%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141119073618+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141119073618+00'00') /Title (The Capetians: Kings of France, 987?1328) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4159 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Capetians: Kings of France, 987?1328)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradbury?s text is a delightful read. His text discusses the Capetian dynasty of kings, from the events that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought the family to power in the tenth century up to the death of Charles IV in 1328. Charles died without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male heirs, and so the kingship passed to a collateral line, the Valois. Bradbury has a wonderful sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humour, especially when he uses primary source material to describe the colourful details of the deaths of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the various kings and noblemen. The book gives an in-depth look into the reign of each king.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The text is complete. It fleshes out the importance, or lack thereof, of each Capetian, reign by reign, king by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king, covering such topics of inquiry as ?the king and his realm?, ?royal administration? and ?the king and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the church?. Bradbury explains the complicated kinships of the royal and noble families. He relates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance and power structures of the principalities, describing how they affect royal power. At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of every chapter, he states the themes to be reviewed and at the end he gives useful summary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions. He uses a good balance of contemporary and modern sources to interpret important issues and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurrences. Bradbury?s methodology is sound and his work can serve as a text for medieval France.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After a quick glance at the Merovingians the book begins with an overview of Carolingian Francia. It breaks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down into its components the coming apart of Charlemagne?s empire. Bradbury makes a good case for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last Carolingian kings not being as weak as commonly believed. He points out that the geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries of the three kingdoms in the Treaty of Verdun of 843 were not ?written in concrete? and that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(715)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 January, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jim Bradbury)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781852855284)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continuum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Cusimano)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7086 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(units of land given to Charles the Bald had the best chance of survival intact \(pp. 14?15\). Additionally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradbury believes that the Viking invasions during the Carolingian period as described by modern writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do not adequately reflect the threat from them felt by chroniclers of the era \(p. 23\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author next presents the rise of the Robertian family \(ancestors of the Capetians\) to power in the ninth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and tenth centuries, showing that Hugh Capet inherited a throne in 987 stronger than is generally believed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradbury also finds that the importance of Paris grew as the control of the family over north-western Francia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased. He concludes that Odo \(888?98\), the first Robertian king and son of Robert the Strong who died )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighting the Vikings, deserves credit for his successes against the invaders \(p. 32\). However, Odo could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(check the development of the new principalities that eventually challenged the kings for control.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Then, after the throne reverted to the Carolingians, Charles the Simple \(898?923\) wisely granted the area )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around Rouen in 911 to Rollo the Viking \(p. 53\). Charles set up a buffer region and gave Rollo the task of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protecting the coast from further incursions of the Northmen. Rollo also accepted Christianity. Bradbury )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correctly sees the foot-kissing episode performed by Rollo in giving homage to Charles as an exaggeration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Dudo of St-Quentin, who recorded the event and who was overwhelmingly pro-Norman in sentiment \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(53?4\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Charles the Simple was neither a simpleton nor a weakling, Hugh the Great, a Robertian who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refused the kingship at the death of the Carolingian Ralph I \(923?36\), proved to be the most potent prince in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West Francia in the tenth century \(p. 37\). Hugh held a firm grasp on Neustria, with his lands stretching from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beauvais in the north to Poitiers in the south, and he became the lay abbot of major monasteries. According )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Bradbury, Carolingian kingship came to an end in West Francia for three major reasons \(p. 45\): first, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last Carolingian kings made an enemy out of their most powerful vassal, the Robertian Hugh Capet; second, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they lost the support of the Ottonian rulers of East Francia, their greatest external ally; and third, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed the most important prelate in their realm, Archbishop Adalbero of Reims.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Hugh Capet acceded to the throne in 987, West Francia could be called a ?realm? \(pp. 64?6\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradbury sees a firmer division between the East and West Frankish kingdoms, and finds that those dwelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in each were beginning to see themselves as either German or French. He asserts that the principalities were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slowly growing stronger and the magnates who controlled them could now be called ?princes?, even ?sub-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kings?. The author states that ?the emergence of principalities was not necessarily a weakening of Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, or even a diminishing of royal power? \(p. 65\). The first part of this statement is certainly true, but an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument could be made that the principalities indeed checked royal power and even lessened it until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquest of the northern ones by Philip II in the late twelfth century. Nevertheless, however powerful the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(princes became, they continued to see themselves as part of a kingdom, recognising themselves as princes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the realm \(p. 65\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradbury believes that the first two Capetian kings, Hugh \(987?96\) and Robert II \(996?1031\), were not as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weak as many historians have depicted them \(p. 95\). Their kingdom continued to grow in wealth and power, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and they controlled many major dioceses as well as abbeys. Bradbury shows that Hugh?s authority extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond his principality, from the environs of Paris to those of Orleans \(pp. 82\). He successfully checked the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitions of both Charles of Lower Lorraine and Odo of Blois, and he convened church assemblies to defy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pope. Bradbury also notes that Hugh began the Capetian practice of associating their heirs on the throne, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and he chose to be buried in the church of St-Denis, a precedent that made the abbey the Capetian dynasty?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cemetery. The problem with making any decision about whether Hugh?s rule was either strong or weak, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, lies in the lack of sources about him, as Bradbury recognises \(p. 69\). The one major chronicler of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period, Richer, favoured the Carolingians and thus was biased on their behalf.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradbury finds that Robert II the Pious \(996?1031\), Hugh?s son and successor, needs more credit for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements \(pp. 95?6\). He increased the royal revenues and kept the royal principality intact, adding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dreux and Melun firmly to it. He opposed Ottonian expansion from East Francia and approached Henry II as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an equal when they met on the Meuse in 1006. Robert indeed seems to have been more pious than his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessors in protecting churches, giving of alms to the poor, and fasting. Again, the main problem of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7268 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(getting to know the real Robert comes from the best source about him, the )] TJ ET BT 392.972 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vita)] TJ ET BT 412.976 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Helgaud of Fleury, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is hagiographical in nature, as Bradbury states \(p. 83\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradbury proceeds next to the reigns of Henry I \(1031?60\) and Philip I \(1060?1108\) in a chapter he entitles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Successful failures? \(p. 97\). He argues that, although modern writers have labelled them as feeble and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weak, they had successes and deserve more recognition for their accomplishments. Under Henry and Philip, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater royal power in the kingdom began shifting to the Capetians. Bradbury asserts that the problem with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judging these kings fairly lies in their comparison to William of Normandy, the conqueror of England. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry won the contests for expansion against the counts of Blois and Anjou, turning the latter, who had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemies, into allies \(pp. 110?11\). After earlier setbacks Henry consolidated his power in the Ile de France by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recovering almost all of the territory he had lost. Additionally, and surprisingly, Henry turned his eyes to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East in selecting Anna of Kiev as his second wife. He was looking to the other side of East Francia to find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alliances.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip I, who succeeded his father Henry at a young age, carried a name that was Greek and Byzantine in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origin \(p. 111\). Contemporary and modern writers have condemned Philip with the same sort of language )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used against the first three Capetians, but Bradbury follows the lead of some more recent historians who find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip more appealing as king than previously seen \(pp. 111?14\). Philip?s contemporaries, who were all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clerics, found him to be lazy, fat and sensual. However, their opinions of him derived from the scandal when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he set aside his wife Bertha of Holland and began his liaison with Bertrada of Montfort, a union that most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergymen and the papacy never recognised as valid \(pp. 118?21\). In addition, Philip staunchly opposed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregorian reform movement that began in his era, but he eventually reached a compromise with the clergy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over Investiture \(p. 122\). Neither indolent nor fat until the end of his reign, Philip conducted numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns against his own direct vassals as well as those in neighbouring principalities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In judging the first four Capetian kings as more powerful and successful than previously believed, Bradbury )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes a strong case for Robert I and Philip I, but his arguments are weaker on behalf of Hugh Capet and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry. However, no matter how anyone judges these kings, Bradbury?s extensive research shows them to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been more accomplished and stronger than many historians have previously presented them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moving to the reigns of Louis VI \(1108?37\) and Louis VII \(1137?80\), Bradbury believes that, because the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first four Capetians were more powerful than most historians have seen them, he must present the next two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kings as less significant than previously thought, or at least their significance must be redefined \(p. 129\). He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puts the blame for the over-emphasis of their importance mainly on the shoulders of Abbot Suger of St-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Denis, who wrote accounts of both reigns: ?Suger distorted history to suit his own agenda?seeking to benefit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his abbey? \(p. 130\). This condemnation of the abbot does not seem warranted. Most medieval abbots indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laboured for the benefit of their abbeys, their monks, their families or themselves. Some toiled on behalf of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their kings, their noble patrons and their realm. Suger did all of the above, even serving as regent while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louis VII went on the Second Crusade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Suger did glorify the achievements of the two kings, especially Louis VI. However, to accuse Suger of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distorting history for the benefit of his abbey is too harsh a judgement. A return to a more balanced view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the abbot?s motives is justified. His service for years at the royal court, his travels abroad and around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingdom as a royal ambassador, and his labours to put down royal rivals and keep the kingdom financially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stable during his regency demand it. Suger always acted for a complexity of reasons, and whatever he did, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even his account of )] TJ ET BT 129.992 166.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Deeds of Louis the Fat)] TJ ET BT 260.324 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, reflected that complexity. Furthermore, if inflated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance is a distortion of history, then every medieval writer stands condemned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradbury is correct in stating that Suger was not the ?creator of the theory of the monarchy? \(p. 130\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Louis VI was not a greatly successful warrior, even in his principality. He lost battles against Hugh of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Le Puiset and Thomas of Marle before he subdued them \(pp. 136?7\). In fact, a good case could be made that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he never really put down Hugh, who died on crusade. Regarding administration, the major change at Louis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VI?s court was that the great lords? presence slowly declined and the lower nobility of the king?s domain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had greater influence \(pp. 134?5\). Louis also defended towns against tyrannical rule, and his Customs of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6899 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lorris struck a blow for liberty on behalf of communes and serfs \(p. 147\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louis VII \(1137?80\), son and heir of Louis VI, inherited lands under control with no real challenge to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right to rule. Bradbury correctly states that Louis VII is the most difficult of all the Capetians to figure out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 149\). He seems to have been priest-ridden and uncommonly pious, but he protected his rights over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches and quarrelled with the papacy over appointments to bishoprics. He bungled the Second Crusade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but managed to make his way to Jerusalem. His marriage to Eleanor proved to be a disaster for him but a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boon to Henry II of England. When all things about him are considered, however, ?the balance falls on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive side? \(p. 165\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louis VII married three times before he produced a male heir, Philip II \(1180?1223\). Bradbury calls him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the greatest of the Capetian kings? \(p. 167\) and it would be difficult to disagree with him. A main criticism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Philip has been his role on the Third Crusade, but Bradbury feels that the chroniclers of the event were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostile to Philip and therefore downplayed his part in it \(p. 172\). Philip made significant contributions to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fall of Acre, the signal victory of the whole debacle \(pp. 173?4\). His friendship with the Plantagenets waxed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and waned but in the end he took control of a large portion of their French territories, doubling the size of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domain. Philip created the French royal navy, increasing it until it reached 1,500 ships in 1213 \(pp. 180?1\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The quarrel with Pope Innocent III over Philip?s marriages ultimately ended in the king?s favour \(p. 184\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following excellent coverage of Philip?s reign, Bradbury devotes only a few pages to that of his heir, Louis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VIII \(1223?6\), whose kingship was brief.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reign of Louis IX \(1226?70\) lasted almost half a century because of the premature death of his father. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradbury correctly refuses to judge Louis?s saintliness \(p. 201\), but he does just that in summing up his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comments on ?Louis the King? \(p. 227\). Bradbury believes that no other Capetian took his coronation oath )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more faithfully than Louis: he kept the faith, protected the Church, dispensed good justice and maintained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace at home \(p. 202\). His mother Blanche of Castile and his wife Margaret of Provence influenced him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongly but never dominated him \(p. 203\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some modern historians have cautioned that Louis IX?s reign should not be viewed as some sort of ?Golden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Age? for France; royal power had declined by the end of his reign and the signs foreshadowing the disasters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the fourteenth century were evident \(p. 205\). As a crusader, Louis failed miserably. After the debacle in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Egypt during the Sixth Crusade, Louis salvaged something when he went to the Holy Land and strengthened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its defences \(pp. 212?13\). His religious views were traditional for the era \(p. 229\). He persecuted Jews and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he died on the Seventh Major Crusade against Muslims. The church soon canonised him as a saint because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his personal piety, which at times bordered on the extraordinary \(p. 232\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip III \(1270?85\), son and heir of Louis IX, eventually initiated policies different from his father?s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daringly pursued them, for which reason he earned the sobriquet ?the Bold? \(p. 237\). He continued the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French practice of granting royal brothers apanages, large tracts of land that were usually counties and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duchies, to keep them loyal to the crown and ensure that the lands would revert to the monarchy if that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(person died without heirs. He became more active than his predecessors in the south of France and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish affairs \(pp. 237?8\). His son and heir Philip IV \(1285?1314\) succeeded him at age 17.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the character of Philip IV, Bradbury concludes that he ?represents all that was best and all that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worst? among the Capetian kings \(p. 240\). Philip seems to have been an enigma ? silent, taciturn, cold, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remote and conventionally pious, a man whose personality eludes deciphering. No one, however, can argue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that his reign was insignificant \(p. 241\). During his kingship Paris truly became the capital of France \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(243\). He supported its university; several departments of state took up residence there, and professional men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flocked to the city to improve their station in life. Some of these ?lesser? men became royal councillors who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publicly carried out the king?s policies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During Philip IV?s kingship the Estates-General of France met for the first time ever at the cathedral of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Notre-Dame in Paris in 1302 to assist the king in his quarrel with Pope Boniface VIII over taxation \(p. 247\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip hit churches heavily for revenues. He also demanded a general tax for the first time in France \(p. 251\). )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3824 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradbury asserts that ?as France became the most powerful monarchy in the West, so relations with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church deteriorated? \(p. 264\). He believes that the reason why Philip suppressed the Knights of the Temple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lies somewhere amid three possible motives \(p. 274\): money, although the amount gained came nowhere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(near solving his financial problems; his desire to create a French crusading order from their possessions; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his belief that the accusations against them, especially heresy, were true. His crushing of the Templars in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France, however, cannot be justified and has left an indelible stain on Philip?s reputation \(p. 274\). His three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sons, Louis X \(1314?16\), Philip V \(1316?22\) and Charles IV \(1322?8\), all reigned briefly without male heirs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to succeed them and so the direct rule of the Capetian kings came to an end.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradbury ends his text with a summary chapter on the Capetian legacy. By the end of this long line of able )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kings France was the greatest power in Europe. It had reached its modern boundaries, and the royal domain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was huge, almost double that of the magnates combined. Apanages given to royal brothers had returned to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the monarchy for the most part. Paris had become the capital of the kingdom, with government centralised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there, and its university had reached new heights. The French language had developed to the point where it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced great literature, especially the )] TJ ET BT 226.628 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(chansons)] TJ ET BT 271.292 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Gothic architectural changes gave rise to the magnificent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cathedrals that still stand in France. Finally, the Capetian kings brought forth a Catholic Christian monarchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that endured.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The flaws in Bradbury?s book are minor. At times sentence construction and word usage seemed unusual, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but these are piddling issues that hardly deserve mentioning. Readers can always argue over interpretation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events and people, but there are no errors of fact noted in his text. This book is a pleasure to read and should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be studied by all who are interested in the history of medieval France.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 430.111 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 412.331 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 412.331 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/715)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 410.937 m 322.316 410.937 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 385.960 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.560 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3692)] TJ ET BT 34.016 357.160 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 411.2515 322.3157 423.1315 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/715) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000550 00000 n 0000000632 00000 n 0000004843 00000 n 0000004952 00000 n 0000005062 00000 n 0000005171 00000 n 0000008732 00000 n 0000008860 00000 n 0000008944 00000 n 0000009009 00000 n 0000016148 00000 n 0000016213 00000 n 0000023534 00000 n 0000023599 00000 n 0000030551 00000 n 0000030635 00000 n 0000034512 00000 n 0000034640 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34735 %%EOF