%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150328105258+00'00') /ModDate (D:20150328105258+00'00') /Title (A Great and Terrible King: Edward I and the Forging of Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4195 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Great and Terrible King: Edward I and the Forging of Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In October 1283, Edward I stood in a unique position. He had achieved a goal which had eluded his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessors back to the time of the Conquest: the subjection of Wales. His military campaigns to assert his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlordship had begun six years previously, but now his dominance was final. This in itself was unique, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the episode had a more significant aspect. The take-over was sealed by the capture of the Welsh prince )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dafydd ap Gruffudd and his imprisonment in London. Then followed his trial for treason, after which he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered; this brutal punishment was exacted for the first time in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation?s history, a sign that no traitor?s life was worthy to be spared, noble or not. This was a break with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past for England and for Edward. Such was the measure of the man. Edward I was, in the title of Marc )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris?s book, ?a mighty and terrible king?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The latest biography of Edward I is a welcome one, though it is more likely to embellish the bookshelves of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the public library than the studies of academics. Still, it is none the worse for that, for the subject of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography has not enjoyed the same superstar status as, for instance, Henry VIII or Elizabeth I. Anything )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that brings the extraordinary achievements of this king to better notice is worthy to be praised. It is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting indictment of this lack of awareness of Edward I and his age that previous reviews of this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have shown a shocking historical ignorance. To quote but one example, an article which appeared in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Telegraph)] TJ ET BT 113.012 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( described the king?s father, Henry III, as ?pious but incompetent?, an outrageous statement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(718)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 January, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marc Morris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780091796846)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(480pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hutchinson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeremy Goldsmith)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7011 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even if it contains a grain of truth; this reviewer then wrongly claimed that Morris? book was the first full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography of Edward for a century, and obsessed about his Scottish campaigns to the near-exclusion of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic achievements. Sadly, such views are not unique to this writer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward I has for some time been considered a king lacking in personality, so far as modern audiences are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned. Fifty years ago, Sir Maurice Powicke wrote that ?King Edward I stands apart in our history. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remember him, but not as a living man who stirs the imagination ... we think of him in terms of his works. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He is the English Justinian and the Hammer of the Scots?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 312.992 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 312.992 697.539 m 326.984 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 326.984 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This view of him is still fundamentally true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today. L. F. Salzman in his narrative and popular biography of the king sought to address the issue, and self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciously asserted that ?in this study of one of our greatest kings I have tried to bring out his personality?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 654.771 m 48.008 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This contribution to the historical literature, unreferenced as it was, added more to the public knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Edward than it enhanced academic wisdom. Nonetheless, his life did not receive another comprehensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment for another 20 years, when Michael Prestwich?s )] TJ ET BT 316.280 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Edward I)] TJ ET BT 361.280 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1988\) first appeared. Prestwich must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be considered the living authority on Edward I, and his biography, since reprinted, represents his scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apotheosis. Indeed, the author of the current book humbly acknowledges his debt to Prestwich?s work in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preface.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the scholar?s viewpoint, this work adds little to Prestwich?s work, but if Morris has achieved anything it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is in fulfilling Powicke?s wish ? he has brought the king to life. The indulgent biographer has always been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prone to pardoning the faults of his subject and magnifying their admirable qualities to cover any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortcomings. Morris, however, has managed to restrain himself: he is no hagiographer. The public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception of Edward evokes images of a sober lawgiver or a courageous military leader. Morris allows us to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see that he could also be uncompromising, self-interested, and duplicitous. Above all, he was a man of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent passions. At the battle of Evesham, where the rebel barons opposing his father?s rule were finally put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the sword, we learn that Edward suspended the normal conventions of chivalric combat. Knights and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peers, normally only victims of kidnap and ransom, were to be given no quarter but to be slain as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commoners. Such a command was militarily effective, if appalling to the medieval mind. As a result the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confrontation was christened ?the murder of Evesham?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris also tells us of Edward?s youthful delinquencies and his desire for power. We hear how his youthful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrogance and self-confidence led him to reject the authority of his parents in order for him to gain some part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in governance. Only age would bring the strict attitude to royal authority which characterised his later reign.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward was a formidable character, even by the standards of his time. He appears not to have feared anyone. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His desire to obtain finances for his Scottish wars precipitated a constitutional crisis when he was unwilling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to offer any political concessions in return. Nevertheless, when cornered, his response was typically bullish. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Going on the attack was always his natural approach to defence. On one occasion the king accused his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barons directly:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Do you think I am a child, or a deceiver?? asked Edward angrily when ... his critics not only )] TJ ET BT 64.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asked him to confirm the Charters [Magna Carta and the Forest Charter] but also required that )] TJ ET BT 64.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own seals be applied to the documents for greater security \(p. 322\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author has harnessed another formidable source, a weapon wielded ? not always successfully ? by many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern authors: the power of anecdote. Stephen Langton, archbishop of Canterbury \(1207?28\), remarked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?an illustrative anecdote [)] TJ ET BT 178.652 144.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(exemplum)] TJ ET BT 227.300 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(] is very often more effective than a polished, subtle phrase?. Drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a variety of chronicle sources, Morris recalls a number of these distinguishing stories. We hear of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(miraculous escapes from death by lightning, poisoning in the Holy Land and Scottish snipers at the siege of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stirling. Similarly the stories of his compensating an esquire whom he attacked with a stick without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provocation, and the cost of repairing one of his daughter?s coronets which he had thrown into the fire, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrate his ready anger.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 312.9917 697.8535 326.9837 709.7335 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 655.0855 48.0077 666.9655 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 6541 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris has organised his material in chronological order, a self-conscious antidote to the thematic treatment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of other authors. In addition to the appeal to a broader readership that this entails, the author notes that ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(task of putting the events of Edward?s life in their correct order has led me to question existing orthodoxies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more frequently than I had imagined might be necessary? \(p. xiii\). Clearly the king?s wars in Wales and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland figure largely and give the book its subtitle, ?the forging of Britain?. Still, the domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements of Edward in the administration of justice and the development of parliament can be easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This approach has also enabled the author to pay greater attention to the king?s itinerary than other recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors have been able to. An appreciation of Edward?s movements and the reasons that underlie them are a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key to understanding his actions. Here the explanation of how pilgrimages and parliaments, hunting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigning formed part of an ongoing series of progresses. In contrast to later rulers, who spent many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(months continuously at the same location, Edward was a restless and energetic king ? a monarch on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(move. His average rate of travel, indeed, was 20 miles a day, an impressive achievement considering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor state of the roads and difficulty of transport.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1278 the king began an assault on financial fraud ? in particular the clipping of coins in order to melt the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shavings into new silver illegally. The Jewish community came under special scrutiny and as a result )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Edward executed half of the adult males in a minority population. Almost incidentally, he had committed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the single biggest massacre of Jews in British history? \(p. 171\). The implication of genocidal tendencies on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the part of Edward I must be regarded as hyperbole. While it is a fact that this number of Jews died as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result of his policies, this cannot be interpreted as a deliberate attempt to exterminate his non-Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population. His later expulsion of the Jews from England reflect an anti-Semitism common to his age, but he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had no murderous agenda, just a severe approach to justice. It is here that Morris over-indulges himself in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overinterpreting the evidence, and fitting it to a sensationalist analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Small details let down the book which should have been ironed out before publication. The number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typographical and spelling areas is questionable by such a large and well-respected publisher; it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfortunate that the author has been poorly served in this respect, as it diminishes the professionalism of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work. Other issues are more directly his responsibilities, for instance his attitude towards dating. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval scholar will be keenly aware that the modern calendar year was not the main contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yardstick. The sacred year began with Advent, while the legal and economic year commenced on Lady Day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(25 March\). Yet Morris, after noting Edward?s issue of writs in December 1299, summoning a parliament, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talks of him ?having seen in the new century at Berwick? \(p. 322\); a slip of the mind, no doubt, but still a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant one. Far worse, and potential misleading to the reader, is the confusion of dates in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical calendar. Recalling Edward?s escape from a near-fatal accident, when the floor of the room he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was in collapsed, Morris observes that)] TJ ET BT 64.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that it happened on Easter Sunday ? the day of Christ?s passion ? must by itself have )] TJ ET BT 64.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been seen as significant. Edward had been expressing his willingness to go on crusade ? that is, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to recover Jerusalem, the site of Christ?s passion ? for more than three years by this point \(p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(209\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a medieval historian to express such an ignorance of the feasts of the Church?s year is shocking. Good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday is of course the date of Christ?s passion, Easter Sunday marking his )] TJ ET BT 396.644 144.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(resurrection)] TJ ET BT 455.972 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The ubiquitous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance of ecclesiastical dating is found throughout medieval material and as such a recognition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of religious festivals is a fundamental skill for a writer on this period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A mistake prevalent amongst modern historians, of judging the past by the standards of the present, meets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with indulgent treatment here. In 1278, Edward made a trip to Glastonbury, the site of King Arthur?s burial. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here he viewed the ceremonial reinterment of the legendary monarch and his queen in a new tomb in a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6750 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectacle undoubtedly laid on for his benefit. Unfortunately, Morris spends an undue amount of time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debunking the Arthurian episode. A total of seven pages is dedicated to his investigation of the issue, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he is convinced that Arthur?s historical existence was ?nonsense? and the reburial in Edward?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence was a cynical ?exercise in propaganda directed squarely at the Welsh? \(p. 166\). Geoffrey of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monmouth \()] TJ ET BT 94.352 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 99.680 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1100?)] TJ ET BT 132.008 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 137.336 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1150\) comes in for heavy criticism for having embellished and perpetuated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arthurian legends, which is unnecessary and excessive in the context of Edward?s life. However, in this case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emphasis should not be placed on what is generally accepted about Arthur ? that there is little if any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concrete evidence for his historical existence ? but what was believed in the past. There is a significant body )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of evidence to suggest that there was a widespread enthusiasm and belief in the real Arthur during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages, and that Monmouth?s contemporary critics, such as William of Newburgh, were untypical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voices in a world in which the distinctions between myth and history were blurred to a far greater extent than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the modern mind finds comfortable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris has positioned his book well in the history market, no doubt due to the advice of his agent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishers. For, while being clearly aimed at the intelligent general reader, the clear and thorough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referencing raises it above the level of much popular biography. The notes occupy 37 pages and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography a further 13. However, it is here that the scholar is likely to meet with disappointment. For, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while it is clear that the author has consulted a commendable number of primary sources, there is no mention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of any that are unpublished. Whether manuscript sources were consulted is unclear, but they are an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important consideration when dealing with Edward I. While many of the record sources for the reign of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry III are now in print, a great many governmental rolls for his son still await this treatment. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberate Rolls and the Memoranda Rolls, key financial sources, remain unpublished and deserve the detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention that Morris?s models ? Prestwich especially ? have already given them. Most of the contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronicles, at least, are available in published form. His list of secondary sources also exhibits certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deficiencies. He has clearly consulted a wide range of biographies, analytical works and articles up to 2007. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is, however, a noticeable lack of any unpublished academic work. It is to be hoped that the industry of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars compiling dissertations and theses for higher degrees are not destined solely for university libraries. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a good deal of new research being produced in this way, and it is unfortunate that this is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognised by the author here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether this book makes a lasting contribution to the historiography of the 13th century remains to be seen. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris has certainly advanced the cause of Edward I and presented him to a new audience. He has also done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent service in the rehabilitation of the Middle Ages; the conception of a mud-covered world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignorance is finally being dispelled, and this book will do much to aid this process. The general audience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will here discover a work to entertain as well as educate and even the historian will find a ready reference for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the life of the king.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 267.123 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Powicke, The Thirteenth Century, 1216-1307 \(2nd edn., Oxford, 1962\), p. 227.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 461.300 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 461.300 235.107 m 515.288 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. F. Salzman, Edward I \(London, 1968\), preface.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 304.292 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 304.292 220.851 m 358.280 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 195.989 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/may/31/history)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 166.083 m 298.352 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 301.352 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 162.751 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 144.971 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 144.971 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/718)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 143.577 m 322.316 143.577 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 118.600 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3695)] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.800 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/may/31/history)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 461.2997 235.4215 515.2877 247.3015 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 304.2917 221.1655 358.2797 233.0455 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 166.3975 298.3517 178.2775 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/may/31/history) >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 143.8915 322.3157 155.7715 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/718) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000565 00000 n 0000000647 00000 n 0000004894 00000 n 0000005003 00000 n 0000005113 00000 n 0000005222 00000 n 0000008783 00000 n 0000008911 00000 n 0000008995 00000 n 0000009086 00000 n 0000016150 00000 n 0000016180 00000 n 0000016308 00000 n 0000016344 00000 n 0000016374 00000 n 0000016500 00000 n 0000016536 00000 n 0000016601 00000 n 0000023195 00000 n 0000023300 00000 n 0000030103 00000 n 0000030231 00000 n 0000030286 00000 n 0000030414 00000 n 0000030469 00000 n 0000030596 00000 n 0000030699 00000 n 0000030827 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30922 %%EOF