%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141021052055+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141021052055+01'00') /Title (The Pity of War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3538 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Pity of War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consider a counter-factual or two. Would this book have been different had its author not have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immersed in the history of banking over the last few years? Would it have looked different had the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not been an active member of the Conservative party in the Thatcher years? Would it have taken on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different tone had it not been written by someone polished in the Oxbridge system, where paradox and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aphorism are valued as the epitome of human wisdom? The answer is almost certainly yes, but since it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to reduce human creativity to a series of counter-factual questions, we can never know precisely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how important these particularities have been in the development of the thought of one scholar.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How much more difficult, then, it is, to posit counter-factuals applied not to individual behaviour but to that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of whole societies? The problem is a mathematical one. Variables can be weighted within equations, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weights ascribed to those variables are meaningless unless we believe we have specified all the variables that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enter into the process described mathematically by an equation or set of equations. And no historical process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be so specified.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(72)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 May, 1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Niall Ferguson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780713992465)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane: The Penguin Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.penguin.co.uk/nf/Book/BookDisplay/0,,9780140275230,00.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jay Winter)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6691 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The same problem appears in the distinction between projections and predictions. A projection is simply the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(playing out of assumptions; in this sense all projections are correct, even if the assumptions on which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are based are bizarre. A prediction is a statement of what the future is likely to be. Uncertainties are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundary conditions of predictions; projections have no such limits.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What then has Niall Ferguson produced in his book The Pity of War? Much of real historical interest and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence. But his flair for the clever sometimes gets the better of him, and he adds to the judicious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship that appears in parts of this book a set of conjectures about what if which lie uneasily in the no-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mans land between projection and prediction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.306 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consider these confident predictions:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\) p. 458: "If the British Expeditionary Force had never been sent, there is no question that the Germans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have won the war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\) p. 459: "Had Britain stood aside even for a matter of weeks continental Europe could therefore have )] TJ ET BT 534.464 603.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed into something not wholly unlike the European Union we know today but without the massive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 574.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contraction in British overseas power entailed by the fighting of the two world wars.")] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How can we evaluate the strength or weakness of these predictions? The first rules out much of the literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the logistical impossibility of the Schlieffen plan, and on the surprising willingness of French conscripts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to bleed for the Republic, and to die by the tens of thousands for it. The British Expeditionary Force did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 505.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stop the German invasion of France; it was a minor element in what was in 1914 largely a Franco-German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bloodbath. But these are minor quibbles. The problem is more fundamental: it is the confident statement of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prediction which goes beyond any set of evidence known to us now.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second prediction tells us that had Britain stayed out of the war, then the European Community, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 436.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated as it is today by Germany, would have been born at some stage in this century, and without the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(massive diminution of British power consequent on her losses, human and material, in the two world wars. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This prediction, fundamental to Ferguson?s conservative project, is simply breathtaking in its sweep and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daring. To simplify matters, the statement is in the form of two vectors: an ascending one of German power, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 379.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a descending one of British power. Fergusons case is that, without the First World War, the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrow would ultimately arrive at the dominant position it holds in the world today, without Hitler and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devastation of his regime, but the British arrow would not be in the slough of despond to which it has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relegated by her squandering of her assets and manpower on an avoidable and pointless conflict. Thus, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 322.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great War, Ferguson concludes, is not so much a tragedy as "the greatest error of modern history" \(p. 462\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These statements can never take the form of real predictions, since they do not specify the hundreds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervening variables relevant to the prediction. Instead, they are projections, just as good as their underlying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 267.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions: Germany goes up; Britain goes down; Europe emerges in the form we know it today. These are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 253.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true statements. They are indisputable, but they hardly contribute to an understanding of historical process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and historical change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The difficulty of this kind of reasoning appears in other parts of the book. Ferguson argues that in the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis of 1914, the Liberal cabinet was split. So far, so good. But he then takes his particular leap into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dark, by claiming that "in the end" the British Cabinet "agreed to support Grey partly for fear of being turned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of office and letting in the Tories" \(p.443\). This, he argues, is why Britain went to war, a decision which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant that "it was the British government which ultimately decided to turn the continental war into a world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 141.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war" \(p. 463\). "In the end"; "partly"; "ultimately"; what do these qualifiers qualify? We cannot know, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because we are not able to place one consideration not letting the Tories in alongside others: anger at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German and Austrian provocations; Francophilia; even James Joll?s "unspoken assumptions" about honour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and national dignity. It is only when all the variables and factors are arrayed can we say that, yes, keeping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 84.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Tories out was the decisive issue. But Ferguson does not do that. And that is because he cannot do it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.661 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History is too messy for real predictions to emerge from conflicting and incomplete evidence.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7293 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other examples abound. On page 169, he argues that German war aims without British entry into the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been less grandiose than they rapidly became. How can we be sure? It is as if Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precipitated Germany?s territorial claims in September 1914. On page 444, he states that "one reason so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many men volunteered in the first weeks of the war [in Britain] was that unemployment soared because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the economic crisis the war had unleashed". How does he know? This is almost certainly mistaken, and flies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the face of evidence about high rates of voluntary enlistment later in 1914, when the disruption of trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasioned by entry into war was damped down. Then there is the statement, that in the post-war German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context, fiscal "stabilization would have increased unemployment in the short term" and that "A rate of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unemployment of around 10 percent of trade union members would have represented a significantly ?softer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landing? than that of 1923/24" \(p.431\). The first part of this statement is a prediction of an accurate kind: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deflation creates joblessness; but the second statement joblessness leads to stability is the stuff of pure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conjecture in the shakiest democracy in post-war Europe. Once again, this is an historical statement about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plausible outcomes based on insufficient data. Too many variables are unknown for us to accept these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statements as useful. The "should have/could have" game is one with low yields. As a computer once put it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("The best way to play this game is not to play it at all".)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When not engaged in such speculative history, Ferguson offers us in this book some outstanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of vexed questions in the history of the First World War. His chapters on morale and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem of surrendering are first-rate; his account of the myths of war enthusiasm commands respect; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his treatment of the press and propaganda go well beyond previous \(and mistaken\) accounts of propagandists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as puppeteers and the reading public as puppets.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most useful to this reviewer are his discussions of the economic history of the war. Here he presents a case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is at variance with that offered by many scholars including my own. Ferguson shows, with force and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial subtlety that the German war economy was not as much of a mess as others have argued. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that the imbalance of resources was so great, and Allied expenditure so much higher than that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany that what requires explanation is why it took the Allies so long to win? This is a powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument, and one which requires a considered answer well beyond the scope of this review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Suffice it to say, that the reasons one side wins in war may not be the same as the reasons the other side )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loses. There is no straightforward economic balance here. On the Western front, where the war would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(won or lost, Germany held defensive positions from mid-1914 to early 1918. The Allies engaged in a series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of expensive and futile campaigns to dislodge the German army from its hold on the eastern quadrant of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France and virtually all of Belgium. Of course it was more expensive for the Allies to attack and to attack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again. The German army was simply better at defensive warfare under these conditions. But when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ludendorff attacked in March 1918, he showed that he too could not turn offensive warfare into victory. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though the Michael offensive was massively successful, it changed nothing. Tactical brilliance masked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategic blindness. What his soldiers came to see, and finally what Ludendorff came to see, was not so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they had lost the war, but that they could not win it. To make them see this essential point, the Allies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paid a staggering price in manpower and in materiel, indeed a higher price than was paid by Germany, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Allies finally drove the point home. Ferguson agrees that at this critical moment of the war, it was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American firepower but the potential of the American presence in the war in 1919, 1920 or beyond that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made a key difference. This is the same point reinforced. By the summer of 1918, German soldiers \(and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families at home\) knew that they could not win. That is why soldiers surrendered by the thousands -- in what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deist calls a "soldiers" strike -- and why the home front gave up the struggle. That is why German leaders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally asked Woodrow Wilson to broker an Armistice, even at the price of the Kaiser?s abdication.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferguson rightly returns to the critical question "what price victory?" He is correct in arguing that the price )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Allies paid for their victory was well out of proportion to what they ultimately achieved. But that is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same as saying that the war was not worth fighting, or that it could have been avoided. Ferguson has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some astute things to say about the absence of pacifism in the bulk of soldiers? memoirs of the war. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps he should attend to the widespread feeling stated in many of them \(and in their letters\) that many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers fought the war because they were convinced it was a defensive war not of their own making, and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 1978 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that what they were defending not only their comrades in the line, but also what they saw as a way of life. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With respect to the British and French cases, I am still persuaded that they were right.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In its barest outlines, the Great War was a clash between Britain and France on the one hand, and Germany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the other, for domination of northwestern Europe. In that conflict, 4 million men in uniform died from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these three countries alone. Nothing could "justify" this loss of life; nothing could justify the price the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victors paid for that victory. But what is remarkable about the Great War is how deep was the popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conviction on both sides that the war had to be won. It was a war of consent. For that reason alone, I still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believe \(pace Ferguson\) that the Great War was not an error, but rather the central tragedy that set the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth century in motion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 625.183 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 607.403 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 607.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/72)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 606.009 m 316.316 606.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 581.032 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 566.632 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/728)] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.232 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 606.3235 316.3157 618.2035 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/72) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000518 00000 n 0000000600 00000 n 0000004190 00000 n 0000004299 00000 n 0000004409 00000 n 0000004518 00000 n 0000008079 00000 n 0000008207 00000 n 0000008291 00000 n 0000008356 00000 n 0000015100 00000 n 0000015165 00000 n 0000022511 00000 n 0000022595 00000 n 0000024626 00000 n 0000024754 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 24848 %%EOF