%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140709151737+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140709151737+01'00') /Title (El Marqus de Velada y la Corte en los Reinados de Felipe II y Felipe III: Nobleza Cortesana y Cultura Poltica en la Espaa del Siglo de Oro) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3960 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(El Marqus de Velada y la Corte en los Reinados de Felipe II y )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Felipe III: Nobleza Cortesana y Cultura Poltica en la Espaa del )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.553 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Siglo de Oro)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a book of exceptional originality and importance. Dr Martnez Hernndez has written a biography of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Don Gmez Dvila y Toledo \(1541?1616\), II Marquis of Velada, but such is the breadth of his research that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his book reshapes our understanding of the courtly politics and of the policymaking processes at the Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court in the critically important period from the 1560s to the 1620s. Here, for the first time, we are presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a detailed analysis of the development of court and government over the years that saw the transition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the quasi-monachal court of Philip II \(1556?98\) to the baroque court of his son, Philip III \(1598?1621\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Martnez Hernndez is especially informative on the personalities of these years, men \(and women\) who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have often been little more than shadows to us.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gmez Dvila was born to be a courtier; from his adolescent years he was schooled in the arts of the court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ? true to the spirit of the Renaissance courtier ? he cultivated a languid indifference to the intrigues of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public life that disguised a profound engagement with the minutiae of political life. Discreet to the point of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invisibility, he has generally been ignored by historians or been dismissed as a political lightweight. Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martnez Hernndez now demonstrates that Velada became a major figure at court from the early 1590s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(712)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 January, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Santiago Martnez Hernndez)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9788497182638)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(650pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Junta de Castilla y Len, Consejera de Cultura y Turismo)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salamanca)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Williams)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7729 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he exercised wide-ranging and subtle influence until his death in 1616.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Family traditions explain the man: first and foremost, Velada was a member of the great Toledo clan and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite his apparently casual manner he possessed in full measure the steeliness of character that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguished the Toledos. Indeed, in 1610 he subtly emphasised to Philip III that his family had served the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crown of Castile for many centuries before the house of Habsburg had acquired the crown in 1516. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glossed over the fact that the Dvilas had supported the )] TJ ET BT 302.636 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(comuneros )] TJ ET BT 358.292 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who had challenged the succession of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Habsburgs! Once the new dynasty had crushed the )] TJ ET BT 279.956 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(comuneros )] TJ ET BT 335.612 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and established its authority the Dvilas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cheerfully supported it, and their loyalty was recognised by Philip II when in 1557 he conferred the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marquisate of Velada upon Gmez Dvila I. The new marquis lived only until 1561 and since his son, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sancho, had predeceased him the title passed to his grandson and namesake who is the subject of this study. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip II further confirmed the rise of the Dvilas by granting the new marquis a position in the household of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own son, Prince Don Carlos.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Velada took the fullest advantage of his new status. At court \(and at an Academy for the sons of nobility\) he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultivated a series of friendships, many of which endured for several decades. But in the immediate term, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success was short-lived, for Velada, like many of his colleagues, left court after the death of Don Carlos in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1568 and the inevitable disbandment of his household. However, he kept up his contacts with his friends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through a remarkable correspondence, which is studied here for the first time. Some of the men who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed their innermost thoughts to Velada on paper became leading players in government over the next )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades: Cristbal de Moura and Juan de Idiquez; Juan de Ziga; the counts of Portalegre, Fuentes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olivares, and so on. The depth of the friendships between these men is manifest in the confidence that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showed in each other, for their letters are full of the most detailed ? and, often, the most barbed ? political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentary. It is a truly unique correspondence, which provides a series of fascinating insights into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private personalities of public men.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Velada?s prospects of returning to court were hindered for nearly 15 years after 1568 by his kinship with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duke of Alba, who was his uncle. Alba fell into disgrace with Philip II after his failures as Governor General )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Low Countries \(and also by scandals involving his son and heir\) and although he managed to retrieve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his reputation in leading the army that conquered Portugal for Philip in 1580 he could never overcome the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king?s profound dislike of him ? although it should be observed that he was not a man to try very hard to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so. It was perhaps indicative of Philip II?s hostility to the Toledos that Velada was among several members )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the family who were not allowed to travel to Portugal on the great state journey \(?)] TJ ET BT 440.612 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(jornada?\) )] TJ ET BT 491.612 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1580?3; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the marquis had to spend those years in Madrid and on his seigneurial estates. However, when Alba )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conveniently died in 1582 Velada himself became the )] TJ ET BT 295.304 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de facto )] TJ ET BT 336.632 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(head of the Toledo clan. He immediately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefited from Philip II?s determination to seek an accommodation with the family; in 1582 the king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appointed Velada as his ambassador to the church council of the province of Toledo \(1582?83\). The marquis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promptly demonstrated both his abilities and his discretion and began to win the king?s favour ? and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doing so he brought the Toledo family back into the centre of court life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Courtiers proverbially needed good fortune, and Velada found himself restored to favour exactly as Philip II )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was bringing about a radical reshaping of his government. The men who won major office in the early 1580s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to dominate court and government for the remainder of the reign: secretaries of state Mateo Vzquez )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de Leca and Gabriel de Zayas; the king?s confessor, fray Diego de Chaves; the two men above all others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who developed truly ministerial stature during these years ? Cristbal de Moura and Juan de Idiquez; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Juan de Ziga, a personal favourite of the king?s. Several of these men had been colleagues of Velada?s in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the noble Academy in the 1560s, and his friendships with them eased his way into the heart of government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His great opportunity to consolidate his new status came when Philip II selected him among those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would travel with him on another great )] TJ ET BT 224.324 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(jornada, )] TJ ET BT 268.328 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this time when in 1583 he left Madrid to travel to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingdom of Aragon to bid farewell to his daughter Catalina Micaela after her marriage to the Duke of Savoy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip and his court were away from Madrid from January 1586 until March 1586 and once again a great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(jornada )] TJ ET BT 75.020 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made and destroyed careers. Chief among the casualties were Cardinal Granvelle, who had briefly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served as chief minister, and the Count of Barajas, president of the council of Castile: chief among the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8192 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beneficiaries was the Marquis of Velada, who now transformed himself from a courtier into an administrator )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and politician.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(jornada de Aragn )] TJ ET BT 150.008 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had traumatic consequences for the king himself, for while Philip II was in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mountains of Aragon he suffered a grave illness that all but killed him, and he never again enjoyed robust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health. In his growing debility he was obliged to rely increasingly upon his inner circle of ministers. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men came to hold what were in effect ministerial briefs: Ziga and Idiquez dealt with foreign affairs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while Moura controlled Portuguese business and Chinchn and Vzquez de Leca concentrated on the papers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the councils of Castile, Finance and the Indies. At the end of each day, the ministers met to draw together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the business that they had conducted; because of the hour at which the )] TJ ET BT 374.288 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(junta )] TJ ET BT 401.960 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(met ? but also because of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secrecy with which it conducted business ? itbecame known as ?the )] TJ ET BT 361.616 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Junta )] TJ ET BT 391.280 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Night? \(?)] TJ ET BT 466.928 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Junta de Noche?\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, so dependent did Philip II become upon these ministers that within two years of its inception, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Junta de Noche )] TJ ET BT 111.668 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became the central institution of government, managing the papers of all the councils and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acting as the supreme patron within the administration. As significantly, the )] TJ ET BT 400.988 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Junta )] TJ ET BT 430.652 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was given primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility for supervising the development of the heir to the throne.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was within this context that Velada reached the very centre of court when in 1587 he was appointed as )] TJ ET BT 539.240 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ayo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Governor\) and )] TJ ET BT 111.320 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mayordomo Mayor )] TJ ET BT 207.968 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Lord High Steward\)of the heir. He seems to have been genuinely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctant to assume the offices, perhaps fearing that he would once again be damaged politically by being at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the heart of the household of an heir to the throne. Perhaps, too, he merely wished to avoid the heavy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibilities that conduct of the offices involved, for they required him to take charge not just of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education and personal development of young Philip but also of that of his only surviving sibling, the )] TJ ET BT 524.000 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(infanta )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princess\)Isabella Clara Eugenia. However, in practice he could not refuse such honours as the king now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposed upon him; maybe, too, he felt that his time had now come, encouraged perhaps by his close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friendship with Moura, who was a personal favourite of the king and who was named as )] TJ ET BT 460.268 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sumiller de Corps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Groom of the Stole\) to the Princein 1589. Velada now undertook to educate the Prince in the exercise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arms and in the arts of the court ? in horsemanship, hunting, games, dance and music.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A central part of the changes at court involved the return to Madrid of the Archduke Albert, who was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought back from Portugal where he had served as Viceroy. Now, he took the part of the King in audiences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in other ceremonies of state. Velada?s prestige at court rose further when in 1593 he was appointed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Council of State. It was now that he was forced into conflict with Francisco Gmez de Sandoval y Rojas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(V Marquis of Denia, an impoverished nobleman who had endeared himself to the impressionable heir to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throne. Velada recognised that the growing influence of Denia over young Philip threatened to undermine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everything that the King and his senior ministers were trying to achieve ? that if Denia could not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevented from establishing his influence over the Prince, it was likely that he and not the agd ministers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip II who would hold sway at the beginning of the next reign. In an unwonted, but perhaps desperate, act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of bravery, Velada advised Philip II to remove Denia from court.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a man of ambition, the stakes could hardly have been higher, and Velada built alliances with Moura, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Idiquez and Garcia de Loaysa ? alliances that were directed in effect against the Marquis of Denia. Battle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was joined when on 29 November 1593 Philip II issued the Instructions by which a Junta of Government \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Junta de Gobierno\) )] TJ ET BT 131.000 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was established to instruct the Prince in the arts of government and perhaps even take on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the responsiblities of a regency council if Philip II died before his son was capable of ruling by himself)] TJ ET BT 528.608 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 534.608 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Junta )] TJ ET BT 63.680 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was given responsibility for managing the most important affairs of state and met in the Prince?s rooms)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.858 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was designed, in practice, as what Dr Martnez Hernndez terms a ?collective tutor? for the Prince. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, Moura and Velada were given the supreme responsibility of guiding the political formation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prince, supervising all his activities and controlling access to his person. The grandees and titled nobility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were virtually excluded from the )] TJ ET BT 194.312 106.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(consejo de regencia)] TJ ET BT 290.288 106.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(;Velada himself ? a mere marquis ? was the senior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobleman in the inner circle)] TJ ET BT 168.656 92.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Archduke Albert left court in August 1595 to assume control of the government in the Low Countries. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His departure led to a further increase in the powers of the members of the )] TJ ET BT 394.256 52.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Junta de Gobierno. )] TJ ET BT 490.244 52.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8127 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accelerating countdown to the King?s death, the ministers of the inner circle locked horns with Denia for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control over the Prince. Moura, Velada and Garcia de Loaysa \(archbishop-elect of Toledo\) advised Philip II )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to remove Denia from court by naming him as Viceroy of Valencia. The King duly did so.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Prince disguised his fury, but he ? and Denia ? remembered who had betrayed him, and when the time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came he took his vengeance on all of them except upon Idiquez and Velada, both of whom were able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(build bridges with the heir and with his putative favourite. In October 1596 Garca de Loaysa assessed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prince on behalf of the group of tutors ? Moura, Velada and Garca de Loaysa himself ? and the confessors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the King and of the Prince \(friars Diego de Yepes and Gaspar de Crdoba\). They informed the King that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his son, who was now nearly nineteen years old, was ?very religious, devout, honest and very moderate in all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his actions?; that he was obedient to his father and affable and courteous to his own servants. The ministers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made recommendations as to how young Philip?s development could be encouraged, pointedly suggesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he should make more appearances in public and commit himself more fully to the work of government. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip II took the hint: somewhat belatedly, it must be admitted, he recognised that his son should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepared for the task of government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But even now, Philip II could not let go of the reins of power: not until he had only months to live did he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make his final settlement of his affairs. He agreed to marry his son and daughter to Austrian Habsburgs ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prince to Margaret, daughter of the Archduke Charles of Styria, and Isabella to the Archduke Albert. In May )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1598 Philip made peace with France and devolved the government of the Low Countries upon Albert and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Isabella. Having settled his affairs in Europe as best as he could, Philip II then made his last journey so that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he could die in the Escorial; so intense was his agony that it took him five days to travel the 70 kilometres to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the monastery In his final, dreadful, agony Philip bowed to the inevitable and named Denia as )] TJ ET BT 487.952 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Caballerizo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mayor )] TJ ET BT 69.008 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Master of the Horse\)to his son. He tried to balance this appointment by naming Moura as )] TJ ET BT 503.948 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sumiller )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de Corps )] TJ ET BT 80.684 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Idiquez as )] TJ ET BT 158.324 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Caballerizo Mayor )] TJ ET BT 252.992 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the )] TJ ET BT 283.652 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(infante )] TJ ET BT 319.988 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret. A number of appointments were made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Council of State and Garca de Loaysa was consecrated as archbishop of Toledo.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip II died at daybreak on 13 September 1598. Within minutes, Philip III appointed the Marquis of Denia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Council of State. Over the next weeks he appointed several relatives and henchmen of Denia to major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions in court and government. Dr Martnez Hernndez provides here the most detailed analysis in print )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the changes that took place over the next weeks and months. Most importantly, the Council of State was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(re-energisedwith a host of appointments, perhaps in an attempt to counterbalance the influence of the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favourite. However, most of the new councillors attended little and Juan de Idiquez came to exercise a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider and deeper influence on policymaking than he had enjoyed even under Philip II. Velada also survived, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if with difficulty, perhaps because Denia did not want to risk alienating the Toledo clan while he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidating his own power at court. But for Moura, Garca de Loaysa, Rodrigo Vzquez de Arce and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others there was no redemption, although their falls from power were managed with courtly discretion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The power of the King?s favourite \()] TJ ET BT 206.636 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(valido)] TJ ET BT 236.636 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) now overrode all political affiliations and the primacy of Denia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his family meant that political structures were re-written. In November 1599 Denia was raised to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dukedom of Lerma and his son and other relatives were given new titles. Within a couple of years of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of the reign it was evident that a new system of government had come into being ? government by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(valido)] TJ ET BT 64.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and a network of henchmen \(?)] TJ ET BT 212.636 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hechuras?)] TJ ET BT 262.628 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and members of his own family \()] TJ ET BT 428.936 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?parentela?)] TJ ET BT 486.932 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 490.928 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 496.928 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lerma was wise enough to know that he needed to strengthen the power of government and also to introduce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(senior members of the aristocracy into it if he was to consolidate his power without challenge, and so the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new reign saw a fascinating dichotomy between the power of the )] TJ ET BT 348.944 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(valido )] TJ ET BT 381.944 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his supporters and the re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment of the traditional forms of government, most notably of course, the councils of state, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now entered upon something of a golden age of their own. Dr Martnez Hernndez is here at his best: no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian has written about the complex and tumultuous changes of these years with such authority, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed in such detail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But as every political observer and moralist knew, no courtly power lasted for long. In 1606?7, Lerma?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority was all but destroyed by the collapse of the financial resources of the state ? a collapse for which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was in important part responsible. In 1607, Philip III was forced to agree to a cessation of hostilities in the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6760 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Low Countries and then to authorise a suspension of payments \(or ?state bankruptcy?\) to his bankers. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dreadful logic of failure forced him to agree to a truce of 12 years with his Dutch rebels in 1609. Philip was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bitterly ashamed of these humiliations and his loyalty to his )] TJ ET BT 323.348 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(valido )] TJ ET BT 356.348 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was placed under its greatest strain, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all but broke. Lerma?s opponents now threatened to overwhelm him, and for the first time in the reign they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became vocal, at court and beyond. They were encouraged by the open hostility of Queen Margaret to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lerma. Two men were prominent in the opposition to Lerma ? Francisco de Mendoza, the Admiral of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aragon, a fractious and incompetent nobleman and Fray Luis de Aliaga, a low-born Dominican whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lerma had raised to the king?s confessorship and who had then developed into a formidable opponent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was now that Velada made his move against Lerma. He became the catalyst for the aristocratic opponents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the )] TJ ET BT 64.676 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(valido. )] TJ ET BT 100.676 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He had chosen his moment well, and was able to point to Lerma?s failures at court and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policymaking. His opposition to Lerma was subtle and sophisticated, and it is a magisterial piece of writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which Dr Martnez Hernndez recovers the details for us. Velada showed himself to be a master tactician, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using now all the arts of the courtier that he had cultivated over the last 30 years. Indeed, so widespread were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his contacts at court that he was able to take advantage of the breaking-up of Lerma?s own network of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family and political relationships under the impress of the financial and political crisis of 1606?9. He dared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now to confront Lerma openly, while at the Council of State he worked through a growingly vocal group of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militaristic councillors who resented the humiliations of 1607?9, above all the making of the truce with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United Provinces, which they presented as an unpatriotic and treasonable act.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But having declared his hand, Velada played it with enchanting subtlety; recognising that Lerma was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps mortally wounded and that both he himself and Lerma were now old men, he sought a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(rapprochement )] TJ ET BT 110.336 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the favourite. But it was on his terms: Velada understood that Lerma wished to retire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the struggles of life at court to spend his last years in a life of religious devotion to save his eternal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soul. For his own part, he now pushed for the great honour that had been denied his family, of being raised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the rank of grandee \(?)] TJ ET BT 151.640 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(grandeza?\). )] TJ ET BT 212.300 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Lerma and Velada stretched out to find common ground with each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other, they were able to patch up a basis of understanding that led to Velada calling off the war between their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two houses on condition that he was raised to the )] TJ ET BT 272.660 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(grandeza. )] TJ ET BT 323.324 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He made it only just in time, and died in 1616, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contented that he \(and his family\) had been raised to the grandeeship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a stunning story, and the archival work that underscores this book is truly exceptional. Dr Martnez )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hernndez?s work is rooted in the state papers of the Archive of Simancas and in a score of archives in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Madrid and other cities in Spain. He has also made extensive use of the ?Altamira? papers in Geneva and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London as well as those in archives in Italy and Austria. No historian of early modern Spain has made such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide use of private correspondence as he has. The index is a model of its kind and the production is worthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the scholarship of the book. It is a matter of the deepest regret that financial realities make it extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlikely that an English translation will ever be produced. In Spain, with the generous subsidies that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical works now attract from regional governments and from financial institutions, the 650 pages of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book are available at a mere 30 )] TJ ET BT 186.968 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(euros. )] TJ ET BT 219.632 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the English academic world, a dustcover costs almost that much.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(January 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 163.759 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 145.979 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 145.979 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/712)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 144.585 m 322.316 144.585 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 119.608 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 105.208 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3689)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 144.8995 322.3157 156.7795 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/712) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000651 00000 n 0000000733 00000 n 0000004745 00000 n 0000004854 00000 n 0000004964 00000 n 0000005073 00000 n 0000008634 00000 n 0000008762 00000 n 0000008846 00000 n 0000008911 00000 n 0000016693 00000 n 0000016758 00000 n 0000025003 00000 n 0000025068 00000 n 0000033248 00000 n 0000033332 00000 n 0000040145 00000 n 0000040273 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40368 %%EOF