%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818080651+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818080651+01'00') /Title (Unrespectable Radicals? Popular Politics in the Age of Reform) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4278 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Unrespectable Radicals? Popular Politics in the Age of Reform)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once, radicals of the late 18th and early 19th century appeared as distinctly respectable. They were earnest, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improving, and mindful of the public good, which was all of a piece with the sober Dissenting stock from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which many of them sprang. There was, of course, a revolutionary fringe, but this was inhabited by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overwrought or the immature. That revolutionary extremists made their foolhardy grabs at power was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regrettable, but the insurrectionary attempts of these years ? two parts tragedy to three parts farce ? were a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measure of the ruling elite?s selfish and shortsighted obstinacy; they did not detract from the essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rightness of the radical critique. In this view, which was not entirely dispelled by E. P. Thompson, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicals of unreformed England were Gladstonian liberals )] TJ ET BT 314.948 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in utero)] TJ ET BT 352.616 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. All they lacked was the whiskers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That was before Iain McCalman?s )] TJ ET BT 202.304 147.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical Underworld: Prophets, Revolutionaries, and Pornographers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London, 1795-1840)] TJ ET BT 128.684 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1988\). McCalman lifted the lid on an altogether seamier side of radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endeavour. In the taverns and alehouses of the capital?s lowliest neighbourhoods he located a ?blackguard? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition, nourished by irreconcilable enemies of the established order. These were people who had no notion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they were living through an age of reform ? to use the phrase employed rather incongruously in the title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the collection under review. Even if they had, they would have wanted none of it. The denizens of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical underworld were treasonable by instinct. They aspired to overturn, not to ameliorate. They were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(719)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 February, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Davis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Pickering)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754656197)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(236pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chris Evans)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7362 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rancorous millenarians, scurrilously abusive utopians. They inhabited a criminal )] TJ ET BT 422.300 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(demi-monde)] TJ ET BT 481.616 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extortion, pimping or the publication of obscene squibs were admired ways of turning a penny. They scoffed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at self-improvement. For them, ?un-respectability? was a badge of honour. Needless to say, they despised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francis Place, the arch-exponent of artisanal respectability. The feeling was mutual.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although savage mockery of all that was holy was the stock-in-trade of this radical underworld, its activists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were deadly serious about what they were doing. Like Francis Place, many of them were veterans of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London Corresponding Society \(LCS\). The ?Two Acts? of 1795 made public agitation of the democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cause, which the LCS had pioneered, a virtual impossibility, and in 1799 the organisation was proscribed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outright. In the face of this legislative pounding, the democrats of the 1790s dispersed in different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological directions. For Thomas Evans and a clutch of others who were to embody the ?blackguard? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition the writings of Thomas Spence became pivotal. Spence \(1750?1814\) had been a down-at-heel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence on the London radical scene in the 1790s, but he was no orthodox democrat. Political equality, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decided, would be of little value to the poor and dispossessed as long as the land remained the private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reserve of the aristocracy. The Spencean panacea was therefore the communal ownership of land. Given that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s rulers had baulked at the most minimal reform of the electoral system in the 1790s the chances of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them acceding to a redistribution of their estates were nil. In such circumstances Spencean politics were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily putschist. A determined hard core of revolutionaries would have to assault the heart of the state, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hence the Spa Fields riots of 1816 and the Cato Street conspiracy of 1820, both Spencean enterprises.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The numbers involved were tiny ? perhaps only 200 to 300 committed individuals in the post-war years ? but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is not difficult to see why McCalman?s vivid portrait of their milieu was greeted with acclaim by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fellow historians. The Spenceans exhibited features that historians and critics of the late 20th century found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irresistible. Cultural theorists who looked for acts of transgression that could illuminate a wider moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape were delighted with the rich pickings to be had in the radical underground, for the Spenceans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transgressed in every way they could. They were violent in word and gesture. Scorn, rage, and defiance were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the principal shades of their emotional palette. Blasphemy and provocation was their habitual resort, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raucous parody their response to the solemnities of conventional political and spiritual life. They seemed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(live in perpetual Rabelaisian tumult.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Unrespectable Radicals? )] TJ ET BT 158.000 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returns to this territory 20 years on. It brings together a dozen of McCalman?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colleagues, collaborators and former pupils in a festschrift that reflects on the categories and insights of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical Underworld)] TJ ET BT 133.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. None of the essays disappoint but it cannot be said that the collection offers ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherent and integrated treatment? of popular politics in the age of reform \(the promise made by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishers on the back cover\). That is too much to expect from a slim volume that starts in the London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benjamin Franklin knew and closes in mid-Victorian New Zealand. The editors make the more reasonable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim that the thematically and methodologically diverse contributions they have commissioned can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marshalled under the headings of performance and marginality \(p. 2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iain McCalman repeatedly drew attention to the theatricality of the ?blackguard? tradition: its habitus were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoted to boozy ritual and highly dramatised declamation. But such theatricality was not restricted to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shunned subculture. Gillian Russell highlights the extravagant courtroom manner of Thomas Erskine, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lawyer who, besides acting for the defence in the Treason Trials of 1794, specialised in trials for ?criminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversation?. These were civil actions in which a cuckolded husband sought damages from his wife?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lover. Unlike divorce proceedings in the ecclesiastical courts, which turned on the fact of illicit sex, ?crim. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(con.? actions centred on the emotional disruption brought about by adultery. They provided, therefore, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity for a commanding performer like Erskine to appeal to the modish sentimentalism of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary culture. He did so to great effect, persuading juries to award enormous sums in compensation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to aggrieved husbands. Erskine was egged on by the Lord Chief Justice, Lloyd Kenyon, a dour moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative, but most conservative observers were unimpressed by his histrionics. Erskine struck them as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(egotistical, self-indulgent and unmanly; he touched upon fears of creeping effeminacy in the revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jack Fruchtman Jr addresses a quite different style of performance, that of Benjamin Franklin. What drove )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7366 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this respected public figure into rebellion against the crown? Fruchtman focuses on the American?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance before the Privy Council at Whitehall in January 1774, when Franklin was subjected to an hour-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long harangue by the solicitor general, Alexander Wedderburn. The violence of Wedderburn?s invective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stunned all those present, causing several recent historians to conclude that it was this shameful mauling that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroyed Franklin?s faith in the British government. Not so; Franklin held out lingering hopes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciliation even as he sailed for America in March 1775. But, to return to the Privy Council hearing, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not just Wedderburn?s fury that stuck in the memory of observers, it was Franklin?s reaction. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained immobile throughout, maintaining an Easter-Island impassivity. Why? Fruchtman does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculate, but could it have been a wish on Franklin?s part to indicate that it was the ministry that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disruptively innovative, not the colonists?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Durey?s ?Loyalty in an age of conspiracy: the oath-filled civil war in Ireland 1795-1799? looks at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performances that were far from the artful confections of Thomas Erskine; the actions in which he is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested were driven by fear and desperation. In 1790s Ireland both loyalists and United Irishmen sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cement political allegiances through the use of oaths. Swearing fidelity to the United cause was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental step for recruits to the revolutionary organisation. It committed them to a secret and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unbreakable obedience; it required them to risk all when called upon. Both sides of the political divide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognised the gravity of these undertakings, which was why the Insurrection Act of 1796 made it a capital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offence to administer an illegal oath and prescribed transportation for the taking of such oaths. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government was appalled at the numbers being sworn into the United Irishmen in the mid-1790s, but should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the oaths be taken at face value? In an essay that shows little regard for nationalist pieties, Durey stresses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that oaths were often contingent and conditional. The thousands that were administered by United Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agents may be as much as index of the intimidation that local activists could bring to bear as a genuine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection of committed insurgency. In a society in which ?civil consensus? had broken down duplicity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a tool of everyday survival.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Durey?s insistence on the elusive and often liquid character of political loyalties in these vexed years sits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awkwardly alongside the other contribution that deals with matters Irish: Ruan O?Donnell?s essay on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Military Committee of the United Irishmen. O?Donnell makes a cogent case for seeing the secretive Military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Committee as providing organisational continuity between the rebellion of 1798 and Emmet?s rising in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1803. That the Committee?s core personnel remained in place over the intervening five years is clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated. Some major assumptions are made about the health of the wider organisation, however: ?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(No more than 30,000)] TJ ET BT 136.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had been killed of an organization which boasted in excess of 300,000 sworn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adherents? \(p. 137: my italics\). This is to accept that oath-bound rebels were unwaveringly staunch ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely what Durey warns against. The 30,000 deaths that are talked of so lightly must have included a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disproportionately high number of the most committed militants, and the effect of such a slaughter on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morale of those who escaped can only be guessed at. Such things haunt the memory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Memory is the subject of Paul A. Pickering?s ?Betrayal and exile: a forgotten Chartist experience?. William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Griffin and James Cartledge were both dedicated Manchester Chartists. Both were embroiled in the strike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement of 1842 and both were arrested. Facing charges of sedition and conspiracy, both agreed to testify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against their former comrades. Needless to say, they were reviled in the Chartist press. ?If on earth there can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be a name more hated than another?, pronounced Bronterre O?Brien, ?it is the name of a TRAITOR, A spy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is as bad as a devil; but a TRAITOR is a bishop of devils? \(p. 205\). In fear for their lives, the two turncoats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappeared as soon as the state trials were concluded. They fled, Pickering has discovered, as far as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could go: James Cartledge resurfaced in Tasmania, William Griffin in New Zealand. Here, surely, was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity for the fugitives to demonstrate the capacity of political and personal identities to mutate ? a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capacity that is a recurrent feature of the essays in this volume. Jonathan Mee?s piece on Robert Merry and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?political alchemy of the 1790s?, for example, follows the poet?s switchback ride through that decade, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during which time he sloughed off his fashionable Della Cruscan persona and emerged as an ardent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporter of the French Republic. An odyssey that began in the salons of the Whig grandees ended in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bracingly raw democracy of the young United States.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turbulent times, it would seem, necessarily gave rise to personal transformation. Consciously or )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7676 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unconsciously, many who were caught up in the political and cultural upheavals of the age embraced new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities. Yet nothing of the sort happened in the case of the Chartist traitors. They displayed a striking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constancy in outlook and identity. Neither Griffin nor Cartledge troubled to so much as change their names. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And once installed in antipodean exile they picked up the threads of their earlier political and social activism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as though nothing had altered. They continued to be temperance campaigners and trade unionists, and they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retained a highly class-conscious interest in the land question. The ease with which they did so prompts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pickering to suggest the presence of a ?convenient colonial amnesia? in 19th-century Australia and New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zealand. In colonies where displaced and not infrequently disgraced persons of one kind or another were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common, he suggests, an unspoken willingness to overlook past lives and misdemeanours was an essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social lubricant.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The imperial context informs some of the most instructive essays in )] TJ ET BT 362.324 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Unrespectable Radicals)] TJ ET BT 477.308 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Epstein?s study of Pierre Franc McCallum, a shady radical journalist who fetched up in Trinidad in 1803, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stands out. McCallum found an island caught up in the wash of the Haitian revolution and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary/counterrevolutionary conflicts that had spilled out of Europe. Formerly a Spanish colony, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British conquest had made Trinidad into ?an open frontier, attracting ambitious planters and a motley crew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of casualties from other islands looking to revive their fortunes? \(pp. 148?9\). Presiding over this confused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and factionalised society was the unsympathetic figure of Brigadier-General Thomas Picton, Trinidad?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military governor. McCallum soon fell foul of the Picton regime, but, unbowed by a spell in the notorious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison at Port-of-Spain, he thumbed his nose at the colonial authorities using every literary device at his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disposal. Giving the radical underworld a colonial twist is a valuable step. Epstein shows McCallum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appealing to British constitutional liberty as a safeguard against the abuse of power on the Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periphery. Nimbly, McCallum also used colonial abuses as a mirror of elite misrule in the metropolis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Worrall?s ?Islam on the romantic period stage: Hyder Ali, Tippoo Saib and beyond the captivity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative? also considers the ways in which over-mighty colonial authorities were subject to metropolitan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical critique. Tippoo Saib, the Mysore ruler who had been an antagonist of the East India Company in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1790s, had been systematically denigrated by the Company?s propagandists in the years immediately before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and after his defeat and death in 1799. But within 20 years Tippoo Saib enjoyed a literary rehabilitation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Plays such as )] TJ ET BT 101.012 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tippoo Saib; Or, The Storming of Seringapatam)] TJ ET BT 333.356 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, staged in the early 1820s, presented the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian warrior-prince in a far more sympathetic light. Worrall suggests that drama hostile to the East India )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Company was commercially viable because of a plebeian and multicultural public in London. As is so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently the case, however, when considering the reception of cultural products, audience response has to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be inferred from slender evidence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The extension of the questions originally posed by Iain McCalman into the colonial world is laudable. After )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all, by 1820 Britain had the largest maritime empire on earth. London, the imperial capital, was notably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cosmopolitan; so too its radical netherworld. Edward Despard, whose insurrectionary career was cut short on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the gallows in 1802, had witnessed the inequities of British rule first-hand in Honduras. And Robert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wedderburn, one of the most memorable characters in )] TJ ET BT 298.280 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical Underworld)] TJ ET BT 397.280 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, was well-placed to attest to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evils of slavery, being the Jamaican offspring of an enslaved African woman and her Scottish master. That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(said, the focus of the volume under review is resolutely Anglophone. What of other national and imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences? McCalman acknowledged the influence of Robert Darnton?s work on the literary underworlds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the French Enlightenment, but the broader continental dimension is missing from this festschrift, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though McCalman himself has since explored the darker side of Enlightenment culture across Europe. Could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a less Anglophone approach pay dividends? The Europe-wide paranoia about the subversive machinations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(illuminati)] TJ ET BT 98.360 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( suggests it could.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are some commendable attempts here to move the experience of the marginalised to the centre of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical attention. Members of the radical underworld were unquestionably marginalised, both at the time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and later, but republican women were doubly excluded, for the underworld was a masculine environment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often aggressively so. Christina Parolin?s moving essay on Susannah Wright, whose unquenchable hostility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Christianity brought her repeated court appearances and imprisonment, is therefore welcome. Like many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?infidel? activists, Wright exploited the courtroom as an arena in which to publicise her views and to defy )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5039 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her persecutors. The bravura skill with which she did this prompted applause from within the free-thinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circles in which she moved, but those circles were small. The extremism of her views and her association )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Richard Carlile, an advocate of birth-control as well as blasphemy, ensured her isolation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The radical underworld, it is worth remembering, was a small world. Nevertheless, the contributors to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume make a good case for seeing some of its practices and emphases as having a more pervasive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence in the political culture of the time. Perhaps the implications of this could have been drawn out more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly? McCalman?s 1988 book concluded with a )] TJ ET BT 292.988 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tour de force)] TJ ET BT 354.980 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( speculation on the place of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underground tradition in the trajectory of working-class culture in the 19th century. There is no equivalent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here. This is a collection of case studies, after all. All are soundly researched and well-delivered. The most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intriguing are those that self-consciously meditate on their own conceptual foundations. Michael Davis?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essay on the ?Mob Club? is exemplary in this respect, using a range of sociological literature to tease out the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictions in the short life of the LCS. Democrats had to fight hard against the sneers of their opponents, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who stigmatised the LCS as an emanation of the ?mob?: irrational, hysterical and monstrous. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisational structures of the LCS should not, therefore, be seen simply as functional; they were intended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to demonstrate the civility of democrats, to underline their status as practitioners of open, dispassionate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion. The difficulty for the LCS was that its constituent divisions all too often gathered in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uproarious tavern environment that was in constant tension with the self-consciously upright stance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Is the radical underworld, despised and beleaguered, of continuing importance for historians? Emphatically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yes. The essays gathered in )] TJ ET BT 167.984 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Unrespectable Radicals?)] TJ ET BT 288.968 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( successfully broaden out the terms of debate. The best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of them make the early 19th century appear as something far more complex, tangled and contradictory than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simple age of reform. This is salutary. A major historiographical tendency of the 1990s was to insist on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential continuity in popular radical traditions in Britain. There was little to distinguish Jacobins from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chartists, Chartism slid seamlessly into liberalism, and the labour-socialist tradition grew smoothly out of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal seed bed. The recovery of a more pervasive and knotted ?underground? tradition speaks a little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differently. A stress on the deep continuities in ?progressive? politics has its dangers: it can all too easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapse into simply registering the stately march of progress. The ruffians of the underground tradition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together with a far wider cast of characters than might at first have been guessed at, stand guard against that.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 342.319 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 324.539 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 324.539 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/719)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 323.145 m 322.316 323.145 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 298.168 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.768 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3696)] TJ ET BT 34.016 269.368 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 323.4595 322.3157 335.3395 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/719) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000571 00000 n 0000000653 00000 n 0000004983 00000 n 0000005092 00000 n 0000005202 00000 n 0000005311 00000 n 0000008872 00000 n 0000009000 00000 n 0000009084 00000 n 0000009149 00000 n 0000016564 00000 n 0000016629 00000 n 0000024048 00000 n 0000024113 00000 n 0000031842 00000 n 0000031926 00000 n 0000037018 00000 n 0000037146 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37241 %%EOF