%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826072501+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826072501+01'00') /Title (Work or Fight! Race, Gender, and the Draft in World War One) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4381 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Work or Fight! Race, Gender, and the Draft in World War One)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I think I would like Gerald Shenk but I am not certain that I agree with him. I like the fact that he does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make any secret of where his allegiances lie. He tells readers he was educated in a Mennonite college and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed Vietnam, and introduces this book on draft dodgers through recollections of his grandparents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle to maintain their religious belief in pacifism in the face of communal opposition. Also, he is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blind to the experience of others. He has some sympathy for what he eloquently calls Woodrow Wilson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle to steer a Progressive course between ?vigilance and vigilantism? as he led the nation into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European conflict he had so successfully avoided. He also makes the point that pacifism is a minority view, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that mobilising a nation for war will of itself create casualties, albeit moral rather than physical. He is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also able to draw conclusions which relate to wider issues than the struggle between the draft and objections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to it ? namely, what this conflict tells us about attitudes to citizenship, representation and race. So far, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good. It is when he gets tangled in sexuality and gender that I begin to worry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His is a view that has some pedigree and currency. War and/as masculinity is a popular topic. It was handled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very successfully, for example, in Kirsten Hogan?s )] TJ ET BT 282.296 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fighting for American Manhood)] TJ ET BT 439.292 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Yale, 1998\) which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blends Darwinian concepts and a gendered interpretation to explain why America went to war with Spain in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1898. Joanna Bourke?s )] TJ ET BT 148.664 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dismembering the Male)] TJ ET BT 264.644 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1996\) uses the shared horrors of men?s military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience in the Great War to explain a new masculinity which broke down class barriers among men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(717)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 January, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gerald Shenk)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781403961754)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(202pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kristofer Allerfeldt)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7397 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributed to further conflict. Masculinity played a part, no doubt, in the draft for America?s Expeditionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Force in 1917?19. The strenuous trials of strength and daring which Theodore Roosevelt constantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expounded must have rung in the ears of American men as they contemplated joining up. The manly, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chivalrous, defending of Belgian women from the ravages of the Hun was certainly one of the rallying calls.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But does it play as big a part as Professor Shenk makes out? Did ?whiteness? really equate to masculinity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because in this racially and gendered society that was where the power and influence lay? Even if it does, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why do we need such an equation? Isn?t it enough that we apply the term ?racism? to a society which would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably not have understood our notions of such a crime, without compounding that error by adding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another which would have been far less intelligible ? ?sexism?? Surely the value of any study of the past is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in attempting to understand it in the terms which would have motivated those living through it. To apply our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own values seems, at best, indulgent, and, at worst, it can do little but muddy our understanding. Besides, if, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Shenk argues, the war served to protect the racial gradations of society, it also hastened women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empowerment immeasurably, converting Woodrow Wilson and a majority of Congress to the cause of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female suffrage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having said that, this is a scholarly book and there is a great deal of valuable, productive and insightful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research which needs to see the light of day. Shenk tells us that in declaring war on Germany, President )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodrow Wilson ?publicly legitimised a kind of national social othering that was [already] familiar to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class white[s]? throughout America. What he then goes on to show is that this ?othering? was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse. In each of the four regions he examines ? Coweta County, Georgia; Paterson, New Jersey; Adams )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(County, Illinois and San Diego, California ? this government sanctioned alienation was aimed at different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups which drew on different histories. What unites them is their rejection of the Selective Service Act ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the draft. In essence, response to the draft showed opposition to or support for the war. In Shenk?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaluation it also showed a lot more. He draws on sources which demonstrate the use of masculinity as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benchmark for patriotism. Those who responded to the call were ?manly? men. Those who opposed the Act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or attempted to evade conscription were ?slackers?, a term which he sees as ?gendered? ? and somehow the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more insulting because it was reserved for men alone.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These terms were not considered strong enough to overcome the reluctance to the war felt by many. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coweta County, Georgia, the initial draft of August 1917 called 506, white, men. It hoped to enlist 253. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More than 10 per cent ignored the draft and failed to register. Of those who responded, over 150 failed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical. As if that was not bad enough, two-thirds of the remaining men, who passed the medical, sought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemption. This was not purely motivated by ambivalence to American entry into the war, or ? in spite of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the arguments raised by draft officials ? cowardice. In rural areas of sharecropping and subsistence farming, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the loss of labour could mean hardship, if not starvation, for those left behind. There was also the ever-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present fear that the racial imbalance that the exodus of young whites would leave behind could encourage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the natural sexually predatory nature of the local negroes. At the start of September, only 12 men shipped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out to Camp Newman for training. It would have been interesting to have known how this compared with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the average take up across the nation, and why Shenk chose to study the regions he picked.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some saw the answer to the latent dilemma of patriotism versus rural depopulation lying in the conscription )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of blacks, but this brought with it a dangerous set of problems. To a large proportion of whites in segregated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georgia, black ?boys? were inherently inferior: they were lazy, unreliable and frivolous. They were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to draft since they were often illiterate and itinerant. Perhaps most importantly, they were also vital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the cotton harvest, as Shenk tells us the primary concern for the Georgia Council of Defense was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?preserving a stable, obedient, and dependable labor force in cotton cultivation?. Initially attempts were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made to overcome the increasing labour vacuum through a system of farm furloughs. Under these African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American draftees were sent by camp commandants to work on farms. Sometimes they were sent as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals to their home region, sometimes for large farms in groups, reminiscent of the system of contract )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convict labour. This created further friction, being resented by poor white conscripts as preferential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment, and they claimed that black soldiers on furlough took liberties, seeing their uniforms as granting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them immunity from prosecution. The result was seething resentment which often erupted into violence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most importantly in Houston, Texas, where 17 whites were killed, 13 black conscripts executed and 41 )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6973 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others given life sentences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The solution to these problems came when Washington authorised ?Work or Fight? legislation in 1918. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Under this amendment, local draft boards could order draft age men to serve in specific jobs or face )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediate induction into the army. In Georgia this was enthusiastically adopted and expanded as an adjunct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the existing vagrancy laws, enabling the arrest, fining or imprisonment of those ? even women ? deemed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be slackers. These extra-legal coercive powers ensured that although nearly 50,000 rural Georgians served )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the US Army, there was actually a labour surplus which outlived the war and fed an increase in white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharecropping and peonage over the next decade. This excessive use of the draft also ?reinforced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent position of African American men ... confirmed the exclusion of women from the realm of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state and preserved some white men?s sense of manhood, and it got the cotton picked?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his analysis of Georgia, Shenk describes the manipulation of the draft process by a white, male, elite who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to retain their position over a black majority. This balance was maintained, he contends, because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the constant feminising of the black since the days of slavery ? and feminising signals impotence, for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminised are property. But this was not always the case. He gives details of a letter from a white mother in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Illinois seeking to have her son sent to the trenches in France in order that she might receive a proportion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his pay. She was successful. He describes another woman with similar aims in Paterson, who also eventually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(won her case. Here Shenk?s masculinity thesis is plausible and valuable. He uses these incidents to show )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that women gained power over men who relinquished their manly status by cowardice, namely by trying to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoid the draft.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was not always the actions of individuals that led to pressure to respond to the call. Sometimes those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were deemed ?undesirable? in their local communities were sent to join up. Once more, to illustrate this, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shenk chooses a sexualised theme. He tells the story of the hermaphrodite farm boy conscript who baffled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical inspectors in Illinois and uses this, rather obscure, story to show yet again the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conformist masculinity in US wartime society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But as may be imagined, many sought to avoid rather than seek military service. Aside from failing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical ? which accounted for over 60 per cent of those registered being exempted from service ? working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in agriculture was the most likely reason to avoid conscription. In Adams County, Illinois, one out of every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two and a half appeals to the draft board made by farmers or agricultural workers was successful. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compares with one out of every 100 for industrial workers. Some farmers met with less success. The farmers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Adams County Brethren had three reasons to wish not to be drafted: they had their farms to run; they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were pacifists by religion; and most came from German backgrounds. Shenk gives the example of Lucas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ackers, a man from just the type of ?peace church? whose members the government deemed legitimate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?conscientious objectors?. Although Ackers?s exemption plea was dismissed, he was sent to work on farms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the Mid-West. He was fortunate. He could have been assigned to ambulance or other non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combatant work, sent to the front classified as ?insincere? or even imprisoned in Fort Leavenworth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If objectors sought to escape the draft they might find themselves subject to the attentions of the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protective League \(APL\), a government-sanctioned vigilante group whose ?slacker? raids ?controlled? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hyphenated Americans. They might find that their harvest was sabotaged or boycotted, or their house had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yellow stripe painted on it. The war on the home-front, as always allowed old scores to be settled. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial Paterson, New Jersey, where over 60 per cent of the population was first or second generation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigrant, anti-Semitism, anti-radicalism and nativism combined to drive the ever-enthusiastic APL )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operatives. On 2 September 1918, an estimated 25,000 APL agents swooped on saloons, pool halls and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?slacker? haunts in New Jersey and New York City. Tens of thousands of draft-dodgers were arrested. When )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friends, family and neighbours produced draft cards, most were released. Only a couple of hundred were sent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Fort Dix, but these netted the APLers a tidy $50 per deserter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nor was such action limited to New Jersey. Across the nation, One-Hundred Percent Americanism, as this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(super-patriotism was known, meant that aliens or suspected pro-Germans were made to fly the US flag, kiss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it or even wear it. Rumours of less than patriotic behaviour could result in being beaten or arrested, or, as in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3910 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the case of the German-born, Illinois socialist, Robert Prager, lynched. However, although Shenk devotes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable space to this vigilante behaviour, he does not give details of the other side of this phenomenon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? the so-called parade ground naturalisation by which aliens gained citizenship via voluntary military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service. He does give instances of two men who voluntarily joined up, but not for citizenship, rather to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receive medical attention for oddly incurable, but predictably emasculating, conditions ? one was for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(syphilis, another for incontinence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Waterworks also played a central role in the history of the draft in San Diego which was even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anomalous than the other three regions described in Shenk?s book. When a local businessman was made San )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diego?s Selective Service Board representative, he used his office to gain an exemption for the son of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local newspaper baron. Having done this service, he demanded the support of the papers for his proposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dam which would supply water to the growing population of the region. His dam would flood the San Diego )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian reserve at El Capitan Grande, nevertheless the Mission Indians there were not consulted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shenk uses this incident to conflate ?whiteness ... [with] private ownership of land or other resources? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Progressive California. He shows that while the Dawes Act and Alien Land Laws explicitly barred non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whites ? Native Americans and Asians rather than ?coloreds? \(African Americans\) ? from the ownership of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land, the San Diego draft still included ?American Indians, Japanese Americans, Chinese Americans and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mexican Americans?, all called as part of the ??white? quota?. Perhaps unsurprisingly none of these groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever saw combat, but at least for the Native Americans it contributed to their gaining of citizenship, en )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masse, in 1924. Asian Americans would need to wait for the wake of another war, but these are subjects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the remit of this book. Perhaps they could form the basis for another study on the long-term effect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the racial impact of the Selective Service?s decisions, and few would argue that, with his unparalleled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of the draft and its enforcement, Shenk should not be the person to write it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 427.855 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 410.075 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 410.075 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/717)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 408.681 m 322.316 408.681 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 383.704 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 369.304 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3694)] TJ ET BT 34.016 354.904 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 408.9955 322.3157 420.8755 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/717) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000562 00000 n 0000000644 00000 n 0000005077 00000 n 0000005186 00000 n 0000005296 00000 n 0000005405 00000 n 0000008966 00000 n 0000009094 00000 n 0000009178 00000 n 0000009243 00000 n 0000016693 00000 n 0000016758 00000 n 0000023784 00000 n 0000023868 00000 n 0000027831 00000 n 0000027959 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28054 %%EOF