contrary to the those of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Politburo in Hanoi, the war was in fact directed from the north and the communists in the south were always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the Viet Minh structure, which, after 1954, was based in the north. From this reading of the evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the southern insurgency was neither autonomous, nor indigenous. This might suggest that the Vietnam War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was, as the United States always argued, a war between sovereign states, and not a civil war, but this rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misses the point that there should never have been two Vietnamese states in the first place. Nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however illegitimate was the birth of the South Vietnamese state, it does not follow ? and does not seem to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been the case in practice ? that the majority of the southern population supported the communists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(though the extent to which they were enthusiastic about the Saigon government is of course debatable\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This suggests that there were in reality, by the late 1950s, two Vietnamese states, both with a reasonable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim to sovereignty over their own citizens, but not necessarily over those of the other. They became locked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a struggle with each other, and the insurgency in the southern state, was directed from the north. The point )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 4450 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here is that the validity of the either perspective relies on the quality of the argument and its supporting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence, not the mean average of the accounts to date. No doubt Hess does not hold such a simplistic view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of history, but he obviously does not have the space here to develop the qualitative superiority of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodox arguments ? if qualitatively superior they are. Of course this is clearly beyond the scope of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series to which Hess is contributing, but it is worth noting the effects of the constraints under which Hess is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hess?s book forms part of Blackwell?s )] TJ ET BT 224.648 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contesting the Past)] TJ ET BT 318.656 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( series which aims to look at ?contradictory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptions? of the past in the belief that their study ?? can be fruitful: that the jettisoning of one thesis or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentation leaves behind something of value? \(p. x\). Hess cannot yet find much evidence of the emergence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a post-revisionist consensus; he postulates that such a synthesis may emerge probably later rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sooner in the next 25 years, ?but the revisionist influence likely will be reflected on the fringes of a restated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodox interpretation? \(p. 210\). Here he is too modest about his own achievements within the limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope of this volume. ?Something of value? is emerging from Hess?s book in the shape of his qualification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the orthodox view on Vietnam by the suggestion that on a number of issues ? like the necessity of the war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the decisions by Kennedy and Johnson to escalate the United States role and the progress of pacification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the Tet Offensive ? the revisionists are right in parts, and where they are wrong they are perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandably so. This represents the first glimmerings of an as yet indistinct synthesis of the orthodox and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionist perspectives and Hess?s book provides a launching pad for further research into areas ? like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relative weakness of the South Vietnamese government, the effect of the media, alternative definitions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victory and the relative autonomy of the NLF ? where the orthodox and revisionist views might be further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciled.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 464.451 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachel Martin Harlow, ?Agency and agent in George Bush?s Gulf War rhetoric?, in )] TJ ET BT 470.912 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rhetorical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Presidency of George H. W. Bush)] TJ ET BT 226.316 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Martin J. Medhurst \(Texas, 2006\), p. 68. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 447.620 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 447.620 418.179 m 501.608 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 393.317 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 374.335 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 356.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 356.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/711)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 355.161 m 322.316 355.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 330.184 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.784 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3688)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.384 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 447.6197 418.4935 501.6077 430.3735 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 355.4755 322.3157 367.3555 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/711) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000548 00000 n 0000000637 00000 n 0000004647 00000 n 0000004756 00000 n 0000004866 00000 n 0000004975 00000 n 0000008536 00000 n 0000008664 00000 n 0000008748 00000 n 0000008777 00000 n 0000008905 00000 n 0000008941 00000 n 0000009006 00000 n 0000015929 00000 n 0000015994 00000 n 0000023216 00000 n 0000023281 00000 n 0000030949 00000 n 0000031040 00000 n 0000035543 00000 n 0000035671 00000 n 0000035726 00000 n 0000035854 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35949 %%EOF