%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930195958+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930195958+01'00') /Title (The Shadow of Marriage: Singleness in England, 1914?60) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4237 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Shadow of Marriage: Singleness in England, 1914?60)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a ground-breaking social history of single men and women in England from the early to the mid-20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Up until recently, historians of the family have prioritised the experiences of those men and women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who married and became parents. This book draws on an admirably wide range of sources \(including oral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, autobiography, social surveys, census data, organizational records, parliamentary debates and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reports, advice literature, films, novels, children?s stories, newspapers and magazines\) and focuses on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much neglected lives of people who did not marry and who, mostly, did not have children. Its main aim is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enable us to better understand the married/single divide and the impact of the continuities and changes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marital beliefs and practices on women and men who never married from 1914?60.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over the past few years some excellent work on the history of single women, mostly focused on the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern period, has emerged. Amy Froide?s, )] TJ ET BT 250.976 147.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Never Married: Singlewomen in Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2005\) encouraged us to shift our preoccupation with ?ever-married women? to the ?never-married? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to acknowledge the significance of marital status to the representation and experiences of single women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the past. It also allowed us to question longstanding assumptions about the historical experiences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spinsters and bachelors and urged us to explore the differences between single people at different stages in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the life cycle and the importance of a wide range of familial relationships including those between siblings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the extended family. The burgeoning interest in the lives of single people in the past encouraged Froide, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(716)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 31 December, 2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katherine Holden)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719068928)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tanya Evans)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7946 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holden and June Hannam to jointly organise a conference on the ?History of Single Women? in July 2006. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the papers presented at that conference have been published in a special issue of )] TJ ET BT 464.576 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women?s History )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Review )] TJ ET BT 71.672 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? )] TJ ET BT 80.000 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Winners or Losers? Single Women in History 1000?2000)] TJ ET BT 354.992 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 357.992 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 357.992 766.563 m 371.984 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other readers and consumers of history have also had their appetites whetted by the widespread publicity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that surrounded the publication of Virginia Nicholson?s popular history )] TJ ET BT 380.984 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Singled Out: How Two Million )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women Survived Without Men after the First World War)] TJ ET BT 306.656 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2007\). Holden?s book enables us to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further deepen our understanding of the historical experience and construction of spinsterhood.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More and more historians are convinced of the necessity of bringing to light the history of men and women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who did not marry. For most of the period under discussion nearly half of the adult population was single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and well over a third never married. It is clear that the nuclear family has dominated as a social structure in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our understanding of people?s lives in the past and even if men and women did not experience marriage it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nonetheless dominated their lives. It is hard to draw clear conceptual boundaries between singleness and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage. This book makes clear, however, that single men and women?s lives have been marginalised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(models of marriage and the nuclear family. The stories of the single people given space here are a testament )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the variety and richness of these people?s lives. Holden?s starting point is her own life-story, both as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single, childless woman and one who was surrounded by single, childless women in her childhood during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1950s and 1960s. Unmarried aunts dominated her early life within a middle-class colonial family and she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully explores the triangular relationships between mothers, their children and their carers \(both paid and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpaid\). Holden?s approach to each of her chapters is similar as she works through each source to examine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the different ways in which singleness was represented and experienced. The introduction discusses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general difficulties of men and women who could not marry and the following chapters move on to discuss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work, housing and lifestyle choices, single people?s relationships \(as brothers, sisters, daughters, sons, aunts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and uncles\), sexual relationships outside of marriage, the consequences of those relationships \(which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included pregnancy, adoption and fostering\) and end with a discussion of single people?s professional and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paid work with children. Her focus is on representation as well as experience and through the life stories she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores we get to grips with the conflicts and contradictions of many of the images of singleness familiar to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of us. She suggests that it has been through the negative stereotypes of spinsterhood particularly that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the sad, frustrated old maid that we have learned the limits of normative female behaviour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first section explores how difficult some single people found living independently or finding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment particularly during the depression of the 1930s. There was a regional disparity in the experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of employment for single people with more single men to be found in rural areas. This section also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlights the significance of some campaigning groups including the National Spinsters Pension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Association and Over Thirty Association which represented the needs of single people over the course of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the 20th century by attempting to improve their rights with regards to pension entitlements and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secure decent housing and welfare. I, for one, would love to learn more about these organisations. Spinsters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were better served by voluntary organisations then bachelors who had no political organisation established to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further their interests. Nonetheless, their usually higher earnings meant that they were more capable of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporting themselves without outside help. Throughout this period, single women earned between 60?80 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(per cent of the wages of men working in similar jobs. Spinsters often found it hard to support themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alone in accommodation but many used friendship networks, sometimes sought through professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s networks such as the British Federation of University Women and the Federation of Professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Business Women?s Clubs, to set up home successfully with other single women. There was a significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gap between the numbers of upper- and middle-class and working-class single women due to the death of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officer class in the First World War. It is clear, therefore, that for many single women and men the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment of a professional identity was especially significant to their lives. Female spinster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professionals were clustered particularly in teaching, health and welfare work as well as the civil service. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1931 half of all single professional women aged between 35 and 44 worked as teachers. Male bachelors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although fewer in number, also worked predominately as teachers. But both men and women as they grew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(older might become poorer and less secure with fewer family members, both young and old, to fall back on. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Townsend?s research in particular has suggested that many single people experienced greater economic )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 357.9917 766.8775 371.9837 778.7575 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7258 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insecurity, compared with those people who married, as they aged.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fact that men are included in her discussion makes Holden?s book more valuable than it would be if she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had only focussed upon women?s experiences of singleness. Drawing on Scott, she argues that it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary to examine the experiences of men as well as women and that obviously there was a gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division in the experience of singleness. Nonetheless, the experiences of men were much harder to unearth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of their invisibility in the sources. They are rarely mentioned in the advice literature and few male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiographers examine their marital status. Holden was able to draw on many more sources on women and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her research shows that spinsters experienced more discrimination and hardship and they were represented in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an overwhelmingly more negative light than bachelors. The state was complicit in this discrimination.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holden is keen to emphasise the significant part that children played in the lives of single men and women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite the fact that they might not have become parents themselves. Unmarried men and women were often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enmeshed in a complex family web of obligations and responsibilities as well as support. It is in her third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter that Holden introduces us to her use of the interesting concept of ?family standbys?. This role could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give spinsters and bachelors significant roles within a family albeit with circumscribed power. Relationships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with children were much valued but frequently experienced as provisional. She suggests, clearly drawing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her own familial experiences, oral histories, as well as surveys including the New Survey of London Life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Labour and the research of the Institute of Community Studies, that maiden aunts and bachelor uncles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could allow children to grapple with the possibilities of life outside of marriage and parenthood. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence also points to the limits of the census as well as some surveys in describing family and household )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life in 20th-century Britain. It is through her use of all her sources that she allows us to appreciate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of sibling relationships for single people. The role as standby validated many single people?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence within their family. The flip-side of this role, exclusion from the powerful core of the nuclear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family, could also be extremely frustrating and humiliating for single men and women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter four she examines the consequences of ?irregular relations? but instead of focussing on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homosexuality of some single men and women who chose not to marry and which has been explored by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of historians elsewhere she chooses instead to focus on friendship, as an alternative to ?wifehood? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the well-used examples of Vera Brittain, Phyllis Bentley and Winifred Holtby together with Eleanor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rathbone and Elizabeth Macadam amongst others. She acknowledges that these details of female friendships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are far easier to discover for middle- rather than working-class women. It is clear that the virulent anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homosexuality of the 1940s and 1950s made a significant impact on female subcultures and spaces. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that single men and women in the 1950s were caught within an uncompromising heterosexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climate and overwhelmed by an aggressive married culture while many hoped to avoid the institution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage. Moreover, single women were often deeply personally affected by the vehement anti-spinster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric of the inter-war and post-war periods.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She suggests that women were discouraged from having children out of wedlock through a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instruments of social control including the women?s auxiliary police force, the British Social Hygiene )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Council and commercial propaganda films such as )] TJ ET BT 279.644 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Damaged Goods)] TJ ET BT 360.632 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1919\). Many women, of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignored these teachings and most, including social commentators such as Sybil Neville-Rolfe and Esther )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harding, held contradictory views on matters regarding sex outside of marriage. Nonetheless, the book?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions allow us to question the dominant historiography on offer on the 1950s by describing the intense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friendships between women and men who did not marry and the capacity with which some were able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursue motherhood either through childbirth, fostering or adoption.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five includes a lengthy discussion of the experience and representation of parenthood outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage. The First and Second World Wars had allowed some men and women space and opportunity for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater intimacy than in the period either before or immediately after and this had enormous implications for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the increase in the illegitimacy rate during these two wars. Holden?s discussion of the history of women who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave birth to children out of wedlock is particularly welcome in the light of Pat Thane and my work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unmarried motherhood in 20th-century England, to be published next year.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.632 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.632 65.043 m 407.624 65.043 l S endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 393.6317 65.3575 407.6237 77.2375 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8016 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holden is keen to stress that there are many gaps in the sources for the study of intimate lives, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nonetheless it was clear that there was a strong gender divide in the experience of unmarried parenthood. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Single mothers bore the brunt of enormous discrimination as parents out of wedlock, while men escaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral opprobrium. Throughout this period motherhood was frequently unconstrained by marriage which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests how fragile the institution was. Again she argues that statistics are an ultimately unsatisfactory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source from which to discover anything meaningful about unmarried parenthood and most other sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only illuminate the lives of those who needed help. Those who had the material resources with which to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cope with unmarried motherhood usually elide discovery by historians. She explores the implications of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mental Deficiency Act of 1913 and, through her use of oral histories, and with some reference to the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluntary organisations who worked on behalf of unmarried mothers she shows the different ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women tried to mother on their own despite their common experience of stigma. The Second World War and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the later 1940s represented a watershed in treatment towards unmarried mothers. With many from this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period regarded as objects of sympathy and incorporated into the net of the welfare state. Holden also shares )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her findings from a wide ranging reading of novels in the early to mid-century period. The exploration of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation of single people in popular culture is particularly welcome here. Many of us will already be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar with her joint work with Janet Fink.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 247.340 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 247.340 569.235 m 261.332 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 261.332 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Both have explored the representations of unmarried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mothers in novels from the mid-Victorian period and films in the 1950s and 1960s. They have suggested that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the image of the fallen, outcast woman persisted well into the 1960s to warn other women against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participating in sexual activities outside of marriage. Both novels and films worked to emphasise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessity for unmarried mothers to hide their pregnancies and the births of illegitimate children by resorting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to abortion, adoption or fostering. Unmarried motherhood was overwhelmingly stigmatised and few positive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images, apart from that of the self-sacrificing mother, were suggested in these cultural genres. The New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wave films of the 1960s such as )] TJ ET BT 192.992 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Taste of Honey)] TJ ET BT 275.984 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1961\), )] TJ ET BT 316.976 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The L-Shaped Room)] TJ ET BT 414.968 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1962\) and )] TJ ET BT 473.288 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Twilight)] TJ ET BT 74.036 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1952\), often adapted from plays and novels written by women, allowed a more nuanced picture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unmarried motherhood to emerge. These tended to focus on the complex reasons for ?illegitimate? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pregnancy, the difficulties these women faced and the limits of the routes out of this state. Nonetheless, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deviancy of unmarried mothers was still the central focus of these films measured against the normality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuclear family life. Beliefs about unmarried fatherhood were also contradictory throughout this period but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many men avoided association with the children they had created out of wedlock both in reality as well as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the literature on ?illegitimate? parenthood. Successive pieces of legislation failed to ensure paternal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility towards ?illegitimate? children, the legacy of which remains with us today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holden suggests that increasing numbers of single women were adopting children from the late 1920s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although societies tended to prefer adopting couples and the prospect of children being assimilated into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuclear families. Paradoxically for some single women during this period it was easier to adopt or foster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children you had not born yourself than it was to become a mother through an ?illegitimate? pregnancy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, many women struggled to do so both materially and culturally. We know very little about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of adoption in this country and Holden?s discussion in chapter six, together with Jenny Keating?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forthcoming book )] TJ ET BT 123.344 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Child for Keeps: the History of Adoption, 1918?45 )] TJ ET BT 380.684 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Palgrave 2008\), is particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome. Adoption was an overwhelmingly informal process, devoid of regulation, both before but also for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a long time after the passage of the Adoption Act of 1926 which legalised adoption for the first time. Many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parents? childcare arrangements remained fluid throughout this period and adoption and fostering remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of a spectrum of care used both long- and short-term. Women who re-married often had their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illegitimate children adopted by their new husbands. Moreover, adoption by two parents was becoming the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(norm by the turn of the 1960s especially following the publication of the Hurst Report on the Adoption of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Children in 1954. The publication of the Houghton Report 1972 helped to implement a more centralised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system of adoption.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holden?s seventh chapter explores the relationships between aunts and uncles and children as revealed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiction, oral histories and autobiographies. Her final section discusses the involvement of spinsters in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional care of children as teachers, social workers, nannies, nurses, probation officers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychoanalysts. Throughout her book she refers to the significance of professional identity to single men but )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 247.3397 569.5495 261.3317 581.4295 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 6002 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially to women. It was through this work that women could make their maternal and emotional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investment in the future generation. She charts the long-standing belief that women?s work was best focused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the care of children and the development of the professionalisation of women?s initially voluntary work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the emergence of single female middle-class experts on childcare. She outlines that for many of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interviewees their personal relationships with children were key to their emotional as well as professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an ambitious book and Holden is not afraid to draw on a wealth of methodological approaches and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources to explore her theme. She is less willing to engage with theoretical approaches although frequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference throughout the book is made to Freud?s ?Family Romances?. This book certainly enriches our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the complex history of family and friendship in the past and allows us to rethink )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchies of relationships of kin and friendship. It is essential reading for undergraduates and postgraduates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working on the social history of 20th-century Britain as well as historians of the family and gender. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blend of the personal and political in the way history is recounted and explored in this book is particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome and allows the reader to engage with an author for whom friendship and support from a wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family network is a major source of strength, both intellectual and emotional, in a world that remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overwhelmingly dominated by the couple.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 535.731 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Winners or Losers? Single Women in History 1000-2000)] TJ ET BT 337.004 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 343.004 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women?s History Review)] TJ ET BT 466.316 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Special Issue, 17, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3 \(2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 108.008 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 108.008 489.459 m 161.996 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pat Thane and Tanya Evans, )] TJ ET BT 203.984 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sinners? Scroungers? Saints? Unmarried Motherhood in Modern )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 104.684 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(forthcoming\). See also )] TJ ET BT 223.664 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Papers presented at the Symposium on the History of Lone Mothers, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Women?s Library, London Metropolitan University, 23rd November, 2007)] TJ ET BT 444.332 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 450.332 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women?s History )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Review)] TJ ET BT 98.672 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Special Issue, ed. Tanya Evans and Pat Thane \(forthcoming\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 398.276 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 398.276 432.435 m 452.264 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Janet Fink and Katherine Holden, ?Pictures from the margins of marriage: representations of spinsters )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and single mothers in the mid-Victorian novel, inter-war Hollywood melodrama and British film of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1950s and 1960s? )] TJ ET BT 170.672 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender and History)] TJ ET BT 266.660 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 11, 2 \(1990\), 233-55. See also Janet Fink, ?For better or )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for worse? The dilemmas of unmarried motherhood in mid-twentieth century popular British film and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiction?, )] TJ ET BT 106.676 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women?s History Review)] TJ ET BT 229.988 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(forthcoming\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 303.308 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 303.308 361.155 m 357.296 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 336.293 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Manchester, Centre for History of Nursing and Midwifery)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nursing.manchester.ac.uk/ukchnm/publications/bookreviews/holden/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 306.387 m 421.988 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 424.988 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 303.055 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 285.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 285.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/716)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 283.881 m 322.316 283.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 258.904 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.504 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3693)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.104 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.nursing.manchester.ac.uk/ukchnm/publications/bookreviews/holden/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 108.0077 489.7735 161.9957 501.6535 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 398.2757 432.7495 452.2637 444.6295 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 303.3077 361.4695 357.2957 373.3495 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 306.7015 421.9877 318.5815 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nursing.manchester.ac.uk/ukchnm/publications/bookreviews/holden/) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 284.1955 322.3157 296.0755 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/716) >> endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000564 00000 n 0000000646 00000 n 0000004935 00000 n 0000005044 00000 n 0000005154 00000 n 0000005263 00000 n 0000008824 00000 n 0000008952 00000 n 0000009036 00000 n 0000009120 00000 n 0000017119 00000 n 0000017149 00000 n 0000017277 00000 n 0000017313 00000 n 0000017397 00000 n 0000024708 00000 n 0000024738 00000 n 0000024864 00000 n 0000024900 00000 n 0000024984 00000 n 0000033053 00000 n 0000033083 00000 n 0000033211 00000 n 0000033247 00000 n 0000033359 00000 n 0000039414 00000 n 0000039542 00000 n 0000039597 00000 n 0000039725 00000 n 0000039780 00000 n 0000039908 00000 n 0000039963 00000 n 0000040090 00000 n 0000040217 00000 n 0000040345 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40440 %%EOF